No 4 (2020)

Articles
INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL FACTORS ON MORTALITY
Chashchin V.P., Askarov R.A., Lakman I.A., Askarova Z.F.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess the factors affecting total mortality of the population of the Republic of Bashkortostan (RB). Methods. The study was conducted using the method of regression analysis according to panel data. The official statistical materials of the Territorial Body of the Federal State Statistics Service for the Republic of Bashkortostan (Table C 51; databases on demography and statistical yearbooks "Social and Economic Situation of Municipal Districts and Urban Districts of the Republic"; annual statistical reports in the form of "2TP - Air "); Rosstat were used as sources of secondary data. Data from 54 municipalities and 21 cities of the Republic of Bashkortostan from 2002 to 2017 were used. Altogether, 17 indicators were used for data analysis. Results. On the basis of regression analysis of panel data, risk factors for total mortality were identified: primary adult disability, number of pensioners, unemployment, crimes. It is noted that a decrease in the mortality rate is affected by an improvement in the quality of medical services, an increase in the number of enterprises, and population density. The effect of these factors varies for men and women. Conclusion. The results of the assessment allow us to identify areas of activity to reduce mortality, as well as to determine the priorities of socioeconomic policy on the regional level.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(4):4-11
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ORGANIC CHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN BREAST MILK OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH OF THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST
Tsygankov V.Y., Gumovskaya Y.P., Gumovskiy A.N., Koval I.P., Boyarova M.D.
Abstract
National programs for monitoring chloro-organk compounds (С0С) in the human body have been introduced in different countries. In Russia, this monitoring began at the end of the 20th century. In the Russian Far East, only preliminary data on the accumulation of chloro-organk compounds in the human body have been published so far warranting further research. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the accumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of women in the South of the Russian Far East and the compare the findings with the data from 2017. Methods. Breast milk was collected in health institutions in the region (Primorsky Krai). The age of the women ranged from 20 to 49 years. The concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in breast milk samples werestudied by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry. Results. The content of ГОС (EHCHs + EDDTs + EPCBs) in the samples ranged from 23 to 878 ng / g lipids. The concentration ranges of OCPs (EHCHs + EDDTs) and PCBs were 2.8-291 and 3.2-720 ng / g lipids, respectively. Conclusions. The total OCP content in the samples taken in 2018 year was greater than the corresponding data from 2017 (p = 0.035) in all age groups of women. HCH concentrations in 2018 significantly exceed those in 2017 (p = 0.016 and p = 0.008 - according to different evaluation criteria). DDT and its metabolites were below the detection limit in 50 % of samples. The total concentration of PCBs in 2018 was lower than in 2017.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(4):12-18
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SEX HORMONES CONCENTRATIONS AT DIFFERENT DOPAMINE LEVELS AMONG WOMEN IN THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC
Elfimova A.E., Tipisova E.V., Molodovskaya I.N., Popkova V.A., Potutkin D.S.
Abstract
Several studies havebeenpublished on the relationship between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and dopaminergic systems. However, they are mainly limited to experimental or clinical settings. The aim was to study the activity of the pituitary-gonadal system at different plasma dopamine levels in women living in the Russian Arctic taking into account their physiological state (reproductive age or postmenopause) and place of residence. Methods. Altogether, 72 women of the European North and 126 women of the Asian North aged 21-83 years participated in a cross-sectional study. Serum levels of luteinizing, follicle-stimulating hormones, prolactin, progesterone, total and free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estradiol, and dopamine in the blood plasma were estimated. Results. Reference dopamine levels in fertile women of the European North were associated with higher values of prolactin (21.6 ng/ ml), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (6.49 pmol / l) and free testosterone (2.2 pg/ml), compared with women with undetectable dopamine levels in blood (11.4 ng/ml; 5.05 pmol/L; 0.7 pg/ml, respectively). In postmenopausal women of the Asian North the abovelimit dopamine levels were associated with lower levels of follicle-stimulating hormones (45.2 IU/L) and progesterone (2.99 nmol/L) and higher concentrations of testosterone (1.42 nmol/L) than in women with reference levels (67.8 IU/L; 3.95 nmol/L; 0.90 nmol/L, respectively). Conclusions. The combination of high prolactin levels with a high content of androgens in fertile women of the European North, especially in the group with reference dopamine levels, can be a risk factor for the occurrence of anovulatory menstruation. In postmenopausal women of the Asian North against the background of general reduced testosterone content, an increase in its level was recorded only in the group of persons with excess dopamine levels.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(4):19-25
