No 2 (2019)

Articles
CULTURABLE MICROORGANISMS IN HIGH-ALTITUDE ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SAMPLES COLLECTED ABOVE NORTHERN SIBERIA BY AIRCRAFT SOUNDING
Andreeva I.S., Safatov A.S., Puchkova L.I., Emelyanova E.K., Buryak G.A., Olkin S.E., Reznikova I.K., Ohlopkova O.V.
Abstract
To contribute to the comprehensive study of atmospheric pollution in Siberia, aircraft soundingwas carried out in Northwestern Siberian along the following route: Novosibirsk - Surgut - Igarka - Novosibirsk. This work was aimed at studying the quantity and representation of culturable microorganisms and other biogenic components of the atmosphere at altitudes up to 8,000 m. The air samples were collected to impingers (flow rate 50 ± 5 L/min) where 50 ml of Hanks’ solution (ICN Biomedicals) was used as the sorbing liquid and applied on the fibrous filters. The concentration of biogenic material was recorded, and the concentration and diversity of culturable microorganisms were determined in total protein samples. It was found that the samples of atmospheric air contained 158 mesophilic and psychrophilic microorganisms represented by such genera as Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Nocardia, Arthrobacter, and Rhodococcus. Also, Actinomycete, yeast and fungal cultures were also isolated. Non-sporiferous bacteria were widely presented at all altitudes. Enzymatic activity of the isolated microorganisms and a number of pathogenicity factors present were investigated. The data on quantity and representation of culturable microorganisms and other biogenic components at altitudes up to 8000 m in Northwestern Siberia were obtained for the first time. It is a significant contribution to the study of the atmosphere of this region. The patterns of the observed biodiversity of microorganisms, associated with the sampling altitude or geographic location, should be determined infurther research.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(2):3-11
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A STUDY OF LIFE CYCLE FEATURES OF THREE STRAINS OF CYANOBACTERIA NOSTOC CF. PUNCTIFORME VAUCH
Egupova E.Y., Sharipova M.Y., Abdullin S.R.
Abstract
The article presents the study of the life cycle of three strains (Pk20j, Ch55 and Sv31j) of filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria Nostoccf. punctiforme Vauch. The wide distribution, high adaptation potential, tolerance to the artificial cultivation conditions, high growth rates and peculiar features of physiological and biochemical processes (propensity for oxygenate photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, etc.) make these microorganisms a convenient biotechnological object of research. Although Nostoc cf. punctiforme can find use in various fields of biotechnology, its life cycle is still poorly understood. The methods of the study were the pendent drop method and the microscope observation of bacterial cultures inoculated into fresh Gromov’s medium No. 6. It was found that all the strains of cyanobacteria passed through several stages of development: the formation of hormogonia (status oscillatorioideus orsecondary hormogonia, day 2), the germination of hormogonia (statusoscillatorioideus, statuscylindrospermoideus and status anabaenoideus,days 2-5), the transition from filaments to colonies (status angulato-flexuosus, days 5-17), and the formation of colonies (status punctiforme, from day14 to more than a month; statussphaericus, status stratosus). The time of development in the laboratory heterogeneous population increases by 2-3 days as compared with the development of isolated hormogonia. The reproduction by secondary hormogonia can begin at any stage of the life cycle. Also, the three strains demonstrated different patterns of heterocyst formation. The obtained results indicate that cultivation conditions affect the life cycle of cyanobacteria and strains, isolated from different habitats, have intraspecific variability.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(2):11-20
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DIVERSITY OF FOLIOSE LICHENSPECIES IN AZERBAIJAN
Alverdiyeva S.M.
