No 6 (2012)

Articles
MAIN TRENDS OF CHANGE OF PERSISTENT TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONCENTRATIONS IN BLOOD OF ARCTIC REGION INDIGENOUS POPULATION
Chashchin M.V., Chashchin V.P., Fedorov V.N., Zakharova N.V., Kuzmin A.V., Kovshov A.A., Yantalets E.V., Kusraeva Z.S., Abramyan S.M., Zibarev E.V., Mishkitch I.A.
Abstract
To address concerns arising from possible increased human exposure in the Arctic and possible effects of POPs, all circumpolar countries agreed in 1994 to monitor specific human tissues for contaminants in the Arctic under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program. Indigenous volunteers in eight circumpolar countries contributed blood samples that were analyzed for 14 PCB congeners and 13 organochlorine pesticides. The blood concentrations of POPs from the cohort study 2001-2010 were compared. The indigenous people from Chukotka had significantly higher levels of PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, chlordane derivatives alpha-chlordane, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane and lead than the people from the Nenets Autonomous Area (NAA). The level of some DDT and 4.4 DDE concentrations were significantly lower in blood in the NAA after ten years of observations. These differences among groups may represent regional dietary preferences or different contaminant deposition patterns across the Arctic.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(6):3-7
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OCCUPATIONAL PATHOLOGY OF WORKERS EMPLOYED IN DIFFERENT PRODUCTIONS OF COPPER-NICKEL INDUSTRY IN FAR NORTH
Syurin S.A., Gushchin I.V., Nikanov A.N.
Abstract
The study dealt with the data on 1 097 cases of occupational diseases that were first identified in 702 employees of the copper-nickel industry in Murmansk region in the period from 1970 to 2010. It has been established that in the structure of occupational diseases of workers engaged in all kinds of nickel and copper production, chronic bronchopulmonary diseases dominated. It was important that the nosological spectrum of respiratory pathology was largely determined by the nature of production. In contrast, the pathology of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems including the vibration disease occupied the leading segment in the structure of the occupational pathology of the copper-nickel ores miners. It has been concluded that in order to reduce the risk of occupational disabilities, it was necessary to decrease the degree of exposure to nickel aerosols (in nickel and copper metallurgical workers) and harmful physical factors (in copper and nickel ore miners).
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(6):8-12
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ESTIMATION OF HAND FUNCTIONAL OVERSTRAIN RISK CONNECTED WITH DYNAMIC AND STATIC EFFORTS, LOCAL VIBRATION
Sorokin G.A., Frolova N.M.
Abstract
In terms of works for grinding of metal products with machine and manual tools, a method of revealing and prediction of risk (R) of hand functional overstrain connected with dynamic and static efforts, combined with local vibration exposure has been stated. A risk indicator was the index of hand joint pains (IP) which generalized quantity of localizations, frequency and expressiveness of pains. Dynamics of IP and R during the years of work were predicted on the basis of an integrated estimation of fatigability of work movement complexes, a work regime and a level of local vibration.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(6):13-20
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HEALTH STATUS OF WORKERS EXPOSED TO HEAVY PHYSICAL LOADS AND HAND VIBRATION
Mal’kova N.Y., Popov A.V., Ushkova I.N.
Abstract
Occupational diseases develop while working in unfavorable working conditions, such as whole-body and local physical load, whole-body and local vibration, and cold, etc. The aim of the study was to examine the state of the upper extremi ties musculoskeletal system under occupational exposure to heavy physical loads and hand vibration. Working conditions of 89 plasterers, taking into account adverse effects, corresponded to: 3-rd class, 2-nd degree, harmful heavy work of the 2-nd degree; working conditions of 87 sinkers, 102 mechanical assemblers, 84 assemblers of metal vessel hulls corresponded to the 3-rd class, the 3-rd degree, harmful heavy work of the 3-rd degree. Numerous complaints of hands pain, surgeon objective examination findings, disturbances of muscle strength, the upper extremities microcirculation, creatine phosphokinase activity allowed to diagnose I - II degree miofibrosis in the examined groups. Miofibrosis was combined with vibration disease of the I-II degree in those who worked with vibration instruments.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(6):21-24
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ACUTE OCCUPATIONAL INTOXICATIONS BY CHLORINE AND AMMONIA: CLINICAL PICTURE, DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT. CURRENT CONCEPTIONS
Akimov A.G., Khalimov Y.S., Shilov V.V.
