No 6 (2019)

Articles
ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH RISK OF PARTICULATE MATTER COMPONENTS OF ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS OF MULTIFUEL POWER PLANTS
Petrov S.B., Petrov B.A.
Abstract
Aim: To study risks to public health of particular matter components in the atmospheric emissions of multifuel power plants (MPP). Methods: The study was performed on the territory of the Kirov region in the area of atmospheric emissions of the multifuel power plants. We ranked the chemicals included in the composition of atmospheric emissions from MPP by the level of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk and modeled dispersion of emissions of MPP plants and estimation of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks. Results: Three typical scenarios of the fuel balance of MPP for 17 years of observation were identified: I - the share of solid fuel more than 50 %, II - the share of solid fuel less than 20 % and III, characterized by an increase in the share of solid fuel in the fuel balance to 30 %. During the implementation of scenario I, the carcinogenic risk (CI 95 %) was 3.8x10-4 - 4.8x10-4 for the population of the area with the highest pollution level, non-carcinogenic risk was 2.37-2.96, there was an increase in the frequency of hospital admissions and mortality due to diseases of the circulatory system and respiratory organs. In the transition to scenario II, there was a decrease in the level of carcinogenic risk to 1.4x10-4 - 1.7x10-4 and non-carcinogenic risk to 0.85-1.05, a decrease in the frequency of hospital admissions and mortality due to diseases of the circulatory system and respiratory organs. Conclusions: Changes in the fuel balance of multi-fuel CHP are associated with a significant influence on the level of health risk. Highlighting areas of increased risk for population health in the areas adjacent to MPP is recommended.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(6):4-10
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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF DRINKING WATER AND ACCUMULATION OF TOXIC METALS IN A HUMAN BODY
Hramov A.V., Kontrosh L.V., Pankratova M.Y., Vezhenkova I.V.
Abstract
Aims: To study associations between drinking water mineral composition and levels of accumulation of metals in a human body. Methods: Studies were conducted in several geochemical regions. Hair samples were taken from healthy 10-11 years old boys aged. Concentrations of toxic metals were determined in hair. Altogether, concentrations of 29 chemical elements in hair and drinking water were determined. Atomic emission spectrometry with inductive-argon plasma methods were used. Results and conclusions: The levels of calcium and magnesium in the hair in the study groups significantly varied between the samples and correlated with hardness of drinking water. Significant correlations were observed between the concentrations of calcium and magnesium in children's hair and in drinking water. An inverse association between accumulated copper, nickel, iron and strontium in hair in children and concentrations of these metals in drinking water was found. The patterns of metal accumulation varied across the geochemical regions and by the quality of drinking water.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(6):11-16
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AIR POLLUTION AND NON-CANCENOGENIC RISK ASSESSMENT IN INDUSTRIAL CITIES OF CHELYABINSK REGION
Dolgushina N.A., Kuvshinova I.A.
Abstract
Aim: To estimate air pollution and calculate non-cancerogenic risks for health of the population in the industrial cities of Chelyabinsk region. Methods: The study was performed in the cities of Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk and Zlatoust. For calculation of levels of pollution of atmospheric air Average annual concentration of substances in the atmospheric air and their standard deviations were calculated. The frequency rate of excess of the actual average concentrations over maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was studied. Assessment of total pollution of atmospheric air in the cities has been carried out by calculation of composite indicator of air pollution (CIAP) for 2012-2016. Assessment of non-cancerogenic risk for health of the population was performed as specified in guidelines P2.1.10.1920-04. Results: No difference in qualitative composition of atmospheric pollutants between the cities was found. We observed, however, quantitative differences. The highest annual average chemical concentrations over the study period were determined in Magnitogorsk (CIAP = 9.3 ± 0.43) while the lowest level was recorded in Zlatoust (CIAP = 6.0 ± 0.38). Risk assessment has shown that the city of Magnitogorsk is the most polluted. The greatest risks were found for development delays, diseases of respiratory organs and diseases of central nervous system followed by diseases of gastrointestinal tract and kidneys. Conclusion: High levels of air pollution were detected in the cities of Chelyabinsk region. Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk and Zlatoust had similar pollutants in the atmosphere, but important quantitative differences were observed. Magnitogorsk had an unacceptable level of non-cancerogenic risk, while Chelyabinsk and Zlatoust had high levels. Developmental delays and respiratory, digestive, cardiovascular, the central nervous system diseases seem to be the main target systems.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(6):17-22
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INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME
Shantir' I.I., Rodionov G.G., Fominykh Y.A., Batskov S.S., Ushal I.E., Kolobova E.A., Svetkina E.V., Sannikov M.V.