Abstract
This article consolidates lichenological data on foliose lichens of Azerbaijan and addresses their species diversity. It was determined that the studied lichens belong to classes Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes and Lichenomycetes of the phylum Ascomycota. They are represented by 166 species, including 8 orders: Caliciales , Candelariales, Lecanorales , Peltigerales , Teloschistales , Umbilicariales , Verrucariales , Lichinales ; 15 families: Candelariaceae, Collemataceae, Lecanoraceae, Lobariaceae, Nephromataceae, Pannariaceae, Parmeliacea e, Peltigeraceae, Peltylaceae, Physciaceae , Placynthiaceae , Stereocaulaceae , Teloschistaceae, Umbilicariaceae, Verrucariaceae; and 51 genera. Such species as Anaptychia elbursiana , Enchylium ligerinum , Phaeophyscia hirsuta , Parmelia fraudans , Physconia perisidiosa , Punctelia rudecta , Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla , and Umbilicaria proboscidea are new to the lichen flora of the studied region. The article provides information on the location in the studied region, the substrate and the ecological group for each species. It was found that the species diversity of foliose lichens is is mainly formed by five polymorphic families, such as Parmeliacea e, Physciaceae , Collemataceae, Peltigeracea e, and Umbilicariaceae, thatcomprise 132 species (79.5% of the total number of species). Among genera, only five of themhave significant species diversity: Peltigera (17 species), Physcia (15), Umbilicaria (13), Collema (9) and Parmelia (5). As for the humidity factor, five groups were distinguished: mesophytes (132 species), xerophytes (17), xeromesophytes (9), hygromezophytes (6), mesoxerophytes(2). As for the substrate, foliose lichens were devided into five ecological and substrate groups: epiphytes (53 species), epilites (48), epigeids (22), epibriophytes (18), eurysubstrate linchens (25).
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(2):20-31
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NEW PAEONIA ANOMALA POPULATIONS FOUND IN SURGUTSKY DISTRICT OF KHANTY-MANSIYSK AUTONOMOUS AREA - YUGRA
Samoylenko Z.A., Sviridenko B.F.
Abstract
The article describes two new localities of Paeonia anomala L., a rare species listedin the Red Data Book of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area - Yugra, that were discovered in Surgutsky District. Phytocenotic, topographic and ecologic growth conditions were studied, and quantitative data on abundance, density and age composition of the populations were collected. The first population is characterized by rather high density and abundance in comparison with other populations examined earlier;the number of generative shoots is also significantly larger. Other biometric parameters (average number of shoots per plant, average number of generative and vegetative shoots, height and number of leaves on generative and vegetative shoots) are similar to those of populations that developed in the optimal ecological conditions of the forest steppe.The second population is inferior to the first one in many respects (abundance, density, height and quantity of leavesof generative and vegetative shoots); most of the plants are in the vegetative state; and the average number of shoots per plant are also small. The obtained data expand our understanding of the size and structure of the populations of this rare and endangered species in the region.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(2):31-36
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VARIABILITY OF CONES AND SEEDSCALESIN PICEA SPECIES AND THEIR FORMS IN CONDITIONS OF THE CITY OF OMSK
Skosyreva I.G., Grigoriev A.I.
Abstract
The study addressedthe morphometric indicators of cones and seed scales, such as length, width, and weight (before opening and after drying). Similarly, seed scales were measured, the marginal lines were described, and the number of seed scales in the cones was counted. The summary tables showed significant differences in the length and width of cones (Student's criterion). The correlation analysis was used to quantify the association between various indicators and the seed scale size. The samples were collected in the Genze Dendrological Garden, a natural landmark of regional significance. The study was carried out usingMolchanov and Smirnov’s (1967) method in the summer-autumn period. Siberian spruce (both blue and green forms), Serbian spruce, Colorado spruce (green form), and Canadian spruce had medium and large cones, which indicates a high adaptive capacity of these species. The length of cones in blue-grey and golden forms of Colorado spruce was below the average, indicating a low adaptive ability of the introduced species in the West Siberian foreststeppe. The correlation analysis showed a moderate dependence of the weight of seed scales and the weight of cones after drying (K = 0.60). A small dependence was found between the weight of seed scales and the length of cone after drying (K = 0.39). The size of seed scales strongly correlated with the size of cones (K ˃ 0.8). Student's t-test did not reveal significant differences in the width of cones in the studied species and forms of spruce, except for green form of Colorado spruce as compared to Serbian spruce and Canadian spruce, and blue-grey form of Colorado spruce as compared to Canadian spruce , showing notable differences at 1% significance point. By the length of cones, the studied species can be categorized into twoessentially different groups, the first one including all forms of Siberian spruce and Colorado spruce and the second one including Serbian spruce and Canadian spruce .
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(2):37-43
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CHRONOBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PESTICIDE LOAD OPTIMIZATION IN SALIX VIMINALIS L. PLANTINGS OF INTENSIVE TYPE
Afonin A.A.
