No 7 (2019)



Otradnova M.I., Rogacheva S.M., Zhutov A.S., Kozlitin A.M.


The aim: To determine the effect of solar activity on the cardiac rhythm indices of apparently healthy men and women, smokers and non-smokers, depending on the stress load (physical and psycho-emotional). Methods. The registration of myocardium bioelectric activity parameters was carried out in the participants of the experiment (26 people) for 2 years (spring, autumn, 95 days), using ECG sensor «Fazagraf», the cardiosignals were handled on-line ( Long time-series data were mathematically processed using Microsoft Office Excel and STATISTICA programs. The change of geomagnetic storminess was estimated using Кр-index. Results. Biophysical monitoring data ofcardiac rhythm was analyzed. In accordance with the ergodic hypothesis, a statistical analysis of balance factor values of the T-wave (T) of ECG was performed using time series for 4 groups with common traces - gender and tobacco smoking. Using the Pearson's chi-squared test, it was proved that the samples obeyed the normal distribution law. Significant differences in the cardiac rhythm were revealed after physical and emotional loads in smokers in comparison with non-smokers, regardless of the geomagnetic situation. The mean values of the T-wave balance factor changes were calculated after the stress load relative to the rest state (ΔT) for the indicated groups of subjects, for periods with a quiet geomagnetic environment (Kp < 16) and with high geomagnetic activity (Kp > 16). Significant differences (р < 0.05) in the parameters of cardiac rhythm changes under the load in the magnetic disturbed days in comparison with the unperturbed period were found only in smokers. The greatest differences were recorded in women-smokers under psycho-emotional stress and in men smokers after physical activity. Conclusion. Physical load and psycho-emotional stress are risk factors for the cardiovascular system of smokers, respectively, in days with high sunspot activity.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(7):4-10
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Filatov M.A., Ilyashenko L.K., Kolosova A.I., Makeeva S.V.


A person's living in different environmental conditions also determines his special mental properties, such as memory, thinking, and attention. The aim of this work is to study the quality of students' attention aged 12-17 years living in different climatic and geographical regions: the city of Surgut of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area and in the rural areas of central Russia (Samara region). Pupils of the first group live in extreme climatic conditions of the North, which are made worse by adverse social and environmental factors of urbanization. Pupils of the second group live in a climatically and environmentally friendly area with minimal impact of man-made pollution. The method of the Bourdon correction test was used in a modification proposed by P. A. Rudik. Result. A comparative statistical analysis of the results obtained in the evaluation of the attention properties of different age groups of students was carried out. The dynamics of changes in the K, E, A indices were studied, and the coefficients as a whole were calculated for the entire test and for each minute of the experiment. Specific features of the student's attention development were defined. Age and gender differences, differences in the development of attention indicators in students from two different schools were revealed. Conclusions: statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) of attention distribution and productivity were revealed: the attention efficiency coefficient of Surgut students is 1.15 times lower than that of their peers from the Samara region. All this demonstrates the differences in the attention parameters of students in different ecological zones.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(7):11-16
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Ryazantsev S.V., Rostovskaya T.K., Sigareva E.P., Sivoplyasova S.Y.


The aim of the work is to analyze the modern trend of reducing absolute and relative abortion rates in Russia, as well as assessing this trend to preserve the reproductive potential and strengthen the socio-demographic security of Russia. It examines the scope, pace, and regional differentiation of abortions in recent years, and identifies prospects for reducing the incidence of pregnancy interruptions as a reserve for improving demographic development. Methods. The method of analytical analysis consisted in the selection and study of the content of domestic and foreign approaches to the subject of scientific interest, Rosstat data and regulatory documents. The statistical method allowed making calculations, which were the basis for illustrations of results of the project using a graphic method. The method of comparison and the rating method gave an idea of the spread of abortions in different periods of time, and also provided an opportunity to classify the subjects of Russia according to a number of indicators. Results. In 2017 the number of abortions was less than 700 thousand. Over the previous seven years, Russia has lost 1 million lives due to abortions. The maximum abortions accounted for the most "productive" age of 25-29 years. The proportion of this group of women in the total number of women who produced an abortion is 27-28 %. This indicates a more intensive abortive behaviour of this age group of women, the positive transformation of which could also contribute to a greater number of births. Conclusions. The implementation of a nationwide campaign to prevent abortions can help save an additional 130-150 thousand lives of newborns annually. For 10 years, this will allow to increase births in the country to the level of 1.3-1.5 million children. The article contributes to the scientific discussion and considers abortions and abortive culture as an additional reserve to improve the demographic situation in the future.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(7):17-23
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Shcherbakova A.S.


