No 7 (2018)

Articles
MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT: IDEOLOGY, HYGIENE AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Rusakov N.V., Shcherbo A.P., Mironenko O.V.
Abstract
The paper presents a modern Russian and foreign approach to the problem of collection, removal, decontamination and elimination of medical waste. It was emphasized that owing to moral, social and mental reasons its danger is underreacted or regarded as a strictly "medical problem" in total isolation from the need of its solution it in the environmental way. The analysis of the contradictions of two legislative bases in the field of medical waste management - health and environmental was carried out. At present legislative requirements don't allow medical organizations to work in full compliance with the federal environmental laws. The experience of wastes classification formation from medical organizations has been presented as well as the scientific research of appropriate technologies of secure disposal and management of medical waste in different countries, the dynamics of the law and the population mentality. On the data basis of intensification of this waste category accumulation the faults and risks in the waste management system have been shown as well as the weakness of the national legislation. The concept on medical waste management in the country in the interests of public health preservation and environmental safety was conceived on the ground of long experience of the authors. The ways of optimization of environmental and sanitary legislation have been proposed.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(7):4-10
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MERCURY CONTENT LEVELS IN HAIR OF RURAL POPULATION OF THE YAMAL-NENETS AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT
Agbalyan E.V., Ilchenko I.N., Shinkaruk E.V.
Abstract
Mercury is capable of atmospheric transfer by large distances, offers resistance to the environment, is able to bioaccumulation in ecosystems and leads to significant negative consequences for the public health. Aim: to study the mercury content in the hair of rural residents of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District and assess the population health risks. Methods: A single-step epidemiological study was conducted with the formation of a representative selection of rural residents in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District. The hair samples were taken from the occipital part of the head using a standard WHO technique. Chemicoanalytical study of samples wwas carried out in a licensed laboratory using mass-spectrographic method with inductively coupled argon plasma. The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistica v.8.0 program. Differences were assessed as statistically significant at p < 0.05. Results: Mercury concentration in the hair of the inhabitants living in the rural settlements varied from 0.204gg/g to 9.99 gg/g and those leading the traditional (nomadic) lifestyle varied from 0.303 gg/g to 5.21 gg/g. Increased risk to public health of Tazovsky settlement was detected in 48.8 % of cases, for residents who led the traditional way of life in Gydansky, Antipayutinskaya and Nakhodka tundra - 86.6 %, Harsaim settlement - 77.3 %. Absolute average values of mercury content in hair of the aboriginal population were 2.6 times higher than in the migrants. Conclusions: It is necessary to strengthen control over mercury content in natural environments and its accumulation in food chains and to carry out measures to reduce the population health risk.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(7):11-16
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PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF RURAL CHILDREN OF VARIOUS ETHNIC GROUPS OF SIBERIA
Mylnikova I.V., Efimova N.V., Diakovich O.A.
Abstract
Aim: a comparative assessment of the psychophysiological parameters of the central nervous system in rural children of different ethnic groups. Methods. Rural children aged 11-17 participated in a one-stage observational survey (124 - Buryat and 132 - Slavic ethnic groups). A simple visual-motor reaction and a teping test were used to study the psychophysiological characteristics of the central nervous system. Results. The Buryat children had a high level of efficiency, endurance to the effects of dynamic loads, a strong type of central nervous system (63.4 ± 6.5) %. The children of the Slavs were characterized by a low level of efficiency and a weak type of the central nervous system (76.3 ± 5.9) %. The rate of movement in relation to the initial level has changed less in Buryat children than in Slavic children. Buryat children 11-14 years old compared with children of the Slavic ethnic group are more likely to have individuals with inertness of nervous processes (52.1 ± 7.2) % Buryat and (22.5 ± 6.6) % Slavs, p = 0.003. The dynamics of the sensorimotor response rate increases in children of both groups with age. Conclusions. Psychophysiological characteristics indicate that among rural children of the Buryat ethnic group, people with a high level of efficiency and endurance to dynamic loads, a strong type of central nervous system, are more likely than children of the Slavs. The level of the functional state of the central nervous system by the criteria of Loskutova TD in children of different ethnic groups is estimated as reduced.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(7):17-23
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GENDER PECULIARITIES OF SENSOMOTOR REACTIONS IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF THE MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS
Deryagina L.E., Polozova T.U., Kostina L.N., Usacheva I.V.