Abstract
The article considers common osier from the utilitarian perspective and addresses the necessity to applyprolonged-action pesticides in the plantings of intensive type. To reduce the pesticide load, it is proposed to schedule agroforestry activities taking into account the seasonal dynamics of annual shoot growth. The study aims to identify patterns of seasonal dynamics of daily increment of annual shoots of common osier, using such methods as selection, structural-morphological methods, and harmonic analysis. The object of the study is a model inbred population of common osier. It was found that the seasonal dynamics of daily shoot growth ΔL(t) is cyclic. A three-level structure of seasonal biorhythms of daily shoot growth wasdiscovered. The contribution of lower harmonics with the oscillation period of 32 to 96 days to the total cyclicity ΔL(t) was 65%. The contribution of the medium harmonics with the oscillation period of 16 to 24daysto the total cyclicity ΔL(t) was 23%. The contribution of higher harmonics with the oscillation period of less than 14 days to the total cyclicity ΔL(t) was 6%. To optimize the pesticide load in the plantings of common osier, it is recommended to take into account the biorhythms of shoot growth with a frequency of fluctuations from 16 to 24 days.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(2):43-50
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IMPACT OF Al NANOPARTICLES ON CHLOROPHYLL PIGMENT CONTENT AND ENZYME ACTIVITY IN COTTON LEAVES
Hasanova F.V.
Abstract
The role of nanotechnology in solving environmental problems is increasing, and there is a need for additional research in this area. One of these environmental problems is soil salinization. During salinity stress, germination, growth and development ofplants slow down, and the quantity of pigments, chlorophyll and carotenoids in leaves decreases. So does the activity of such important physiological processes as photosynthesis, respiratory processes and enzyme activity. There are several ways to improve the salt tolerance of cotton. The cotton varieties can be improved genetically, or another way is to increase the stability of seeds or seedlings by chemical, biological or physological methods. At the early stages of development cotton seedling are very sensitive to salinity and other stress factors. The study investigated the effect of Al nanoparticles on the pigment composition in cotton seedling leaves and on the enzyme activity (ascorbate oxidase, polyphenol peroxidase and guaiacol-dependent peroxidase) in soil samples, collected in different areas of the Mugan plain. It was found that cotton seeds develop well in saline soils if treated with Al nanoparticles. Significant changes were observed in the plant development and in the kinetics of physiological processes. The quantity of chlorophyll pigments a and b in cotton sprouts (mainly at three leaf stages) increased, and the change in enzyme activity occured. Thus, during salinity stress the influence of basic enzymes, such as ascorbic peroxidase, increased in sprouts but decreased in leaves if the cotton plants are cultivated in saline soils with Al nanoparticles. The decrease in the activity of polyphenol oxidase and guaiacol-dependent peroxidase was insignificant.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(2):51-59
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COMPLEXES OF CHAMAEDAPHNE CALYCULATA (L.) MOENCH FLAVONOIDS IN OLIGOTROPHIC BOGS OF THE MIDDLE OB RIVER
Usmanov I.Y., Yumagulova E.R., Aleksandrova V.V., Gonchar I.G., Scherbakov A.V., Ivanov V.B.
Abstract
The high-performance liquid chromatographyspectra of metaboloms from the coenopopulations of Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench, found in the oligotrophic bogs of the Middle Ob, were compared. The studied coenopopulations formed 21 to 41 peaks in the chromatograms. The peaks differed by exit time. After summing up the peaks for Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench at the chromatograms, their number reached 108. The results point at a high probability of neutralist mechanismsparticipating in formation of the flavonoid spectra of the coenopopulations. The biodivercity of flavonoids may form regional (geographical) foodstuffs depending on ecological conditions of the region.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(2):59-71
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A STUDY OF BIOINDICATIVE PROPERTIES OF QUERCUS CASTANEIFOLIA С.А.MEY IN NATURALAND URBANIZED SITES IN AZERBAIJAN
Mammadova A.O., Mammadova R.N.
