No 1 (2017)

Articles
TAXONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF SURFACE SOIL CYANOPROСARIOTIC-ALGAL MACROSCOPIC EXPANSIONS IN THE CITY OF UFA AND ITS SURROUNDINGS
Dubovik I.E., Proskuryakova A.V., Sharipova M.Y.
Abstract
The ecological and taxonomic characteristics as well as the structure of cyanoprocaryotic-algal macroscopic expansions on the territory of Ufa (industrial zone) and in Ufa region (village Yumatovo-control zone) have been studied. The study is based on classical algology methods. In macroscopic surface soil expansions on the territory of the industrial zone and in the control zone 75 specific and intraspecific taxons of cyanoprocaryotes and algae have been identified. The representatives of the group Cyanoprokaryota predominate. Heterocyte-free cyanoprocaryotes act as dominants most often. The presence of the representatives of Xanthophyta group in surface soil expansions in Yumatovo is noteworthy. The number of dominants in the expansions vary in the range of 1 to 4 for specific and intraspecific taxons in different combinations. The main part of cyanoprocaryotic-algal cenoses (CAC) in soil macroscopic expansions of the two zones compared are the species of the families Phormidium, Leptolyngbya, Nostoc . The coefficient of similarity of Sørensen between the determinants of consortium of different zones is 21%. A distinctive peculiarity of macroscopic expansions in the control zone is the presence of thread-like yellow-green algae acting as the consortium determinant - Heterothrix exilis . Leptolyngbya boryana and Phormidium autumnale occurred most often as a component part of expansions dominants on the territories studied. Leptolyngbya angustissima and Nostoc pruniforme predominanted in the industrial zone while Chlorosarcina stigmatica and Сrucigenia quadrata in the control zone. Although nearly the same species diversity and the abundance of cyanoprocaryota and algae are observed in the industrial and control zones, the CAC investigated differ in their taxonomic and ecological structure. Thus, in the industrial zone in the spectrum of CAC life forms the leading positions belong to the forms characterized by stability to extreme conditions of the city life. In the taxonomic structure of CAC dominants of the control zone there are 7 representatives of the group Cyanoprokaryota, 5 - of Chlorophyta, 1 - of Xanthophyta. In the industrial zone there are 13 representatives of the Cyanoprokaryota group and 3 - of Chlorophyta.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(1):6-12
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RESULTS OF A HYDROCHEMICAL AND HYDROBOTANICAL STUDY OF THE WATER BODIES IN AN AREA OF THE KAZYM RIVER BASIN IN THE NUMTO NATURAL PARK
Sviridenko B.F., Murashko Y.A., Sviridenko T.V.
Abstract
The paper discusses the results of a study of the aquatic environment and the aquatic macrophyte species composition in 21 water bodies of the Numto Natural Park (the basin of the Kazym River, Beloyarsky District, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District-Ugra, Tyumen Region). The studied water samples contained bicarbonate calcium, sweet soft, low-hardness water. The mineralization of water was 0.01-0.07 g/dm3, hardness 0.04-0.76 meq/dm3, рН = 5.5-7.3, color 13-226 degrees of chromium cobalt scale, general alkalinity 0.04-0.88 mmol/dm3. The content of soluble forms of lead in water was between 0.07 to 1.04 µg/dm3, that of nickel between 0.09 to 1.93 µg/dm3, cadmium between 0.03 to 0.07 µg/dm3, chromium between 0.22 to 0.83 µg/dm3, zinc between 3.89 to 37.60 µg/dm3, copper between 0.13 to 0.63 µg/dm3, manganese between 2.07 to 36.82 µg/dm3, iron between 7.91 to 2215.50 µg/dm3. The content of petroleum hydrocarbons was within 0.05 µg/dm3. Overall in the water bodies, 51 aquatic macrophyte species have been found. For the first time for the flora of the Natural Park, Batrachospermum moniliforme, Spirogyra decimina, S. gracilis, S. hassallii, S. inflatа, S. insignis, S. tenuissima, S. varians, Mougeotia genuflexa, Zygogonium ericetorum, Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum, Stigeoclonium tenue, Nitella flexilis have been found . The newly found habitats of Polytrichastrum pallidisetum, Isoёtes setacea are the northernmost ones in Siberia. A contrasting difference has been established between the formation compositions of the vegetation of the valley and the dividing lakes due to the environmental differences between these two types of water bodies. To evaluate the effect of subsurface resources management on the aquatic ecosystems, some monitoring lakes have been recommended where populations of the following indicator species were found: Nitella flexilis, Batrachospermum moniliforme,Zygogonium ericetorum, Cladopodiella fluitans, Scapania paludicola, Sphagnum cuspidatum, S. obtusum, S. subfulvum, Pohlia wahlenbergii, Polytrichastrum pallidisetum, Warnstorfia exannulata, Isoёtes setacea, Nuphar pumila, Nymphaea tetragona, Sagittaria natans, Sparganium minimum.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(1):13-26
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FLOODING REGIME OF THE OB RIVER DOWNY WILLOW SCRUBS (CARICI AQUATILIS-SALICETUM LAPPONUM TARAN 1993, ALNETEA GLUTINOSAE) FOR 1979-2016
Taran G.S., Tyurin V.N.