The aim of the work is to assess the impact of climate change in vital activity of northerners and the creation of prerequisites for developing a strategy for adaptation to climate change in the Komi Republic (RK). Methods. In the framework of a differentiated approach, the assessment was made for the North-West Federal District (NWFD) of Russia as a whole and for Komi Republic in detail. An objective approach included the study of scientific literature, an assessment of statistical data on air temperature, ambulance calls, tick bites, tick-borne encephalitis, injuries sustained during the ice, correlation analysis for ICD-10 diseases and socio-demographic indicators. Within the framework of the subjective approach, the results of a sociological survey were assessed using the method of Internet survey and interviewing specialists and representatives of the authorities in the field of health care in Komi Republic. Results. A correlation analysis conducted to establish the relationship between climate and socio-demographic indicators in the regions of the North-West Federal District revealed a strong dependence of the number of ambulance calls for diseases of arterial hypertension, class I diseases 22.64; T 33; J 01,11,20 in Syktyvkar municipal area and due to illness T 33 Vorkuta municipal area from the average monthly air temperature. The mapping method showed that with climate change, new foci of tick bite registration appeared. A sociological survey has determined that the population feels mainly the warming of the winter period. Experts and government officials confirm the fact of climate change and its impact on the health and economy of the region, but do not consider this a serious problem, pleading need for additional research. Conclusions. The results of the study are a comprehensive assessment of the impact of climate change on the life of the population of the Komi Republic from different points of view: a sociological survey of local residents, interviewing specialists and government officials and the dynamics of climate change in the region, which can become a prerequisite for the development of a regional strategy for climate change adaptation.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(7):24-32
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Leshchenko Y.A.


The aim of the study is a comprehensive assessment of the quality of life of the population of the Baikal Region (BR) and its trends in the post-Soviet period. Methods. The analysis of life quality of the population of the Baikal Region was carried out on the basis of indicators evaluated in the framework of objective and subjective models. Criteria for differentiated assessment of the level of psychological distress of the population were worked out and used according to the degree of deviation of the suicide rate from the critical level - 20 °/оооо (WHO criterion). The data was analyzed for the territories of the Baikal Region, the Siberian Federal District and the Russian Federation for a period of 21-27 years. Results. All indicators of life quality on the territories of the Baikal Region differed for the worse from the corresponding average indicators in Russia. Clearly marked eastern vector of negative changes in the studied characteristics was revealed. Negative changes in the affective component of the quality of life, measured by the suicide rate, are the most pronounced on the territories of the Baikal Region. Thus, in the Irkutsk Region, an extremely high suicide rate was recorded for 6 years (1994-1995, 1999-2002). Indicators of extremely high suicide rates were observed: in the Republic of Buryatia for over 20 years; in the Trans-Baikal Territory - for 19 years. Consequently, the negative changes in social life that occurred in the observed period caused the greatest damage to the psychological sphere of the quality of life. Conclusions. The quality of life of the population of the Baikal Region is worse compared to many other regions of the Russian Federation. There are no tendencies towards the convergence of these levels. The results of the study show that the efforts of the authorities of all levels in the socio-economic development of Siberia are still not enough to raise the quality of life of the regional community to the average Russian indicators, and even more so to the level of social standards of developed countries.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(7):33-41
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Vorobyeva N.A., Troshina T.I.


