Vol 29, No 9 (2022)

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Mortality trends in indigenous working-age population of the Koryak Okrug and the population of the Arctic monotown in 1968–1991

Talykova L.V., Megorsky V.V., Bykov V.R.


AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the primary indicators and main causes of mortality of the indigenous small-number peoples of the North (ISNPN) of the Koryak Okrug. We studied peoples of working age and the impact of various factors on the generalized mortality rates of the regional population. We then compared these mortality rates with those of the same age categories of the nonindigenous immigrant population of Kirovsk, an industrial city, with high mortality rate in a highly urbanized region of the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation (Murmansk Oblast). Kirovsk has similar natural and climatic conditions but significant differences in the level of socioeconomic development, based on published scientific sources that study such mortality and socioeconomic trends during current times.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the official death registrations archived in the Regional Government Registry Offices of three districts of the Koryak Okrug (3720 records) and the city of Kirovsk, Murmansk Oblast (2394 records) for the years from 1968 to 1991. The average annual mortality rates per 100 thousand of the studied population aged from 20 to 59 years were calculated based on the All-Union USSR Population Census of 1979+. The resulting indicators were standardized according to European standards.

RESULTS: The calculation of generalized regional mortality rates adopted in official statistics does not give a realistic model for the mortality rate and main causes of death of the ISNPN. Mortality rates of the ISNPN significantly exceeded similar indicators of the nonindigenous immigrant population in all classes of diseases. The maximum contribution to mortality rates of the ISNPN comes from the high level of addictive alcoholization, which causes death both as a result of its direct toxic effects, and indirectly, by being the cause of murders, suicides and accidents. Currently, obtaining data for calculating the population mortality rates of ISNPN poses significant difficulties and requires specially prepared and structured statistical diagnostic studies.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(9):617-629
pages 617-629 views

Subjective wellbeing, health, and health-related quality of life of Nenets adolescents living in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug

Dyakovich M.P.


INTRODUCTION: Considering further development of the Arctic, the issues of subjective wellbeing, health-related quality of life, and self-assessment of the health of indigenous youth of the circumpolar territories of our country need attention.

AIM: To assess the subjective wellbeing, health-related quality of life, and the risk of health disorders among adolescents in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug — representatives of the indigenous population.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The subjective social wellbeing of Nenets adolescents aged from 14 to 17 years (n=51) and studying at a boarding school in the Yamal District was measured. The comparison group (n=18) consisted mainly of Russian adolescents studying in the same country. The PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales Life self-report questionnaire was used to measure health-related quality. The methodology for measuring subjective attitude involved calculating the PRS index of Cummins with the addition of a block of questions corresponding to satisfaction corresponding to the level of the region; a method for quantitative risk assessment of general pathological syndromes for assessing the state of health.

RESULTS: There were no statistically significant ethnic and gender differences in the SWB components among Nenets and Russian adolescents. The health-related quality of life of adolescents, regardless of ethnicity and gender, was characterized by high rates of physical and social functioning. Results of self-assessment indicated that Nenets adolescents, unlike Russians ones, were dominated by individuals with a minimal risk of health disorders. Among the Nenets, the values of the risk of arterial hypertension, functional disorders of the liver, and borderline mental disorders were higher in girls than in boys. More than a third of positive-minded Nenets teenagers had a high risk of health problems. This is likely to complicate the realization of aspirations in various areas of life and the preservation of good social wellbeing in the future unless preventive health measures are taken.

CONCLUSION: Parameters of social wellbeing of indigenous adolescents, such as subjective wellbeing, and health-related quality of life, are at a high level, and self-assessment of health is at an average level.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(9):631-641
pages 631-641 views

Dynamics of subjective student wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic

Vasileva I.V., Chumakov M.V.


BACKGROUND: Because the COVID-19 pandemic has continued for a long time, it has become necessary to explore the dynamics of mental health phenomena during this period.

AIM: To identify the dynamics of the emotional component of the subjective wellbeing of the personality of students in the psychological and pedagogical areas at various stages of the COVID-19 pandemic.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 911 students in the psychological and pedagogical areas at the University of Tyumen, Kurgan State University, and Ural Federal University. The research method used was the scale of subjective wellbeing by Perrudet-Badoux as adapted by M.V. Sokolova. Measurements were taken in April 2020, May 2021, October 2021, and January 2022.

RESULTS: In April 2020, at the beginning of the pandemic, the university students had the lowest indicators of the emotional component of the subjective wellbeing of the individual. A year later, in May 2021, there was an increase in subjective wellbeing, which, however, was not statistically significant. The trend of improvement in subjective wellbeing continued for six months to October 2021, when it became significantly higher than when the pandemic began. At the fourth measurement in January 2022, subjective wellbeing had stabilized, indicating that the students had adapted to the conditions of the pandemic.

CONCLUSION: The emotional component of the subjective wellbeing of the personality of students was subject to dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic. During the two years of the pandemic, university students have adapted to the stressful situation of the pandemic as reflected by the improvement and stabilization of the emotional component of subjective wellbeing.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(9):643-651
pages 643-651 views

Features of personality traits in smoking students — residents of the Northern territories of Russia

Mulik A.B., Shatyr J.A., Ulesikova I.V., Solov'ev A.G., Nazarov N.O., Chernyj E.V.