Abstract
Aim: identification of gender differences in the parameters of psychomotor reactions among cadets of the Ministry of Internal Affairs university. Summary: two methods were used for psychomotor sphere evaluation. The "Search" method combines a number of tests to estimate the speed of visual recognition of a moving object among a set of stationary objects similar to it. The "Coordination" method is used to evaluate the psychomotor factor of limb movements coordination and bilateral asymmetry of motor functions. The essence of the tests is the consecutive performance of the given reactions (pressing the right and left buttons, the foot pedal), each of which is linked to a certain signal (red, yellow, green). Results: An analysis of the results obtained showed a low efficiency of the visual detection of a moving object in the group as a whole. In general, the effectiveness of movement's coordination among boys corresponded to a high level. Differentiated analysis of level formation of professionally important qualities (PIQ) showed statistically significant gender differences in the efficacy parameter in the group with a medium level PIQ (р = 0,031), on the value of latency (р = 0,014) and stability (р = 0,044) in the group with a level lower than the medium. Assessment of psychomotor parameters of movement's coordination revealed a statistically significant difference in the overall effectiveness of the assignment (р = 0,004). Correlation analysis between the levels of development of PIQ and the parameters of visual-motor reactions have demonstrated the direct dependence of the level of coordination from the male sex of the subject (r = 0,50, р = 0,050), the efficiency of detecting a moving object and reverse dependent on the efficiency of foot reactions. Conclusions: А more effective implementation of sensorimotor reactions (SMR) complex than the simple SMR may point to the complexity and novelty of the presented test modality in a simple SMR, which requires a longer perceptual process time. The obtained gender differences may be associated with a higher levels of activation of the CNS in young men, differences in the emotional sphere of boys and girls by level of anxiety.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(7):24-28
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INTERSYSTEM INTERRELATIONS OF FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS AND PSYCHOSOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS OF MEDICAL UNIVERSITY IN THE NORTH
Shalamova E.Y., Safonova V.R., Ragozin O.N., Radysh I.V., Bochkarev M.V.
Abstract
The aim of the study is a possibility justification of the functional state correction of students in the learning environment through development of adaptive behavior skills in stress and increase of subjective evaluation of life quality. Methods: research and analysis of cardiac rhythm variability parameters, functional state of the central nervous system, daily monitoring of heart rate and blood pressure, indicators of life quality associated by health condition, features of coping behavior among students of the Khanty-Mansiysk State Medical Academy (n = 96). The structure of canonical roots was identified by means of Pearson's pair correlations. The first (R1 = 0.75; р < 0.001) and second (R2 = 0.72; р = 0.004) canonical roots proved to be statistically significant. Results. The results of the canonical correlation analysis between physiological parameters and biosocial characteristics (behavior in stress and life quality self-esteem associated by health condition) were given in students of the northern medical establishment. The indicators of variation chronoreflexometry correlated to a greater extent with the choice of coping behavior; the three main styles of coping had significant factor loading (r = 0,438 - r = 0,558). Parameters of variation pulsometry, mesors of heart rate and systolic blood pressure were the most correlated with life quality self-esteem among physiological parameters; the highest factor loadings were in the scales of PF ( r = 0.637) and RE (r = -0.455). Conclusion: the revealed relations substantiate the possibility of the physiological state correction in students of higher school through increasing its subjective well-being and the formation of adaptive behavior in stress.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(7):29-35
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HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND DISPERSION MAPPING OF ECG IN MAGADAN REGION PRE-INDUCTEES WITH VAGOTONIC TYPE OF AUTONOMIC REGULATION
Loskutova A.N., Maksimov A.L.
Abstract
Aim: Determination of quantitative characteristics of temporal variations in ECG dispersion mapping (DM ECG) and heart rate variability (HRV) in Caucasians, born in Magadan Region in the 1st and 2nd generation, with the initial vagotonic type of autonomic regulation. Methods: The ratio of HRV parameters to heart ECG was analyzed among male volunteers aged 15-17, whose initial autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity level was characterized by vagotonic orientation (68 people out of 160): moderate - group 1 (41 people) and pronounced - group 2 (27 people), respectively. Results: When comparing the HRV parameters with the averaged values of the DM for the "Rhythm" characteristic, it turned out that in group 2 the range of values corresponded to 19-40 % (the norm up to 20 %) significantly exceeding the values characteristic for group 1 (10-23 %). The "Myocardium" integral indicator values in the two groups were close to the upper limit of the norm (15-17 %). The greatest number of non-zero values indicating the reference pathology similarities is observed in G1-G2 and G9. More than half of the volunteers in group 2 had G1-G2 characteristics indicating depolarization deviations in the atria caused by different localization of the potentials. The G9 indicator deviations with a value fluctuations ranging up to 5 conv. units were observed more often. The non-expressed deviations of dispersion characteristics in terms of the G3-G8 indices toward the boundary states of the norm were single. Conclusions: In groups with a moderate and elevated level of autonomic regulatory contour influence on the heart rhythm, there are differences in all the analyzed cardiorhythm parameters. With pronounced vagotonic orientation, cardiorhythm deviations, similarly with the reference pathology in the processes of atrial depolarization caused by different localization of the potentials (G1-G2), as well as in the ventricle depolarization initial front velocity characteristics enhancements are noted more often (G9).