Abstract
The paper presents a study of indicative and remediative properties of chestnut-leaved oak Quercuscastaneifolia C.A.Mey found in the Republic of Azerbaijan.The study aimed to assess the prospects of using this plant in the management of environmental quality in Azerbaijan. Four test sites, which differ in the degree of environmental pollution, were selected for the study. Two test sites are located in Baku, the capital city that has a rather high level of pollution. The other two test sites are located in the country.The bioindicative propertiesof chestnut-leaved oak were investigated by analyzing the developmental stability of leaves morphogenesis. To determine the developmental stability of leaves, the method of fluctuating asymmetry was used. Thebioaccumulativepropertiesofthe plantwere investigated by elementalanalysisofleavesandsoil. For this, the methods of sampling, sample preparation and sample were used according to GOST RF. The analysis of the main chemical components in the leaf and soil samples was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometerand an atomic absorption spectrometer. The analysis of micro-components in the leaf and soil samples was carried out using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. It was found that there is a strong correlation between the degree of environmental pollution and the level of developmental stability of morphological characters of Quercus castaneifolia C.A.Mey. Environmental pollution increases the fluctuating asymmetry of the leaves.The results also showed that Quercus castaneifolia C.A.Mey hasremediative properties. Therefore, chestnut-leaved oak can be a monitored species in the integrated environmental monitoring system in Azerbaijan.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(2):71-79
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MATERIALS ONSTUDYING THE STRUCTURE OF TERRESTRIAL ARTHROPOD COMMUNITIESINHABITING THE FOOTHILLS OF SOUTH-EASTERN SLOPES OF THE GREATER CAUCASUS
Novruzov N.E.
Abstract
The article presents the data on taxonomic composition and ecological structure of arthropod communities from semiarid cenoses in the low-mountainous part of South-Eastern slopes of the Greater Caucasus. The features of distribution of arthropods in areas with different temperature conditions, soil type and humidity, microrelief, and vegetation cover are considered. The study established the ratio of trophic groups of arthropods on the compared areas that differ in feeding conditions, soil structure and humidity, terrain, morphological and behavioral characteristics of the studied phylum. It wasfound that the taxonomic composition of semiarid communities is mainly formed due to arthropods having similar biotopic confinement. The quality and conditions of the habitat have greater influence on the quantitative ratio of the main ecological groups of arthropods than on the taxonomic composition of the community as a whole.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(2):80-92
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TOXIC ELEMENTS CONTENT ANALYSIS OF BLOOD AND MILK OF COWS
Zaznobina T.V., Ivanova O.V.
Abstract
Currently, one of the main economic policies of the Russian Federation in the field of food security is production of safe food and consumer protection. The aim of the research was to study the content of such toxic elements as Zn, Cd and Pb in milk and blood of cows. Experimental studies were carried out at stud farms Plemzavod Tayozhny LLC in Suhobuzimsky District and OPH Solyanskoe LLC in Rybinsk District, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russian Federation. The milksamples were studied by atomic absorption method; the blood serum samples, by mass spectrometry. Blood serum samples were obtained by sedimentation of whole blood and retraction of the blood clot followed by centrifugation. The obtained data were processed by the method of variation statistics with the calculation of statistical indicators. The lowest contents of Zn, Cd and Pb were found in blood serum of the cows of OPH Solyanskoe LLC; it was 0.038, 0.001, and 0.002 mg/l, respectively. The milk samplescollected at Plemzavod Tayozhny LLCcontained less heavy metals than those collected at OPH Solyanskoe LLC: Zn by 2.069 mg/l, Cd by 0.01 mg/l, and Pb by 0.061 mg/l (P>0.999). When calculating the correlation coefficients, weak positive and negative correlationswere established between Zn and Pb content in blood and milk. The detected amounts of toxic elements did not exceed the maximum permissible concentrations, except for Pb content in milk sampled at OPH Solyanskoe LLC, which was higher than the standard content by 0.026 mg/l.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(2):92-97
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PARAMETERS OF ECG DISPERSION MAPPING AMONG STUDENTS OF NORTHERN UNIVERSITY
Pogonysheva I.A., Pogonyshev D.A., Lunyak I.I.
Abstract
The cardiac activity of students who have been born and live in the territory equated to regions of Far North was assessed. In total, 132 students of Nizhnevartovsk State University were examined using the CardioVisor-06c analyser that helps to diagnose dysfunctions of the cardiovascular system at preclinical level. The authors conducted a questionnaire survey to identify risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases in students and analyzed the results of ECG dispersion mapping. The deterioration of the functional state of the myocardium was more pronounced among students with a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. The young men and women with pre-pathological characteristics of electrophysiological indicators were referred for additional examination and cardiology consultation.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(2):98-104
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QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER IN MINING AREAS
Khasanova R.F., Suyundukov Y.T., Semenova I.N., Rafikova Y.S.