Abstract
Syntaxonomical and hydrological characteristic of downy willow ( Salix lapponum ) scrubs spread on the Ob River floodplain within the limits of middle taiga subzone is given. The willow scrubs are studied in Surgut (near Surgut) and Nizhnevartovsk (the Yermakovsky Yogan River lower course) districts of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area, Russia. The willow scrubs belong to association Carici aquatilis-Salicetum lapponum Taran 1993 ( Alnetea glutinosae ). They are divided into 2 subassociations: boggy (subass. typicum , var. typicum and Carex lasiocarpa ) and meadow-boggy ( Carici aquatilis-Salicetum lapponum juncetosum filiformis Taran, Tyurin et Dyachenko 2016). Near-Surgut boggy downy willow scrubs (var. Carex lasiocarpa ) are located on peats with thickness 144-164 cm and on height 682-692 cm above Surgut gauge zero. Their yearly flood frequency for 1979-2016 is 51-59%, maximum flood duration - 73-75 days (2007), mean flood duration for years when the willow scrubs were flooded (ever if their lower levels only) is 38-43 days. Maximum flood height for the years is 182-192 cm, mean flood height - 48-57 cm above soil surface. Near-Surgut meadow-boggy downy willow scrubs are located on height 604-619 cm above Surgut gauge zero. Their yearly flood frequency for 1979-2016 is 86-95%, maximum flood duration for the period - 94-96 days (2007), mean flood duration is 52-57 days. Maximum flood height for the years is 255-270 cm, mean flood height - 84-98 cm above soil surface. The Yermakovsky Yogan boggy downy willow scrubs (var. typicum ) are located on peats with thickness 45-75 cm and on height 754-789 cm above Nizhnevartovsk gauge zero. In flood frequency and duration respect, they occupy intermediate position between boggy and meadow-boggy downy willow scrubs from Surgut vicinities: yearly flood frequency for 1979-1993 is 80-87%, maximum flood duration - 72-77 days (1979), mean flood duration is 44-57 days. The Yermakovsky Yogan boggy downy willow scrubs are flooded on bigger height than near Surgut: maximum submersion height is 281-316 cm, mean submersion height for years when the willow scrubs were flooded is 84-117 cm above soil surface.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(1):26-34
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THE INFLUENCE OF CENOMANIAN WATER ON TESTATE AMOEBAE COMMUNITY
Kulyukina E.V., Kartashev A.G.
