No 1 (2019)

Articles
RADIATION EXPOSURE DURING THE ORBITAL AND INTERPLANETARY SPACEFLIGHTS: MONITORING AND PROTECTION
Samoylov A.S., Ushakov I.B., Shurshakov V.A.
Abstract
This review presents actual knowledge and recent findings on the main sources of radiation exposure on human in space: galactic cosmic rays, Earth radiation belts and solar cosmic rays. Doses of radiation on the space station are in ~200 times higher than the average human exposure in ordinary terrestrial conditions. During yearlong flight on the International space station (ISS) astronaut receives a dose, which exceeds the limits in approximately 10 times (200 mSv/year) for nuclear industry worker. There is a further transformation of cosmic radiation field inside the body of the astronaut at the expense of organs' "self-shielding". These changes should be taken into account to estimate dose exposure on organs and effective dose. In order to compare with the standards the doses for the critical organs must be measured with the help of tissue-equivalent phantoms dummies. Authors consider such problems as phantom dose measurement in space experiments; irradiation through the spacesuit during the extravehicular activity; application of physical methods for the astronauts' protection and radiation exposure on the Moon and Mars. For the average "exit" with duration of ~5 hours with undisturbed conditions the astronaut receives a further 0.3-0.5 mSv, which is close to the average dose inside the station. Cosmic radiation on the Moon's surface is severer than, for example, on Mars. The radiation load on the surface of Mars is average
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(1):4-9
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MICROELEMENT STATUS OF THE ORENBURG REGION POPULATION
Salnikova E.V., Burtseva T.I., Skalny A.V.
Abstract
The aim of the paper is to study the features of the microelement status of the population of the Orenburg region and to establish the distribution limits of geographical and ecological pathology. Methods. The content of chemical elements in the hair was estimated by atomic emission and mass spectrometry using an Elan 9000 mass spectrometer and an Optima 2000 V atomic emission spectrometer in the laboratory "Center for Biotic Medicine" (Moscow). Statistical data processing was carried out by means of programs MS Excel and STATISTICA version 6.1. Shapiro-Wilk's test was used to assess data normality. Results. It was found that the zinc content in the hair of men living in the east of the region is higher than in men living the Central and Western zones - 1.6 and 1.3 times, respectively. The zinc content in the hair of women in the Eastern zone is 1.9 times and 1.5 times higher than in the Central and Western zones, respectively. The copper content in the hair of residents of the Central and Eastern zones exceeded the values of the Western zone by 10 % (p = 0.016) and 20 % (p < 0.001), respectively. The obtained reference values of cadmium and lead in the hair of the inhabitants of the Eastern Zone exceeded the corresponding all-Russian values. The ranking ratio of the territories of the Volga Federal District and the Ural Federal District located on the border with the Orenburg region shows Zn deficiency among the male population of Orenburg (rank 14). Maximum levels of Cu (rank 2), Cd and Pb (rank 3, 4) for PFD are found in hair of women of the Orenburg region. Conclusion. The prosperous regions for the studied elements are the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Samara Region and the Republic of Tatarstan. The adverse regions include the Orenburg and Chelyabinsk regions.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(1):10-14
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TRACE CONCENTRATIONS OF ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN BIOLOGICAL LIQUIDS OF THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST RESIDENTS
Tsygankov V.Y., Yarygina M.V., Lukyanova O.N., Boyarova M.D., Erofeeva N.I., Gamova S.V., Gumovskiy A.N., Kiku P.F.
Abstract
The aim. The problem of accumulation of organochlorine compounds (OCPs) in the human body is relevant, because these substances have potential teratogenic, carcinogenic, hormonal, neurological and immunological properties. Thus, the purpose of the work is to identify trace organochlorine compounds (a-, ß-, y-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichlorethylene (DDE)) in the blood and urine of the residents of the south of the Russian Far East. Methods. The urine and blood of residents of the south of the Russian Far Eastern region were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to study the content of OCPs trace concentrations. Results: a- and y-isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichlorethylene (DDE) were detected in the urine. Only ß-HCH in the blood was detected. Conclusions. The spectrum of basic OCPs in the urine indicates the possibility of its excretion by the body; however, the detection in the blood of only ß-HCH indicates a longer retention of the latter as the most stable isomer. A comparative evaluation of the obtained results with the data of other authors showed that the detected concentrations of cholesterol in the blood of residents of the Far East were lower than in typical agricultural countries and were found in no more than 30 % of the sample.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(1):15-19
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ACTIVITY, IMBALANCE AND ADAPTATION RESPONSES OF FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS OF ORGANISM OF FOREIGN STUDENTS OF PEOPLES’ FRIENDSHIP UNIVERSITY OF RUSSIA IN MEGAPOLIS CONDITIONS
Kirichuk A.A., Radysh I.V., Chizhov A.Y.