Abstract
The paper presents the results of a drinking water quality study in towns located in the mining areas of the Republic of Bashkortostan, The Russian Federation. The objects of the study were underground water supply sources and water distribution networks of the towns of Uchaly, Sibay, and Baimak. In total, 30 water wells were examined, and five water samples were collected from the water distribution network in each town. The water quality indicators were pH, solid residue, total hardness, copper content, zinc content, iron content, and manganese content. The water quality in water distribution networks corresponded to the permissible limits according to environmental and sanitary regulations, except for the increased iron contentprobably due to corrosion of water supply pipelines. The water quality in non-centralized water supply (wells) in some areas failed to meet the sanitary standards. Priority indicators of water pollution were increased hardness and mineralization, high content of iron and manganese. To provide the residents with high-quality drinking water, it is proposed to make a complete inspection of centralized and non-centralized water sources not only within the towns, but also in the neighbouring communities. It is necessary to install filtration plants, primarily to reduce the iron content, in roder to bring the water taken from the wells for household and drinking purposes to the standard quality.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(2):104-109
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A STUDY OF POTENTIAL LISTERIOSIS: AN EMERGING FOOD-BORNE DISEASE
Soldatova S.Y., Filatova G.L., Kulikovskaya T.S.
Abstract
The incidence of listeriosis has been rising 1980s. Epidemic outbreaks are becoming more widespread and are accompanied by high mortality. The most common cause of infectionis consumption of food contaminated with pathogenic Listeria species, in particular L. monocytogenes . Listeria bacteria are psychrophiles, live in all media of the environment, and easily move from saprotrophic to parasitic mode of life. All these qualities have provided them with adaptability and high survival capacity. The sources of food contamination with Listeria bacteria usually are contaminated raw materials or equipment of food production facilities. Deep frozen beef blocks were tested for contamination with Listeria bacteria that were detected and identified by bacteriological technique and enzyme immunoassayand immunochromatographic assay. Listeria bacteria were found in 35% of samples but there were no pathogenic species among them. The isolated species were identified as L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. grayi and L. seeligeri . These species often colonisevarious media of the environment. The examined meat samples were found to be safe. Listeriosis can be prevented by systemic proactive measures including sanitary and epidemiological control of food raw materials and finished products, properly organized technological process, and hygienic education of the population.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(2):110-117
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ECOLOGY OF NUTRITION AND PROMISING TRENDS IN PRODUCTION OF DIETARY FIBER BASED INSTANT FOODS
Nikolaeva Y.V., Tarasova V.V., Nechaev A.P.
Abstract
The article presents the development of a new formulation of instant noodles based on dietary fiber. Given the trend for functional foods that provide balanced nutrition, the enrichment of instant noodles with micronutrients is becoming increasingly important. The aim of the work was to study the content of dietary fiber in instant noodles with introduced inulin Fibruline XL, fiber SUPERCEL WF600, and methyl cellulose VIVAPUR MC A 4M. It was determined if dietary fiber was preserved after technological processing of the raw material. Buckwheat flour, which has a number of advantages in nutrient composition in comparison with wheat flour, was used as a raw material. Generally accepted and special methods of studying the properties of raw materials, semi-finished foodproducts and finished food products were used. Lipid content, nutritional and caloric values were determined. The effect of dietary fibers with different average lengths on the gluten complex of high grade wheat flour was studied. Organoleptic evaluation was made. The shelf life of the product was calculated using the Rancimat-743 device, with extrapolation of the induction time to room temperature and storage. As a result, we obtained a new, physiologically conditioned product having a balanced composition, low caloric content, and low fat content and enriched with dietary fibers and minerals.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(2):117-125
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SOME DIAGNOSTIC PARAMETERS OF TYPICAL SOILSON NORTH-EASTERN SLOPE OF THEGREAT CAUCASUS IN AZERBAIJAN
Manafova Y.K.
Abstract
The article describes the physical-geographical position, geomorphological, geological, climate and hydrological conditions of the North-Eastern slope of the Great Caucasus. The morphogenetic picture of the typical mountain-forest brown, residual calcareous mountain-forest brown, and mountain grey-brown soil profiles is given. The morphogenetic description of the soil resource horizons in the soil profile was performed according to the WRB system. The modern state of agricultural land was comparatively analyzed by examining principal diagnostic indices. The study was confined to Gusar District of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The geographical coordinates of each soil section were determined. The soil formation conditionswere characterized depending on vegetation cover, soil forming rock, slope exposition, and hypsometric level. The soils have been comparatively assessed by humus quality (main indicator of soil fertility), total nitrogen content, pH, calcareous quantity, granulometric composition, and base exchange capacity.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(2):126-136
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