Abstract
This article presents the results of a study on the effects of Cenomanian water on the numerical and species composition of testate amoebae community in a light gray forest soil. It was shown that soil invertebrates can be used as bioindicators of the pollution of the environment. We investigated the effect of water Cenomanian Aptian-Cenomanian water-bearing complex in the community of testate amoebae in the laboratory. Cenomanian water were made at concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 g/kg dry soil as control was considered the site without any concentration. Pollution produced artificially Cenomanian water (Sredneuralskie field) having the following characteristics: the amount of salinity of 19.3 g/l, total hardness is 29.1 mg - EQ/dm3., chlorine has an index (11347,3-12431,3 g - EQ/dm3), sodium (6650,2-7400,3 g - EQ/dm3) calcium ions - (44,0-53.7 g - EQ/dm3) magnesium ions - (0,9-12,7 g - EQ/dm3), hydrogen carbonate ions present in the amount of 1,8-5,4 g - EQ/dm3. Calculation and analysis of invertebrate organisms was performed using the microscope BIOMED-2 at magnification ×160. Accounting testate amoebae was carried out by direct microscopy of soil suspensions. The greatest impact on the structure and strength of the community have an oil concentration of 200 g/kg. it Was found that testate amoebae of the genera Phryganella, Cryptodifflugia, Cyclopyxis, Nebela most resistant to Cenomanian waters, and testate amoebae of the genera Euglypha, Chlamydohprys, Centropyxis, Plagiopyxis less resistant to impact. Also the study showed a decrease in abundance and species diversity of testate amoebae communities in making various concentrations of Cenomanian water in the soil. Material for the study can be used for researchers, teachers and students specializing in the field of General ecology and environmental management.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(1):35-42
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THE IMPACT OF OIL POLLUTION ON FRESHWATER MOLLUSCS
Kartashev A.G., Skorupa A.P., Kochetkova V.I.
Abstract
In modern society, one of the most important problems is water pollution related to spills of oil and oil products. It is important to devise new methods of assessing pollution of water bodies. The method of bioindication allows us to reveal the regularities of changes in communities of organisms exposed to anthropogenic impact, and allows to predict the state of the ecosystem under changing external factors. The migration of substances a huge role for living organisms, accumulate in itself the trace elements, involving them in the trophic cycle. Shellfish are highly sensitive to oil pollution and are a major factor in enhancing the self-purification of aquatic ecosystems. The paper presents the results of experimental researches on influence of oil pollution on the development of shellfish species Planorbarius corneus in experimental conditions. The study describes the behavior changes identified critical concentration of oil resulting in changes in the ontogeny of molluscs. It is established that the survival of shellfish in contaminated water with oil changes depending on the concentration of the depositing, as a protective stress-response can be considered tight closing of the valves of shells. The age resistance of mollusks to pollution and adaptation to adverse conditions. The obtained results allow to recommend the use of molluscs as indicators of ecological status of water bodies.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(1):42-49
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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HELMINTHS INVASION OF RANA ARVALIS NILS., 1842 OF THE MIDDLE OB
Ibragimova D.V., Nakonechny N.V.
Abstract
At present biologists are finding great attention to the study of parasitocenosis. However such research is carried out mainly in the agricultural and producers animals. Amphibians and reptiles are poorly understood, as the low value species for the human. In general parasitic cenosis of amphibians in Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area have not been investigated. The article discusses the common helminth infection of internal organs of moor frog of Middle Ob. Investigations were carried out on the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area-Ugra in May-June 2016 in the environs of Yugan village, in the Surgut city and in the surrounding of Nizhnevartovsk city. Were studied 123 individuals of R. arvalis with application of incomplete helminthological method. Were defined generally accepted indicators of the parasite population. Were determined of high extent of infestation of the lungs and gastrointestinal tract of moor frog, whereas the liver, heart and kidneys faintly contaminated with worms, and in the spleen and the gonads parasitic worms are not revealed. Significant differences in the extensiveness of worms infestation between populations of moor frog on the territory of Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area -Ugra is not established. Despite the fact that in the Surgut city in index of abundance of worms of moor frog was highest, compared with the control area (the environs of Yugan village). The reason for this may be poor species composition of helminths in the city and the for lack of competition between species. Sex differences in worm invasion of frogs have been exposed.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(1):49-54
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ADDITIONS TO THE HETEROPTERAN FAUNA OF THE RESERVE «VORONINSKIY» (TAMBOV REGION, RUSSIA)
Kondratyeva A.M., Aksenenko E.V., Golub V.B.
