Vol 29, No 4 (2022)

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Full Issue


Nanoparticles and nanomaterials as inevitable modern toxic agents. Review. Part 3. Influence of nanoparticles on brain and behavior. Conclusions and unsolved problems

Ivlieva A.L., Zinicovscaia I., Petritskaya E.N., Rogatkin D.A.


The final part of the review focuses on the existing methods and results of studying the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on the brain and behavior. The types of behavioral tests used to assess changes in the behavior of NP-treated animals are described. The data accumulated in the literature on the negative influence of NPs on animal brains exposed to NPs in adulthood are considered. The signs of different cellular and tissue damage are presented, such as development of oxidative stress in the brain, inflammation and swelling, disturbances in the structure of cells, and an increase in the permeability of the blood–brain barrier. Disturbances in spatial memory, working, and long-term reference memory, decreased propensity for social interactions, inhibition of exploratory behavior, depression and anxiety, and impaired motor coordination, were found after various types and duration of contact of animals with NPs. The accumulated information about the negative consequences of prenatal and early postnatal, during lactation, for example, contact with NPs for mature offspring, is also described. Various cellular and tissue damage is found in the brain of young animals, such as the inhibition of cell proliferation, an increase in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis, edema and vascular degeneration, a decrease in the expression of genes associated with neurogenesis, and numerous signs of the development of oxidative stress. Behavioral disturbances in adult animals that had contact with NPs in early ontogenesis are considered, such as manifestations of depressive behavior or increased anxiety and suppression of spatial and short-term memory. Contradictory results of studies about contact with NPs in both adulthood and early ontogenesis are also presented. In conclusion, unresolved issues are highlighted, and general conclusions on the review are given.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(4):223-240
pages 223-240 views


Suicidological analysis of Moscow and Saint Petersburg in the context of the pandemic

Rozanov V.A., Semenova N.V., Vuks A.J., Freize V.V., Malyshko L.V., Kostyuk G.P., Isakov V.D., Yagmurov O.D., Sofronov A.G., Neznanov N.G.


BACKGROUND: Suicide mortality in Moscow and St. Petersburg — the two most populated federal cities of Russia — is not characterized enough. However, these cities have been mostly affected by the pandemic.

AIM: To analyze the latest trends in suicidal behavior in the historic capitals of Russia in an observational study, taking into account pandemic waves.

METHODS: The monthly numbers of suicides (date of death, sex, age, and method), and number of cases in Moscow (n=1558) and St. Petersburg (n=2077) from January 01, 2016, to September 30, 2021, were used to calculate frequencies per 100,000 and to analyze tendencies across sex and age groups. Statistics were based on Z-criterion, and confidence intervals were calculated as per Wilson.

RESULTS: Moscow and St. Petersburg belong to regions with suicide rates lower than the world average rates. Suicide mortality in both capitals was declining, but was more pronounced in Moscow. In St. Petersburg, the average rate was 3.28 higher, with 3.53 times in men and 2.84 times higher in women. The male-to-female ratio in St. Petersburg was also higher than that in Moscow (3.39:1 versus 2.87:1). In both cities, the highest rates were found among citizens aged >80 years, and the rates in young and adults (aged 20–49 years) are also high. Those aged 60–69 years have comparatively low rates. After a brief decline in the suicide rates during the first quarantine period in 2021, the decline in Moscow stopped, whereas in St. Petersburg, a gradual increase began, reaching significant levels among men in September. The most traditional method of self-harm (hanging) decreased, whereas the proportion of falls from a height increased (38.8% growth), as well as self-poisoning and self-cutting. A more detailed analysis of the “urban” method of suicide such as falling from a height revealed that in 2021, in St. Petersburg, a category of persons emerged among whom this method has grown dramatically (five times) in men aged >60 years.

CONCLUSIONS: Suicides among the urbanized population of the largest metropolitan areas in Russia during the pandemic demonstrate trends that raise concerns, and the structure of mortality and methods of self-harm are changing. Further monitoring and intensification of preventive measures are needed, especially in St. Petersburg.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(4):241-252
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Features of components N2 and P300 of auditory evoked potential dependent on the level of internet addiction in adolescents

Krivonogova E.V., Krivonogova O.V., Poskotinova L.V.


INTRODUCTION: Due to the popularization of digital technologies, people have begun to spend more time on the internet. Existing studies show mixed results about the impact of internet use on attention, cognitive control, and other cognitive functions.

AIM: To evaluate the components of the event-related potentials (ERPs) P300 and N2 in practically healthy adolescents aged 16–17 years with varying levels of internet addiction risk and a stable pattern of internet addiction (IA).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved healthy young people aged 16–17 years old who attended Simferopol city school.The Chen Internet addiction scale was used to access the level of IА in the Russian version of V.L. Malygin and K.A. Feklisov. The registration of the ERPs P300 and N2 components was carried out with the use of an electroencephalograph “Neuron-Spectrum-4/VPM” (Neurosoft, Russia). An auditory oddball paradigm was used.

RESULTS: In young men, no differences in the N2 and P300 latency were observed across the groups. There was an elongation of the N2 latency in the frontal and central regions of the brain in girls with a proclivity for IА, indicating a slower primary identification and classification of stimuli. In girls with a stable pattern of IА, there was an increase in the N2 latency in the central, left frontal, and right medial temporal regions, as well as an increase in the P300 latency in the frontal, central, and parietal right parts of the brain, compared to girls with minimal risk of IА, indicating the need for more time to identify the stimulus and make a decision.