Abstract
Current issues of industrial accidents resulting in chlorine and ammonia emissions have been considered in the article. In general, chlorine damage pathogenesis is related to the effect of acids generated in the process of its interaction with water, the effect of active oxygen forms, resulting in respiratory tract damage, surfactant damage and oxidative stress. Ammonia intoxication consequences are mainly caused by the local effect of ammonium hydroxide generated during interaction between ammonia and water on the airways’ and ocular mucosa. High ammonia concentrations result in NMDA receptor activation and ATP amount depletion. Pulmonary toxicant damage treatment covers reduction of the airways’ and ocular mucosa irritation phenomena, use of β-adrenergic receptor agonists; oxygen, corticosteroid and symptomatic medication by indications. Stage-by-stage treatment of the damage has been discussed.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(6):25-36
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ASSESSMENT OF PROPERTIES OF BILBERRY-BUSH GROWING AROUND KOLA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
Kizeev A.N., Ushamova S.F., Zhirov V.K., Ivkova N.V.
Abstract
During 2009-2010 in the 15-km area around the Kola Nuclear Power Plant, there were studied bilberry-bush geo-botanical, morphological and physiological characteristics. In conditions of an insignificant (within the natural values) increase of background X-radiation, there have been revealed at least three types of adaptive mechanisms directed to decrease of radionuclides absorption by plant tissues thorough activation or inhibition of growth and development processes. The data obtained are under discussion concerning non-specific stress mechanisms.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(6):37-42
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ON THE HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF TRANSPORT POLLUTION AND ITS EFFECT ON POPULATION HEALTH
Fridman K.B., Lim T.E., Shustalov S.N.
Abstract
In the article, a work algorithm for studying transport pollution and its effects on population health has been given and grounded, taking into account the hygienic technologies in action in Russia: the social- and- hygienic monitoring and health risk assessment method; a possibility of choosing traffic flow organization based on hygienic safety has been reasoned.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(6):43-47
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INFLUENCE OF ECOLOGICAL-HYGIENIC AND SOCIAL-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON POPULATION DENTAL DISEASES INCIDENCE
Polozhentseva A.I., Shirinsky V.A.
Abstract
Assessment of influence of ecological-hygienic and social-demographic factors on population dental diseases incidence has been carried out. The program of the real research provided definition of an object of observation, collection of initial information, statistical processing and an analysis of the received data, determination of cause and effect dependences of the level of dental health on social-demographic factors, a way of life, ecological factors. Among the patients, there have been registered high levels of prevalence of caries, not carious lesions, periodontal diseases, orthodontic pathologies, needs in treatment and denture treatment. Statistically significant dependences between the studied factors and dental diseases incidence in the observed group of patients have been established.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(6):48-53
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SAFETY AND DIETARY EFFECTIVENESS OF NEW DIABETIC CHOCOLATES IN CASE OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY
Dotsenko V.A., Mosiychuk L.V., Vlasov V.S.
Abstract
We evaluated safety and effectiveness of dietary use of new kinds of sweets without sugar with Ca and vitamin D 3. On the basis of physical-chemical, microbiological and radiological studies, we have established safety of new types of sweets in the diet of healthy and sick people. Evaluation of dietary effectiveness was carried out in two groups of adults and children. The main group of the patients received four chocolates a day (breakfast, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner), and the control group did not receive the chocolates but followed similar dietary and therapeutic regimes. The study has revealed a beneficial dietary, diabetic effect of new kinds of chocolates, which was confirmed by improvement in metabolism of carbohydrates, calcium and vitamin D 3, as well as by improvement of clinical symptoms in the patients with Diabetes Mellitus type II. The new kinds of diabetic chocolates did not impose influence on the anthropometric characteristics of the patients with overweight and obesity.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(6):54-59
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Retsenziya na knigu N. A. Agadzhanyana «Ekologiya dushi cheloveka i priroda»
Ushakov I.B.
Abstract
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(6):60-63
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XI Vserossiyskiy s\"ezd gigienistov i sanitarnykh vrachey «Itogi i perspektivy obespecheniya sanitarnoepidemiologicheskogo blagopoluchiya naseleniya Rossiyskoy Federatsii»
Bobun I.I.
Abstract
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(6):64-64
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