Abstract
The work is based on material collected in the territory of the State Nature Reserve «Voroninsky». Bugs were collected according to standard procedures. List of heteropteran species of 10 families (Saldidae, Berytidae, Stenocephalidae, Rhopalidae, Alydidae, Coreidae, Cydnidae, Plataspidae, Scutelleridae, Pentatomidae) from Reserve «Voroninsky» are provided. For fauna Reserve «Voroninsky» indicated 31 heteropteran species. 12 species of bugs ( Saldula arenicola arenicola, Saldula palustris, Neides tipularius, Berytinus minor, Berytinus crassipes, Dicranocephalus albipes, Rhopalus conspersus, Stictopleurus viridicatus, Chorosoma schillingii, Myrmus miriformis, Neottiglossa leporina, Stagonomus bipunctatus ) are recorded for the first time in that territory. Almost all species are preferred to habitats with moderate moisture and sufficient insolation. For each species information on the location and area is provided. Most of the species are characterized by broad types of areas.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(1):54-60
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VARIATIONS IN BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HUMAN SALIVA DEPENDING ON THE REGION OF ACCOMMODATION
Belskaya L.V., Grigoriev A.I., Shalygin S.P.
Abstract
It is known that the violation of environmental well-being of the region is reflected in the health status. Human saliva was used to determine the parameters that characterize the physiological state of the body. Previously shown that normal values of most indicators of the biochemical composition of saliva depend essentially on the age and gender characteristics and dynamics of the daily fluctuations. However, the dependence of the biochemical composition of saliva from the region of residence so far has not been widely discussed. In this connection, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of regional features on the biochemical composition of saliva. The study involved 50 healthy volunteers who lived the last 5 years in the city of Omsk, Kurgan, Republic of Kazakhstan and the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area - Yugra (Khanty-Mansiysk, Nizhnevartovsk, Surgut, and Langepas). Investigation of pH, calcium ion concentration, phosphorous, chloride, albumin, imidazole compounds and alkaline phosphatase activity conducted in saliva. It is shown that regional differences in the concentrations of the test components are statistically significant. It describes the special features of the metabolic processes and should be considered when determining a normal range, and in the process of adaptation of people, changing the region of residence, in order to avoid occurrence of pathological processes.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(1):61-68
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SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOFUCTIONAL PARAMETERS OF BODIES OF YOUG ADULTS LIVING IN CLIMATICALLY AND GEOGRAPHICALLY DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS
Pogonysheva I.A., Pogonyshev D.A.
Abstract
The paper presents the results of the functional study of anthropometric parameters, cardiovascular parameters, and level of oxygen blood saturation in young adult students living in North Caucasus and in Khanty Mansiysk Autonomous Area. Heart rate and respiratory rate of people both genders living in North Caucasus were within normal limits and were lower than those of their peers living in Khanty Mansiysk Autonomous Area. These results reflect saving capacity of their cardiorespiratory system. Lung capacity of young adults from North Caucasus is higher than that of young adults living in Khanty Mansiysk Autonomous Area and stays within normal limits. Lung capacity of people from Siberia is below the normal limits. Oxygen blood saturation is higher in the groups of people living in the conditions of mountain hypoxia. Functional state of cardiorespiratory system reflects the climate and geographical characteristics of the environment in which people live. The results of this research allow a better understanding of the way cardiovascular and respiratory systems function in people living in Siberia or mountain climate.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(1):68-74
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FUNCTIONAL STATE OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OF SWIMMERS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF SPORTS TRAINING
Govorukhina А.А., Vetkalova N.S.
Abstract
Сurrently, the study of peculiarities of physical development and adaptation of swimmers is of interest to scientists. The article reviewed the available literature data on the functional status of respiratory system of swimmers at different stages of sports training. Revealed that the development of the respiratory system is one of the factors limiting the performance of the athlete, which depends on the number of incoming oxygen and the body's ability to digest. The development of these mechanisms depends on the age, individual characteristics of the organism (biological maturity), orientation of the training process and environment. Indicates that the swimmers respiratory system functionally powerful and economical and exceeds the development of the respiratory system of persons not involved in sports and athletes of other specializations. It is noted that this superiority is due to the large amounts of cyclic operation, requiring constant functional activity of systems that supply oxygen to working muscles, and the influence of special conditions in which the work is done in the first place - hydractiniidae pressure, high heat capacity of water, the horizontal position of the body.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(1):74-79
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ASSESSMENT OF LEVEL OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE ORGANISM OF SCHOOLCHILDREN 11-13 YEARS THE COUNTRYSIDE
Kovazina O.L., Еlifanov A.V., Lepunova O.N.