The aim of the work is a methodological justification of the interdisciplinary scientific research conducted by the authors on the phenomenon of human resilience in the extreme living conditions and activities in the Arctic region of the Russian Federation from the perspective of a sociologist, doctor and historian. The specifics of the author's project is to find an answer to the question about the sources of viability of the indigenous population of the Arctic territories based on historical and sociocultural data of people's way of life in extreme climatic conditions and objective reflection in medical genetic research. The authors note that modern medical science is mainly focused on studying the negative effects of a person's stay in the Arctic, as well as on the socio-medical analysis of deviations that arise among small indigenous peoples when changing climate and lifestyle. The authors conclude that the indigenous population of the Arctic has accumulated sufficient sociocultural experience and has a genetic originality drawn up in previous eras, which should be the object of an interdisciplinary study. The formulated idea was supported by the RFBR grant. This article makes an attempt to present the author's research concept to the scientific community.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(7):42-48
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Pukhaeva E.G., Skupnevskii S.V., Rurua F.K., Farnieva Z.G., Badtiev A.K.


The aim is to study the combined effects of heavy metals and antibiotics on the genetic cell apparatus, to assess the possibility of correction of the genotoxic effect of the immunomodulator. Using Ford-Hamerton method the cytogenetic effects of the antibiotic Ceftriaxone (450 mg / kg) on the background of cadmium chloride (1 х 10-3M), lead acetate (1 х 10-3 M) and imunofan (0.004 mg/kg) were estimated on marrow cells of 102 male rats of Wistar population. Results. Imunofan showed antimutagenic effect: the number of chromosomal aberrations compared with the negative control (1.5 ± 0.50) % decreased 3 times (0.50 ± 0.29) %; the genome protection coefficient (Fp) was 66.67 %. The expression coefficient of the mutagenic effect of Cd (II) is 3.5 units, the number of chromosomal aberrations - (5.3 ± 0.91)%; the expression coefficient of the mutagenic effect Pb (II) was 3 units; the number of chromosomal aberrations - (4.5 ± 0.85) %; p < 0.001. Ceftriaxone in the maximum therapeutic dose had mild mutagenic properties: the expression coefficient of the mutagenic effect -2.2 units; the number of chromosomal aberrations (3.3 ± 0.73) %. In the variants [Pb (II) + ceftriaxone] and [Cd (II) + ceftriaxone], the mutagenic effect increased in comparison with the mono-effect of substances: the expression coefficient of the mutagenic effect, respectively 3.9 and 4.1 units; the number of chromosomal aberrations - (5.86 ± 0.95) %; p <0.001 and (6.2 ± 0.98) %; p < 0.001. The maximum antimutagenic protection by imunofan was observed relative to Cd (II) in the variants simulating prophylaxis (Fp 58.5 %) and treatment (Fp 56.6 %). For Pb (II) and on the background of ceftriaxone - in the variants of "prophylaxis" - (Fp 44.4; 60.6 %). With the combined effect of ions Pb (II), Cd (II) and ceftriaxone Fp varies from 39.7 to 51.7 %. Conclusions: The increase in chromosomal aberrations when combined with Pb (II), Cd (II) and ceftriaxone ions, in comparison with separate treatment, results in increasment of model "chemical pressure" on the genetic cell apparatus. For the purpose of antimutagenic correction, the use of immunomodulator imunofan is possible.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(7):49-58
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Kourova O.G., Popova T.V., Kokoreva E.G., Parskaya N.V., Krapivina E.A.


The aim is to study the environmental friendliness of long-term work on a computer based on the results of assessing the level of psycho-physiological functions of students with different volumes of training loads using computer technologies in the learning process. Methods: computer analysis of psychomotor reactions, self-assessment and situational anxiety, measurement of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure before and after the local load. 86 volunteer students aged 18-23 years old with a different volume of computer technology in the curriculum were surveyed. The results showed that adaptation to training loads in students with a large amount of computer technology is expressed in a statistically significant increase in indicators such as the speed of simple sensomotor reactions, the rate of complex sensomotor reactions in girls, and a decrease in attention concentration, the rate of selection and discrimination reactions in all subjects. Anxiety rates were higher in students with less computer work. The response of the heart rate to the local load in girls of both groups was more pronounced than in boys. Conclusion. A theoretical statement is formulated about the uneven changes in adaptation processes to study loads in students with a large amount of computer technology, expressed in stimulating certain neurodynamic functions and compensatory reduction of others. The stress of adaptation in girls is more pronounced than in boys. These studies indicate the environmentally unfavorable nature of high computer loads on the body, which manifests itself in functional stress. It is necessary to introduce correctional and recreational activities in the educational process with a large amount of computer technology.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(7):59-64
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