Photoperiodic stability and distribution of chronotypes in young residents of the North with different organization of activities

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AIM: To assess individual subjective chronotypic properties in residents of Khanty-Mansiysk under the influence of such biotropic and social stress factors as regular daytime and aperiodically presented shift daytime and nighttime employment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study involved students (100 girls and 53 boys) of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug — Yugra with a daily study load and employees of the Ambulance station (31 women and 26 men) in Khanty-Mansiysk, working in shifts. The photoperiodic chronotype stability was studied using the computer program “Photoperiodic chronotype stability calculator” (registration no. 2019661664) in the form of a mobile application for Android “Photoperiodic stability index.”

RESULTS: The photoperiodic stability of the chronotype in women was: with regular daily employment — 3.5 (1.5–6.0) arb. units, with shift work — 1.0 (0–4.0) arb. units. The photoperiodic stability of the chronotype in men was: with regular daily employment — 3.0 (1.0–4.0) arb. units, with shift work — 1.5 (0–3.0) arb. units.

Volunteers with a regular daytime job tended to choose to shift activities to the afternoon and refusing morning activity. In the group with shift work, the proportion of people preferring the morning type of work capacity was higher. In the group with shift and night work, there were no representatives of a definitely morning chronotype among women, and definitely an evening chronotype among men. In the summer season, male and female respondents, regardless of the production regime, showed an increase in the signs of the morning chronotype.

CONCLUSION: The production and intersexual features of the chronotypological properties of the inhabitants of the North have been established. With the superposition of extreme climatic and geographical factors and social and production conditions, a general pattern of increased rigidity of the chronotype was recorded. Male and female respondents under different production regimes, when assessing subjective biorhythmic performance in the summer, demonstrated a shift toward the morning chronotype.

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All levels of organization of living matter are characterized by cyclic functioning [1; 17; 25]. The biorhythmic organization of functions acts as a mechanism of adaptation to the factors of the natural and social environment and responds to their changes [23; thirty; 31]. Violation of biorhythms, manifested by the formation of acute and chronic desynchronosis, leads to the development of pathological conditions, significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular complications [8]. The daily routine of student youth affects the functional state of the nervous system [10; 32]. From the point of view of the preservation of biorhythms, the most important thing in organizing the life of students is the distribution of the time of wakefulness and sleep [6]. Despite the strict regulation of classroom learning activities, improper planning of extracurricular work is often fraught with serious violations of the regime of daytime activity and night rest [14; nineteen].
With the modern rhythm of life in some social and professional groups, shift work is an unavoidable factor in the desynchronization of the physiological functions of the body, primarily circadian rhythms [21]. With the shifting nature of labor, the body is forced into a rhythm of life activity that does not correspond to its biological nature, which it is forced to maintain for a long time [4; thirteen; 22; 24; 27]. In this case, the proposed social rhythm is not accepted and a mode of labor activity more suitable for the chronotype is selected, or a mismatch in the functioning of organ systems is formed and aggravated [26; 28]. At the same time, belonging to a certain biorhythmological stereotype affects the effectiveness of adaptation to a non-standard mode of activity; thus, “owls” adapt faster to work on the night shift [7]. In conditions of high latitudes, and in particular in Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug-Yugra, the negative impact of disturbed wakefulness and sleep patterns and shift work is exacerbated by a significantly altered photoperiod. The study of the possible consequences of such combined pressure on the physiological functions of the human body seems relevant.
Based on the foregoing, the aim of the work was to assess individual subjective chronotypic properties in young residents of the city of Khanty-Mansiysk under the influence of such biotropic and social stress factors as regular daytime and aperiodically presented shift daytime and nighttime employment.
The city of Khanty-Mansiysk is located in the zone of a sharply continental climate, located at the intersection point of integer parallels and meridians (confluence) (61°N, 69°E). The territory is characterized by significant seasonal changes in the light regime, when the shortest day of the year (December 22) lasts 5 hours 32 minutes, and the longest - 19 hours 17 minutes (June 22).
The photoperiodic stability of the chronotype was studied using the mobile application “Photoperiodic stability index” [20]. The mobile application contains Horn-Ostberg test questions [29]. The subject answers the questions taking into account his choice of time for different types of activities in winter (short daylight hours) and summer (long daylight hours). According to the Horn-Ostberg questionnaire, the scores correspond to the following chronotypes: 16-30 - definitely evening chronotype (OVT), 31-41 - moderate evening chronotype (UVT), 42-58 - arrhythmic (intermediate) chronotype (AT), 59-69 - moderate morning chronotype (UUT), 70-86 - definitely morning chronotype (UT). In the form of a mobile application [20] for a smartphone, the author’s computer program “Chronotype Photoperiodic Stability Calculator” (registration no. 2019661664) [15] was used for subjective assessment of the chronotype with polar characteristics of the photoperiod (winter and summer). The photoperiodic stability of the chronotype (Photoperiodic Stabilityof the Chronotype, PSC, arb. units) was determined by the formula [16]:
PSC= ((Σ|Si-Wi|)-(ΣWi-ΣSi))/2, where:

Σwi is the sum of points in response to the Horn-Ostberg questionnaire for morning-evening preferences in winter;
Σsi is the sum of points in response to the Horn-Ostberg questionnaire for morning-evening preferences in the summer;
di is the difference between scores in summer and winter for i questions;
Σ|di| - the sum of absolute differences between scores in summer and winter for all questions.
Indicators of photoperiodic stability of the chronotype from 4 arb. units (5% probability) up to 16 arb. units (95% probability) correspond to the boundaries of normal values. PSC values ​​< 4 arb. units indicate the absence of adaptive reactions to the illumination regime, which was designated as a rigid chronotype. If PSC indicators > 16 arb. units, this indicates a significant dependence of the individual on the illumination regime and a labile chronotype.
The paper evaluates the results of determining the photoperiodic stability of the chronotype in groups of young people with a regulated schedule of daily workload - these are student youth of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra, and workers of the emergency medical station (hereinafter referred to as the EMS) of Khanty-Mansiysk with irregular night and day shifts . There were 100 women among the students.


About the authors

Oleg N. Ragozin

1Khanty-Mansiysk State Medical Academy

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5318-9623
SPIN-code: 7132-3844

Dr. Sci. (Med.), professor

Russian Federation, Khanty-Mansiysk

Andrej B. Gudkov

Northern State Medical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5923-0941
SPIN-code: 4369-3372
Russian Federation, Arkhangelsk

Elena J. Shalamova

Khanty-Mansiysk State Medical Academy

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5201-4496
SPIN-code: 8125-9359
Russian Federation, Khanty-Mansiysk

Irina A. Pogonysheva

Nizhnevartovsk State University

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5759-0270
SPIN-code: 6095-8392
Russian Federation, Nizhnevartovsk

Ol'ga V. Ragozina

Khanty-Mansiysk State Medical Academy

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1550-6851
SPIN-code: 3718-5374
Russian Federation, Khanty-Mansiysk

Denis A. Pogonyshev

Nizhnevartovsk State University

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8815-1556
SPIN-code: 1179-9674
Russian Federation, Nizhnevartovsk

Vadim N. Simonov

Khanty-Mansiysk City Clinical Ambulance Station

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4625-6541
SPIN-code: 3008-0332
Russian Federation, Khanty-Mansiysk


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