Abstract
Aanthropometric indicators and parameters of cardiorespiratory system of children residing in rural areas were studied.The type of self-regulation of blood circulation was determined. It is shown that the actual indicators of vital capacity of lungs in all the surveyed students were significantly below expected values and showed a decrease in ventilation abilities of the lungs. Diastolic blood pressure value was greater among boys 11 and 13 years old compared to 12 - year-old. The actual heart rate exceeds a proper value for the majority of the surveyed children, testified to the increase in the tonic activity of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system and was confirmed by the positive values of vegetative Сerdo index. Sympathetic regulation noticeable prevailed in boys 11 and 13 years and girls 12 years of age. Natural reduction of sympathetic influences with age was not revealed. Minute volume of blood at a greater number of children must exceed the rate and the prevailing type of self-regulation of blood circulation was hyperkinetic. The occurrence of favorable eukinetic type was smaller. Changes in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure after exercise were talking about the occurrence of adverse type of reaction of the cardiovascular system. The value of the index of functional changes indicated that with increasing age adolescents surveyed, there was an increase in the occurrence of a satisfactory adaptation, and reduce the occurrence of tension of adaptation mechanisms, poor adaptation. The values of the index of functional changes pointed to the tension of mechanisms of adaptation and poor adaptation, indicating the existence of some compensatory mechanisms to maintain an optimal level of physical development and body functions of the examined children.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(1):79-85
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ADAPTIVE CAPACITY AND MORPHOFUNCTIONAL PECULIARITIES OF STUDENTS LIVING IN UGRA
Govorukhina A.A., Malkov O.A., Blagorodova L.D., Novoselova A.A.
Abstract
The results of the study of the functional state and the body's adaptive capabilities of students living in the North. To implement the study were used the following methods: anthropometry (body mass index), dynamometry, spirometry (should definitely vital capacity values), the registration of hemodynamic parameters. Measurement of adaptive capacity according to the Baevsky index. Statistical analysis and systematization of the material was carried out using MicrosoftExcel programs 2007 «Biostatistics 4.03», a correlation analysis was performed by the method of Charles E. Spearman. It has been established that the unfavorable factors of the North, as well as the high intellectual and emotional stress cause the violation of the morpho-functional state of an organism of students who are found more often in boys. Overweight was detected in 7.5% of boys and 30% girls, as well as an increased fat content in 20% of boys and 12.9% girls. Revealed functional changes in the system of external breath at students, manifested in the rejection of the values of vital capacity of the proper values by more than 80% (18.5% of girls and 20% boys). Also, it should be noted that 33.3% of girls and 26.6% of boys VC performance exceeded due importance. Indicators boys blood pressure exceeded those girls in the group of young men meet people with high normal blood pressure (6.7%) and hypertension 1 degree (6.7%). It was determined that an effective criterion for detecting violations in the state of health is the study of adaptation options. It was found that the adaptive capacity of girls is higher than boys. Girls are more characterized by a satisfactory level of adaptation (77.7%), whereas 53.3% of boys met strain of adaptation mechanisms. The results allow to expand the understanding of the features of the functional state of the organism and adaptive capabilities not comfortable climates Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area - Yugra. The research results are used in the process of monitoring the state of health of students of the Surgut State Pedagogical University.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(1):85-93
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REACTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS IN ALLUVIAL SOILS IN THE PLAIN OF THE RIVER BIG YUGAN
Shepeleva L.F., Shepelev A.I., Kravchenko I.V.