CONCLUSIONS: An increase in the N2 latency has already been reported in girls with a proclivity for IА, which can be used to predict the development of IА and for prevention.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(4):253-262
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Assessment of reduced respiratory diseases in the Moscow population morbidity as a result of the implementation of the best available technology

Zvonkova N.V., Loktionov O.A., Kondrateva O.E.


AIM: To examine the potential for lowering respiratory diseases in the Moscow population as a result of the implementation of the best available technology at objects of the I and II categories of negative environmental impact.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The source data array was created by the authors using a parser script written in the Python computer language. The determination of the geographical coordinates of the location of industrial facilities and their territorial linkage to the administrative districts of the city of Moscow was carried out using the JavaScript API of the Yandex Geocoder. Regression and correlation analysis were used to determine the relationship between the morbidity indicators of the population of the city of Moscow and the indices of comparative non-carcinogenic danger. The mathematical processing of statistical data was carried out using the interpreted programming language R and the spatial territorial binding of negative impact on the environment objects was carried out using the ESRI ArcGIS Online geoinformation system.

RESULTS: A significant relationship was found between the values of the comparative non-carcinogenic danger indices to the respiratory system (arising from the volume of emissions from objects in the I and II categories of negative environmental impact) and respiratory diseases for various age groups of the population of the city of Moscow (children — up to 14 years old, adolescents — from 15 to 17 years old, adults — over 18 years old). The spearman's ρsp coefficient was 0.84 (p <0.05), indicating a significant correlation on the Chaddock scale. The Student's t-test index was higher than the critical one at the significance level α=0.05. This study identified the potential for lowering the number of respiratory diseases in the population of Moscow, which varies in the range of 1.1%–2.2% for children, 1.2%–2.5% for adolescents, and 1.0–2.0 for adults, depending on the scenario for the implementation of the best available technologies at the facilities of the I and II categories of the negative environmental impact.

CONCLUSION: As a result of the research, a mathematical model has been developed, which allows determining the values of the potential for reducing the incidence of the respiratory system with the implementation of the best available technologies. This can be used in the formation of regional and federal programs for socio-economic development.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(4):263-274
pages 263-274 views

Risk factors of health impairement of university students in Vladivostok during the COVID-19 pandemic

Yatsenko A.K., Gritsina O.P., Trankovskaya L.V., Tarasenko G.A., Jafarov R.N.


THE PURPOSE OF THE WORK: To study the lifestyle factors of students of higher educational institutions in Vladivostok during the period of restrictive measures caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A trend study was conducted. With the help of a Google Forms, a survey of students aged 18–24 years, enrolled in I–IV courses of educational organizations in Vladivostok, was completed. During statistical processing, descriptive statistics were calculated, Student’s t-test, Pearson’s χ2 test, Spearman’s non-parametric rank correlation coefficient were used.

RESULTS: A study of the health of university students showed that 67.51±1.86% of respondents complained of eye fatigue (63.79±2.32%), headaches (27.34±2.15%) when working with electronic means of communication, feeling of heaviness in the head (26.17±2.12%). A significant direct relationship was determined between the level of the distance education component and the duration of the use of digital devices by students (R=0.16; p=0.03), the time spent using gadgets for educational purposes (R=0.21; p=0.03), frequency of meals (R=0.18; p=0.01). A significant inverse correlation was also found between the total time spent using gadgets and the duration of nighttime sleep (r=–0.17; p=0.02). A comparative analysis of the lifestyle features of modern youth during the COVID-19 pandemic and before it began revealed an increase in the number of students with eating disorders. The number of students with <7 h of sleep at night has significantly increased (41.32±1.96% versus 30.17±4.26%; χ2=5.1; p=0.024), and the number of respondents sleeping >8 h has decreased (13.88±1.37% versus 20.69±3.76%; χ2=4.33; p=0.038). During training using distance learning technologies, significantly fewer respondents spend in areas with fresh air when they needed to work or study (49.37±1.99% versus 80.17±3.70%; χ2=37.47; p <0.001).

CONCLUSION: The identified changes in the lifestyle of students during the COVID-19 pandemic are the risk factors for health impairment, which emphasizes the relevance and need to continue research on this problem.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(4):275-284
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Determination of the macro- and microelement composition of the saliva of СHPP workers

Sarf E.A., Makarova N.A., Bel'skaya L.V.


BACKGROUND: Chemical homeostasis is a necessary component for maintaining health, and an excessive or insufficient level of macro and microelements in the body is considered a risk factor for the development of pathological changes.

AIM: To determine the micro and macro-element composition of the saliva of СHPP workers by capillary electrophoresis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the saliva samples from Omsk СHPP personnel aged 25–45 years (main group; n=104) and healthy volunteers aged 23–45 years who were not related to the СHРP company (control group; n=195). Capillary electrophoresis was used to evaluate the potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, lithium, strontium, barium, and manganese content of all samples.

RESULTS: It has been established that potassium, sodium, magnesium, and calcium ions were present in all the samples investigated; however, their balance is considerably disrupted under conditions of technogenic pollution. It was observed that lithium, barium, strontium, and manganese were identified in a greater number of saliva samples from СHPP workers compared to the control group. Strontium was not identified in the saliva of volunteers in the control group; its appearance correlated with working conditions.

CONCLUSION: The proposed method allows estimating the degree of technogenic load on the body and identifying a risk group for which appropriate preventive measures and greater attention to the diagnosis of occupational diseases as part of a planned medical evaluation are required.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(4):285-295
pages 285-295 views

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