Abstract
Aim: To study intestinal microbiota and the parameters of oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods: The sample consisted of 50 patients with MS aged 55-65 years and residing in Saint Petersburg. The reference group consisted of 129 individuals of similar age without MS. The quantitative and qualitative composition of parietal intestinal microbiota was studied by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry using microbial markers in plasma. Oxidative stress the final oxidation products of protein molecules and lipids including 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and malonic aldehyde were estimated. Nutritional antioxidants including vitamin E, unsaturated fatty acids etc. were assessed by chromatography mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry. Results: In the parietal layer of the intestine in individuals with MS, the total number of microbial markers is positively associated with the markers of the opportunistic microflora and lower levels of normal microflora. In MS patients, the ratio of normal microflora to conditionally pathogenic microflora is twice as low as in the reference group. Level of malonic dialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosin were 48 % and 39 % higher in the MS group. Moreover, plasma concentrations of vitamin E and zinc were lower by 42 % and 80 % in patients with MS compared to the reference group. Сonclusions: The observed differences in the quantitative and qualitative composition of the parietal microbiota of the intestine in individuals with MS compared to the reference group suggest development of intestinal dysbiosis in MS patients. The intestinal dysbiosis is accompanied by oxidative stress manifested by an increase in the level of malonic dialdehyde in the blood plasma and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine in the urine, as well as a decrease in the level of vitamin E and zinc in the blood plasma.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(6):23-29
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LIPID PEROXIDATION AND ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE SYSTEM IN MENOPAUSAL WOMEN OF DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS
Semenova N.V., Madaeva I.M., Darenskaya M.A., Kolesnikova L.I.
Abstract
Aim: Сomparative assessment of lipid peroxidation - antioxidant defense parameters in Caucasian and Asian women in peri- and postmenopause. Methods: Altogether, 146 women of Caucasian (Russians (n = 82)) and Asian (Buryats (n = 64)) origins participated in the prospective non-randomized study. Each ethnic group was divided into three subgroups - women of reproductive age, perimeno-pause, postmenopause according to the gynecological status. The lipid peroxidation - antioxidant defense parameters were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Non-parametric tests were used for comparisons of the three independent groups. Results: in Russian perimenopausal women compared to women of reproductive age, an increase of lipid peroxidation substrates by 1.27 times (p = 0.032), active products of thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) by 1.25 times (p = 0.041), oxidized glutathione by 1.33 times (p = 0.021) levels and decrease of ketodienes and conjugated trienes (KD-CT) by 1.85 times (p < 0.001), retinol by 1.32 times (p = 0.043) levels, followed by an increase of KD-CT levels by 2 times (p < 0.001) and decrease of TBARS by 1.28 times (p = 0.042), а-tocopherol by 1.37 times (p = 0.001), retinol by 1.14 times (p = 0.019), GSSG by 1.16 times (p = 0.044) levels in postmenopausal women. In perimenopausal representatives of the Buryat ethnos compared with women of reproductive age, an decrease of lipid peroxidation substrates by 1.66 times (p < 0.001), conjugated dienes (CD) by 2.41 times (p < 0.001), KD-CT by 1.53 times (p = 0.045), а-tocopherol by 1.64 times (p < 0.001), retinol by 1.20 times (p = 0.024) levels, followed by an increase of lipid peroxidation substrates by 1.31 times (p = 0.028), CD by 1.53 times (p = 0.008), KD-CT by 1.32 times (p = 0.032) levels in postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Our results suggest that oxidative stress in menopause is more pronounced in Caucasian than in Asian women.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(6):30-38
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EFFECT OF COLD ON INVOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS IN MEN WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF PHYSICAL FITNESS IN THE RUSSIAN NORTH
Eskov V.M., Bazhenova A.E., Ilyashenko L.K., Grigorieva S.V.