Abstract
The article deals with the regularities of accumulating of heavy metals and biologically active agents (photosynthesis pigments) in inundated types of meadow plants. Research was conducted in four plant communities: a mixed herbs-cereal shrubby meadow, a mixed-herbs-canary shrubby meadow, an aspen forest shrubby meadow, an osier-bed sedge in the neighborhood of the village of Yugan, Surgut District, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area - Yugra. Collection of plants was made for determination of the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls a, b , carotinoids) and heavy metals on the trial areas. 7 types of plants served as an object of our research: Calamagrostis purpurea (Trin.) Trin., Carex acuta L., Carex aquatilis Wahlenb., Carex vesicaria L., Carex rostrata Stokes., Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski, Phalaroides arundinacea (L.) Rausch . In plant communities we conducted the sampling of the studied plants (roots, leaves) and also soil sampling was made. Roots of plants were cleared from soil and washed in flowing water. Samples were selected 5 times. Experiments were conducted on the dried-up raw materials. The freshly-gathered plants cleared and washed from soil were also sterilized in the laboratory from foreign impurities, they were dried up and weighed on electronic scales. The mobile form of elements in soil and vegetable samples were kept by an atomic and absorbing method. Determination of pigments of photosynthesis (chlorophyll and carotinoids) in solid of plants was carried out by spectral and photometric method. An electrometric method was applied for determination of рН in salt and water extract of the soil. During the working progress we revealed that the content of heavy metals in roots of meadow plants is 3 times more than in leaves. Specific features concerning absorption of heavy metals by plants and their adaptations to environmental factors appeared. Negative influence of a high concentration of lead and cadmium on the content of pigments of photosynthesis in leaves of sedge was revealed, whereas copper influence was generally positive. All the studied inundated meadow types of plants (Carex rostrata, Carex acuta, Elytrigia repens, Phalaroides arundinacea, Carex aquatilis, Calamagrostis purpurea, Carex vesicaria) showed the coefficient of absorption less than 1 in relation to copper and lead which demonstrates availability of a biochemical barrier, especially in relation to lead. However sedges actively absorb toxic cadmium, the coefficient of biological absorption is often more than 1. The acquired results can be used in bioindication of oil pollution, and also during the study of production processes of meadow plant communities.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(1):94-102
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ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS OF SOIL STEPPE AGROECOSYSTEMS ON INDICATORS OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
Hasanova R.F., Suyundukov Y.T., Semenovа I.N.
Abstract
Studied enzymatic and microbiological activity of soils on agrocenoses and shows the integral evaluation of their biological condition in a steppe Trans-Urals Republic of Bashkortostan. The enzymatic activity of soils was studied by the following methods: catalase activity - on A. S. Galstyan (1974); cellulose - by applications, proteolytic - to reduce the weight of nitrogen-containing substances gelatin, urease on account of quantity of ammonia in the decomposition of urea. To assess the ecological state of soil agroecosystems integral indicator of the biological condition of the soil was used (IPBS) (Valkov et al., 2001). The number of major ecological and trophic groups of microorganisms set by planting soil suspension of dilutions on agar nutrient medium meat-peptone agar (MPA), starch-ammonia agar (SAA), an empty agar (GA), agar soil extract (PA). The characterization of the microbial community structure was carried out by the coefficients: immobilization of mineral nitrogen (Kimm) oligotrophicity factor (Kolig). Based on data analysis of the enzymatic activity of ordinary chernozem steppe Trans-Urals on different grounds it can be concluded that the use of arable land has a negative impact on the level of hydrolytic enzymes. Reducing the integral index of the biological activity of soils under arable crops may indicate a violation of their information, as well as the biochemical, physico-chemical, chemical and holistic ecosystem. The specific structure of microbial communities in soils under virgin prevents nitrogen removal outside the ecosystem. Agricultural use of soil leads to increased mineralization processes and, consequently, to reduce the content of nitrogen in the ecosystem. The cultivation of perennial grasses improves the biological condition of the soil, which will undoubtedly affect their fertility. These results confirm that the figures presented in the enzymatic and microbial activity can be recommended as welfare indicators of soil environment, reflecting the functional state of the soil biota.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(1):103-108
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DEPENDENCE OF NICKEL AND CADMIUM ACCUMULATION BY PLANTS ON THEIR CONCENTRATION
Elizareva E.N., Yanbaev Y.A., Kulagin A.Y., Usmanov I.Y.