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(7):36-42
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COGNITIVE EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS P300 IN SCHOOLCHILDREN AGED 7-17 YEARS
Kalinina L.P., Dzhos Y.S., Volokitina T.V.
Abstract
Gender is presumed to be one of the factors causing morphofunctional variability in the human brain. The previously published findings are inconsistent with respect to gender differences in cognitive ERPs. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of gender in visual cognitive event -related potentials (ERPs) P300 in schoolchildren 7-17 years. Methods. We examined 521 children (234 boys and 287 girls). Our subjects had no ophthalmological or neurological disease. Informed parents' consent was obtained from each subject after the test procedure had been explained to him or her. All children were divided into groups according to their biological age and gender. Binocular ERPs were recorded during an oddball test using 21-channel electroencephalograph "Neuron-Spectrum" (Russia). Amplitude and latence of P2, N2, P2-N2, P3, N2-P3 were evaluated. Recordings were acquired from the occipital (O1 and O2) derivations. Results. The P2 and N2 latency increase was observed in 7-year-old girls in the right hemisphere, p = 0.021 and p = 0.029, respectively. The predominance of P2 latency in 13-year-old boys was found, the differences were statistically significant in the left hemisphere, p = 0.038. Higher P300 latencies in 8-year-old girls were observed in the left and right hemispheres, p = 0.05 and p = 0.027, respectively. There were no statistically significant gender differences of P300 amplitude. Analysis showed that N2-P3 amplitude was higher in 7-years-old boys than girls in both hemispheres, р = 0,006 и р = 0,009, respectively, and in 13-years-old boys in the left hemispheres, р = 0,026. It should be noted that the 14-17 years-old age period was characterized by the absence of gender differences in P2, P3 latency, and N2-P3 amplitude. Conclusion. The results of our study show sex differences among almost all components of cognitive event-related potentials (with the exception of the amplitude of the interval P2-N2 and the amplitude of the component P300) in children 7-17 years. The obtained data emphasize the importance of taking into account gender in the study of cognitive function in children 7-17 years.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(7):43-47
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THE ROLE OF A MESADENITIS IN FORMATION OF THE INTUSSUSCEPTION IN CHILDREN: RESULTS OF RETROSPECTIVE STUDY
Yanitskaya M.Y., Valkov M.Y., Poddubnyi I.V.
Abstract
The intussusception (IS) often is followed mesadenitis, however a question, whether it is the reason or a consequence of formation of the intussusception, remains disputable. Aim: To estimate a role of the mesadenitis in formation of the intussusception in children. Methods: Retrospective study of results of treatment of all treated children with intussusception (n = 270) in the Arkhangelsk regional children's hospital in 1981-2012 is executed. Estimated the frequency of the background infectious and inflammatory diseases capable to be the cause for the mesadenitis. Studied the frequency of identification and the sizes of lymph nodes (LN) in structure of the intussusception according to ultrasonography and hydrocolonic sonography (HS) depending on duration of symptoms of IS. Results: It was verified that symptoms of diseases which are followed mesadenitis initially met in 66 % of patients. Thus according to ultrasonography in structure of intussusceptum LN in 82 % of patients were defined. It wasn't revealed statistically significant interrelation between time from the moment of the beginning of an IS, length of the LN (x2(2) = 0,11; р = 0,948) and cross size (x2(2) = 0,05; р = 0,975). The largest LN was localized in the head of the intussusceptum. Reduction by method of HS allowed to visualize LN in structure of the intussusceptum, its efficiency made 95,6-100 %. Conclusion: Mesadenitis is the most frequent reason of the intussusception in small children. The understanding of the role of mesadenitis in formation of the IS promotes more effective conservative treatment.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(7):48-54
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BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BIOMEDICAL DATA ANALYSIS IN R
Egoshin V.L., Ivanov S.V., Savvina N.V., Kapanova G.Z., Grjibovski A.M.
Abstract
The article presents basic principles of using R software for biomedical data analysis. Types of variables and main principles of their analysis are described. The algorithms for importing, inputting, transforming data, presenting results, working with vectors and tables are presented. The RStudio software using is presented as well.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(7):55-64
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