Abstract
Cold is a common environmental factor for the population of the Russian North. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of cold stress on involuntary movements (tremor) in men with different levels of physical fitness. The paper presents a new method for calculation of quasiattractor parameters for estimation of biomechanical homeostasis in two dimensions. Biomechanical analysis according to quasiattractors parameters was realized as a numerical measure of neuro-muscular functional system parameters under the stress-perturbation. We calculate the quasiattractor's squares for men with different levels of physical fitness. We obtained the following results: calculation of quasiattractors square demonstrates the difference of homeostasis between before and after local exposure to cold. After the exposure we registered a 2.7 times- and 1.8 times increase of quasiattractors square among sportsmen and sportsmen, respectively. There were also differences between the distribution of quasiattractors across levels of physical training: for sportsmen we observed a normal distribution while and for non-sportsmen the distribution was not normal. The matrix of pairwise comparison of samples demonstrate the probability p < 0,01 for two identical samples of tremorograms. Conclusions. A local cold exposure results in a nearly 3-fold increase in the number of pairs of k coincidences of the tremorogram samples for men. We also found the dynamics of increasing areas of quasi-attractors after a local cold impact, which depends on the physical training of the subject.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(6):39-44
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CARDIOHEMODYNAMIC AND SECRETORY FUNCTION OF THE MYOCARDIUM IN ELITE ATHLETES DURING ADAPTATION TO COLD
Dernovoy B.F., Prosheva V.I.
Abstract
Aim: To study circulatory system functioning in elite skiers during adaptation to cold. Methods: Echocardiography, electrocardiography, recording of arterial pressure and electrochemiluminescent assessment of serum B-natriuretic peptide were performed to study the functioning of the cardiovascular system in 16 skiers during the period of preparation for the national competitions in different seasons. Results. Adaptive structural and functional changes in the cardiovascular system remain during seasons. At the same time, considerable seasonal differences in the functioning of the circulatory system were found. In winter, the subjects showed lower blood pressure, larger size of the left heart cavity, an higher rate of early blood filling of the left ventricle, transtricuspid blood flow, as well as the time of hemodynamics in the root of the pulmonary artery. In the rehabilitation period after exercise in skiers background levels of serum NT-proBNP in winter were about three times lower than in summer. Conclusion. The results have shown that the cardiovascular system of elite skiers during seasonal preparation for the competition is characterized by stable adaptive structural and functional changes. Adaptation to cold increases the influence of vagus nerve on the tone of resistive vessels, increases cardiohemodynamics and decreases basal secretory function of the myocardium in response to hemodynamic loads.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(6):45-50
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ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS AND PARAMETERS OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN GIRLS OF THE NORTH
Vlasova O.S., Tretyakova T.V., Bichkaeva F.A., Baranova N.F.
Abstract
Aim: To study concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in girls of two Northern regions and their associations with the parameters of carbohydrate metabolism. Methods: Girls aged 16-19 years permanently residing in the Subarctic (SR) and Arctic (AR) regions of the European and Asian North of Russia comprised the sample. Concentrations of PUFA were estimated by gas-liquid chromatography. Glucose, lactate and pyruvate concentrations were studied by spectrophotometric method. Lactate/pyruvate ratio and total content of ю-3 and ю-6 PUFA were calcuated. Descriptive and correlation analysis were performed. Results: We observed greater concentrations of the examined PUFAs in the girls of the AR except for the arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic which were greater in the SR. Concentrations of inoleic, dihomo-y-linolenic, docosadienoic acids as well as the summary indices were similar in girls from AR and SR. At the same time the adaptive changes in carbohydrate metabolism were expressed in a decrease in glucose and lactate contents in girls of the AR. Correlation analysis showed that in SR, PUFAs positively correlated with the levels of glucose and pyruvate while inverse correlations were observed between PUFAs and lactate/pyruvate ratio. In AR, PUFAs significantly correlated only with glucose. Conclusions: We observed significant differences between PUFA levels and carbohydrate indices in girls of AR and SR. Associations between PUFA levels and carbohydrate metabolism also differed between AR and SR.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(6):51-58
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SMOKING AND VITAL EXHAUSTION IN INDUSTRIAL WORKERS IN SOUTHERN URAL
Flores M.A.
Abstract
Aim: To study associations between smoking and vital exhaustion among workers of a large factory in Southern Ural. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 1 101 employees of one of the enterprises of the Southern Ural was performed. Smoking status was established by a questionnaire and expressed as a number of cigarettes smoked per day. Height, weight, resting heart rate and charge heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study the presence of angina, chronic bronchitis and neurological complaints. Vital exhaustion was studied by the abridged version of the Maastricht questionnaire. Categorical variables were analyzed by Pearson's chi-squared statistics using IBM SPSS software, v.22.0. Results: At the time of the survey, 25.6 % of women and 52.3 % of men smoked daily. Altogether, 18.0 % of the women and 9.6 % of men have average or high level of vital exhausion. No statistically significant association between smoking and vital exhaustion was observed in either men (р = 0.287) or women (р = 0.720). Conclusions: A cross-sectional study could not determine a statistically significant relationship between smoking and vital exhaustion among workers of a factory.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(6):59-64
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