Abstract
One of the most important environmental issues of recent decades is the increasing anthropogenic heavy metals pollution. They are hazardous because of their high degree of toxicity. While many heavy metals are not found as necessary elements for normal functioning of the plant, however they are actively absorbed by plants and persist toxic properties, thereby providing long-term adverse effects. The aim of this work is to establish the dependence of the cadmium and nickel uptake by plants based on their concentration. Different varieties of radish Raphanus sativus L. and corn Zea mays L. were grown in hydroponic conditions in solutions containing varying concentrations of cadmium and nickel. Changes in plants appearance and weight due to presence of heavy metals were analysed. The heavy metal content in the roots and aerial parts of the plants was measured by the method of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. As a result, it was found that the addition of heavy metals lead to occurrence of necrotic spots on the leaves, indicating a disruption of normal metabolism. Analysis of metal concentrations in plants and in solution showed that cadmium is a highly toxic element, even at a low content, and is characterized by its intense movement within the plant. The toxicity of nickel and its translocation strongly depend on the plant species. For example, corn SN does not accumulate nickel in the aerial parts of the plant over the entire analysed range of concentration. It was shown that the identified tendencies of nickel and cadmium uptake by different parts of plants may be used for waste water treatment by rhizofiltration with subsequent application of grown biomass as cattle feed or for human food, depending on the plant species and the concentration of heavy metals in the wastewater.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(1):109-116
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PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL STATUS GREEN PLANTATIONS OF SURGUT CITY
Makarovа T.A., Makarov P.N.
Abstract
The article presents data phytopathological monitoring the state of Surgut city green areas at the period of 2011-2015. Observations of the dynamics of infectious diseases of plants during the reporting period showed a highly stable development of fungal infections, their incidence in urban plantings is 5,2-99,7%, the intensity of the plant defeat - 9,2-72,8% (well above the threshold values). The causative agents of diseases of trees and shrubs are higher phytopathogenic fungi Deuteromycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota divisions. The fungus affects the leaves and needles of plants, cause loss of branches and trunks, which leads to disruption of the biochemical and physiological processes in the plant, the loss of their functional and decorative properties, the frequent occupancy stem pests. Of the pathogens necrotic-cancerous diseases wide range of host plants the fungus is Tubercularia vulgaris. In forest stands Surgut it causes necrosis of Pinus sylvestris , Betulaрubescens , B. pendula , Padus avium , Crataegus sanguinea , Ulmus laevis and U. pumila . Susceptible to necrotic-cancerous disease is Ulmus pumila ; to powdery mildew - ornamental shrubs Caragana arborescens , Crataegus sanguninea , trees - Populus tremula , Betula pubescens , from berry crops - Ribes nigrum ; to rust - Populus tremula , Betula pendula , Crataegus sanguinea , Sorbus sibirica and Salix viminalis ; to spotty - Populus nigra, Salix dasyclados . For improvement state of plants in stands of Surgut is necessary to apply forestry methods, including a set of measures and rules for aimed at creating optimal conditions for the growth and development of plants and enhance their resistance to disease and other adverse environmental factors.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(1):117-127
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE SNOW COVER IN THE VICINITY OF А FUEL-AND-ENERGY COMPLEX
Shayhutdinova A.A., Markova O.S.
Abstract
Industrial production - the most significant stationary source of environmental pollution. The basis for the development of all industries is energy. The anthropogenic pressure of the fuel and energy complex on natural complexes leads to irreversible changes. As the object of study was chosen a company of fuel and energy complex Sakmarskaya CHP plant (Orenburg). In the work the analysis of priority pollutants by mass and toxicity, determined the value of the degree of danger of the enterprise. Conducted chemical analysis on the contents in the samples of snow harmful substances using titrimetric, photocolorimetric and gravimetric methods. The identified content in the samples of the chloride ions, ions of calcium, magnesium, carbonate and bicarbonate ions, sulfide and hydrosulfide ions, zinc ions, iron, copper, ammonium, sulfate ions and suspended solids. Assessment of the quality of areas adjacent to stationary sources of pollution can be based on a ratio of the concentration of the contaminant as the ratio of the concentration of pollutants in the studied site to the background concentration, indicator of chemical pollution of precipitation, which is the sum of the coefficients of the pollutants, the environmental load of pollutants through differential and integral parameters of the absolute effect of a single impurity, by an absolute total load of all impurities, released from atmospheric air in leaching precipitation (snow and rain), relative total load assigned to the background load. Absolute load of individual pollutants characterizes the degree of its impact on the environment. Absolute total load of all impurities allows for ranking of territories according to the criteria for assessing the quality of natural environments. Also with the help of this indicator it is possible to make the selection of priority contaminants, settling in the neighborhood, can have a significant impact on the ecological situation. On relative total load assigned to the background load, we can predict the transformation of ecosystems according to existing criteria.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(1):127-134
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