Abstract
The identification of causation and incidence between the impact of environmental factors and changes in the human adaptive potential is one of the urgent tasks of ecological and biological monitoring. The aim: a comparative assessment of the state activity of functional systems, imbalance and the nature of adaptation reactions of the body in foreign students, students from Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Methods. The activity of the functional systems and the imbalance were determined by the method of electropuncture diagnostics (EPD) according to Y. Nakatani. 180 men-students (aged 18-22) of PFUR from Russia, CIS, Southeast Asia, Middle East, Latin America and Africa were examined (30 people in each group). The nature of the adaptive reactions of the body was evaluated in 916 students by the method of L.H. Garkavi et al. To determine the adaptation reactions, 200 peripheral blood cells were analyzed. Results. It was found that the lower the average current and the higher the degree of imbalance in EPD in foreign students from different climatic and geographical zones, the more the percentage of unfavorable adaptation reactions is noted - correlation coefficients r = -0.9048 and r = +0.8989, respectively. Unfavorable adaptation reactions - acute stress, chronic stress and reaction of re-activation (AS, ChS, REA), to a greater degree reaction of extra activation, were more often observed in students from Africa and Latin America. Conclusions. The change in climatic, ecological, chronobiological and social conditions in foreign students is accompanied by a significant decrease in the energy potential, expressed by an imbalance in the activity of the body's functional systems and, accordingly, to a greater extent, by manifestations of adverse adaptive reactions-stress and reaction of re-activation. Revealing the dependence in change of climatic-ecological and social living conditions with a reliable deterioration in the indicators of the functional state of young people most clearly indicates the need for a purposeful correction of the adaptation potential in foreign students coming to study in the Moscow megapolis.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(1):20-25
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INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC (PROBLEMS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS)
Pavlenko V.I., Petrov A., Kutsenko S.Y., Detter G.F.
Abstract
The aim of the study - identification of factors that ensure the vital activity of indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North in the Arctic, as well as the analysis of their impact on the preservation and development of the ethnic group. Identifying problems and assessing the prospects for the development of indigenous people consists of 3 stages: analysis of foreign and domestic sources, the results of scientific research teams; systematization of statistical data, including information on the dynamics of the development of indigenous people (number, employment in traditional activities); the impact assessing of legal, economic and social factors on the preservation and development of indigenous people. A comprehensive analysis of a wide range of legal, economic and social problems of ensuring the traditional life of indigenous people within the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF) has shown the need to improve legislative, financial and managerial actions to preserve them as a specific community, adapted to the extremely severe conditions of permanent residence beyond the Arctic Circle and as a unique phenogenotype, whose activity is closely conjugated with the environmental state of the macroregion and in fact is entirely dependent on it. The exclusive role of indigenous peoples in preserving the natural complexes of the Arctic in the 21st century for future generations was emphasized. Under the conditions of proliferation of technogenic and anthropogenic burden on the natural complexes of the macroregion, associated with the intensive development of fuel and power resources, deposits of rare and precious metals, development of coastal transport infrastructure and a multiple increase in the population in the Russian Arctic with a creation of "stronghold areas" the threat of the indigenous peoples' disappearance appeared (Enets - about 200 people remain and less than 100 people - the Votes). Under the conditions of a large-scale, integral impact of man-made, anthropogenic and climatic factors on indigenous communities in the Arctic, their life environment and traditional management the need for urgent adoption of a complex of specific and targeted legal, economic and social measures aimed at ensuring and preserving their livelihoods is obvious.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(1):26-33
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EXOGENOUS FACTORS OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE DEVELOPMENT
Kulikova O.I., Fedorova T.N., Kuznetsov V.I., Orlova V.S.
Abstract
Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative multifactorial disease characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta. Potential risk factors include exposure to environmental toxic substances, aging processes and genetic mutations. 5-15% of all the cases are genetically determined PD. In this regard, the role of environmental factors in the development of the PD neurodegenerative process becomes particularly important. However, in most cases, the interaction of environmental and genetic factors (gene-environment interaction), apparently, appears to be the cause of PD development. At the cellular level, the pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease are associated with a violation of alpha-synuclein conformation and the formation of Lewy bodies, the development of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial and protease dysfunction. This review examines the molecular mechanisms of toxic effects of various environmental pollutants that can lead neurodegenerative process and PD development: pesticides, metals, solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls and nanoparticles. The study of complex pathophysiological interactions between potential neurotoxins determining the risk of dopaminergic neurons damage and preventive neuroprotectors is one of the most perspective areas in development of PD treatment.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(1):34-39
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PUBLIC HEALTH IN RADON-AFFECTED TERRITORIES
Nikiforov D.V., Mezhova L.A., Kulnev V.V., Lugovskoi A.M., Nikanov A.N., Kizeev A.N., Repina E.M.
Abstract
The aim of the study is to conduct the geoecological assessment of the territory's radon hazard and its impact on the public health. Methods. The following methods were used during the study: cartographic method, geoinformation method, statistical method and mathematical modeling method. Secondary operations were carried out with the computer software Arc GIS 9.2, CorelDraw 9.0, Adobe Photoshop 10.0, Macromedia Flash MX, Statistica 10.0. Results. The article presents a methodological approach to studying the geographical distribution of radon. To ensure the quality of life for the population one requires a comprehensive radon monitoring, including the study of its natural background level as well as the area building structures and the rate of cancer related diseases. Analyzing the geotectonic typology of residential areas provides an opportunity to identify the main types of (human) settlements with a focus on their radon hazard level. While assessing the risk of cancer-related diseases and outlining the factors that affect the lung cancer rate it is essential to consider the deviations from the average ratio of nosological forms. One has developed the GIS mechanism to monitor territories, which - if combined with cartographic models - enables to quickly determine their radon hazard level. The suggested methodological approach makes it possible to identify the areas with ecological risk for the inhabitants due to the radon hazard of both populated land and the one to be populated in the future. The increasing emphasis is being laid on the residential areas located on tectonic fault lines. Conclusions. The natural background level of radon for the investigated region was identified during the integrated analysis of the territory radon hazard level. The cartographic approach reveals spatial patterns of cancer-related diseases and allows mapping the territory according to the degree of cancer risk.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(1):40-50
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ANALYSIS OF CATEGORICAL VARIABLES USING R
Egoshin V.L., Ivanov S.V., Savvina N.V., Kapanova G.Z., Zhamaliyeva L.M., Grjibovski A.M.
Abstract
The article presents basic algorithms categorical data analysis using R package. Algorithms for the analysis of independent and non-independent nominal and ordinal data are presented.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(1):51-64
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