AIM: To identify psychological factors of the risk of tobacco addiction among students of the European North of Russia.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 137 students of Arkhangelsk state universities, comprising 37 men and 100 women aged from 17 to 25 years, preselected for a number of characteristics (born in Arkhangelsk or the Arkhangelsk region; raised in a full, socially prosperous family; without financial and household problems; without chronic somatic and neurological diseases). Identification and analysis of tobacco smoking experience were carried out by retrospective self-assessment of the subjects. The psychological status of the respondents was determined by assessing the indicators of the Freiburg multifactorial personality questionnaire (FPI); accentuations of temperament and character, suggestibility, frustration, irritability and resentment; adventurousness, behavioral, social, professional, economic, political activity, and social destructiveness. The Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney method and Fisher’s F-criterion were used for statistical analyzes.

RESULTS: In the group of smoking men, high values of hyperthymia (Me=18 units), masculinity (Me=8 units), sociability (Me=9 units), behavioral activity (Me=7 units), and social activity (Me=7 units) were recorded. In the group of smoking women, high values of exaltation (Me=24 units), masculinity (Me=8 units), sociability (Me=9 units), and social activity (Me=7 units) were recorded.

CONCLUSION: This study reports, for the first time, the features of personality traits in smoking boys and girls permanently residing in the Northern territories of the Russian Federation. Psychological factors of the risk of tobacco addiction formation in boys and girls permanently residing in the Northern territories of the Russian Federation have been determined.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(9):663-671
pages 663-671 views

Features of immunological reactivity in Sami women

Samodova A.V., Dobrodeeva L.K., Balashova S.N., Pashinskaya K.O.


BACKGROUND: The Sami are a small group of indigenous people of the Russian Federation. The Sami have one of the lowest birth rates among all the peoples of the North of Russia. They often have more health problems than residents of other nationalities in the Murmansk region, due to a high incidence of acute respiratory infections. Extreme climatic and geographical conditions of the Arctic have a negative impact on immunological reactivity.

AIM: To identify the features of immunological reactivity in Sami women.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine practically healthy Sami women aged from 21 to 44 years living in the Lovozero Village in the Murmansk region were examined. A control group consisting of 50 practically healthy Russian women of the Arkhangelsk region of the same age range was used. The hemogram, phagocytic activity of neutrophils of peripheral venous blood, and the content of lymphocytes with CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD10 phenotypes were studied by indirect immunoperoxidase reaction (Sorbent, Moscow) and flow cytometry (Beckman Coulter Immunotech, France). Additionally, concentrations of IgM, IgG, IgA, sCD54, and sCD62L (Bender MedSystems, Austria) were determined by enzyme immunoassay, circulating immune complexes (CIC) were determined by the precipitation method. The total amount of microflora, cytogram, phagocytic activity of neutrophils, the sorption capacity of epithelial cells, the content of sIgA and CIC IgG were studied in the separated mucous membranes of the pharynx, intestines, and urine. For comparison between groups, the independent samples t-test or the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U-test was used depending on the distribution.

RESULTS: In Sami women, the frequency of deficiency of phagocytic activity of blood neutrophils and mucosal secretions was higher than in the control group. Increased reactions of cell-mediated and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity of lymphocytes were recorded. The frequency of elevated concentrations of CIC was higher in the Sami women than in the control group. A remarkable feature of the Sami immune reactivity was high concentrations of IgA and IgM against a background of low IgG content.

CONCLUSION: In Sami women, the percentage of actively phagocytic neutrophil granulocytes of peripheral venous blood and mucous membranes was lower than in the control. A distinctive feature of the immunoglobulin profile of the blood serum of Sami women was the low IgG content against the background of increased concentrations of CIC, including immunoglobulins of this class. Sami women had higher levels of leukocyte migration into mucosa-associated mucosal tissue, which was correlated with a decrease in the sorption capacity of epitheliocytes, phagocytic activity of neutrophils, and concentrations of secretory immunoglobulins.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(9):673-683
pages 673-683 views

Photoperiodic stability and distribution of chronotypes in young residents of the North with different organization of activities

Ragozin O.N., Gudkov A.B., Shalamova E.J., Pogonysheva I.A., Ragozina O.V., Pogonyshev D.A., Simonov V.N.


AIM: To assess individual subjective chronotypic properties in residents of Khanty-Mansiysk under the influence of such biotropic and social stress factors as regular daytime and aperiodically presented shift daytime and nighttime employment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study involved students (100 girls and 53 boys) of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug — Yugra with a daily study load and employees of the Ambulance station (31 women and 26 men) in Khanty-Mansiysk, working in shifts. The photoperiodic chronotype stability was studied using the computer program “Photoperiodic chronotype stability calculator” (registration no. 2019661664) in the form of a mobile application for Android “Photoperiodic stability index.”

RESULTS: The photoperiodic stability of the chronotype in women was: with regular daily employment — 3.5 (1.5–6.0) arb. units, with shift work — 1.0 (0–4.0) arb. units. The photoperiodic stability of the chronotype in men was: with regular daily employment — 3.0 (1.0–4.0) arb. units, with shift work — 1.5 (0–3.0) arb. units.

Volunteers with a regular daytime job tended to choose to shift activities to the afternoon and refusing morning activity. In the group with shift work, the proportion of people preferring the morning type of work capacity was higher. In the group with shift and night work, there were no representatives of a definitely morning chronotype among women, and definitely an evening chronotype among men. In the summer season, male and female respondents, regardless of the production regime, showed an increase in the signs of the morning chronotype.

CONCLUSION: The production and intersexual features of the chronotypological properties of the inhabitants of the North have been established. With the superposition of extreme climatic and geographical factors and social and production conditions, a general pattern of increased rigidity of the chronotype was recorded. Male and female respondents under different production regimes, when assessing subjective biorhythmic performance in the summer, demonstrated a shift toward the morning chronotype.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(9):653-661
pages 653-661 views

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