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RESULTS OF A FIVE-YEARS FOLLOW-UP OF THE PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE OF YOUNG MALE SKIERS
Solonin I.G., Garnov I.O., Loginova T.P., Markov A.L., Chernykh A.A., Bojko E.R.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess physical performance over a five-years period in young male cross-country skiers living in the Russian North. Methods. Anthropometric data and parameters of blood circulation, respiration and energy expenditure were studied in 20 skiers aged 15-20 years in the Komi Republic. A bicycle ergometer with Oxycon Pro system (Germany) was the main assessment instrument. Tests were performed twice - at the beginning and in the end of a five-years period. Results. A statistically significant increase in body weight and body mass index, a decrease in heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, double product (DP) and the vegetative Kerdo index at rest were observed indicating an increase in physical fitness. At a load of 200 W, a decrease in heart rate, DP, oxygen consumption and energy expenditure and an increase in efficiency were found suggesting economization of blood circulation and energy reactions during standard operation. However, at maximum load an increase in blood pressure from (185.0 ± 15.2) to (195.0 ± 11.6) mm Hg p = 0.038; a decrease in the maximum oxygen consumption from (67.4 ± 6.20) to (61.4 ± 7.21) ml / min x kg, p = 0.012; decreased oxygen consumption on the brink of anaerobic metabolism from (4,036 ± 594) to (3,623 ± 593) ml / min, P = 0.040; and heart rate on the brink of anaerobic metabolism from (171.0 ± 11.6) to (157.0 ± 16.5) bpm, p = 0.005 was revealed suggesting a decrease in the maximum functional capabilities of the body. Physiological costs of a unit of work for various indicators of blood circulation, respiration, and energy expenditure have not changed over a five-years period (p values varied from 0.082 to 0.935). Conclusions. The observed decrease in the level of physical performance by aerobic and anaerobic thresholds may suggest not only the beginning of age-related changes in the body of athletes in the North, but may also reflect possible negative impact of living conditions in the North.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(4):26-32
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ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN ADULTS AND WALKABILITY OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD
Maksimov S.A., Fedorova N.V., Tsygankova D.P., Shapovalova E.B., Indukayeva E.V., Artamonova G.V.
Abstract
The aim: to study associations between physical activity in adults with the walkability of the neighborhood, as well as to assess modifying effects of socio-economic and individual characteristics on these associations. Methods. In total, 1263 residents of Kemerovo city aged 35-70 years participated in a cross-sectional study. Subjective assessment of the infrastructure of the area of residence was assessed using the Russian version of the Neighborhood Environmental Walkability Scale (NEWS). Physical activity was assessed over the past 7 days using the Russian version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Logistic regression was applied to study associations between independent variables and the outcome as well as effect modifications. Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results. The frequency of reporting car driving was 27.7 %, bicycle riding - 3.6 % (8.8 % during summer months), participation in transport walking - 85.5 %, recreational walking - 57.8 %, sports and physical exercises - 26.9 %. Sufficient walking levels were reported by 72.4 % of participants. Walking for more than 150 minutes per week with an was associated with better walkability, but only in a cold season (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.39-2.57). The influence of the residence area on participation in sports and physical exercises is modified by income level: for low-income individuals, the relationship is statistically significant (OR = 1.44; 95 % CI: 1.05-1.97), in contrast to the individuals with high income. Conclusions. Living in areas with high walkabiity is positively associated with participation in transport and recreational walking, sports and is negatively associated with the use of cars and bicycles. Associations between walkability of the neighborhood and physical activity variy significantly by gender, age, income and the season.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(4):33-41
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BIOLOGICAL ROLE OF COPPER IN PATHOGENESIS OF AUTISM IN CHILDREN: A LITERATURE REVIEW
Kostina O.V., Presnyakova M.V., Albitskaya Z.V.
Abstract
The article summarizes the evidence on the biological role of copper and the role of copper metabolism disorders in neurodegenerative processes and pathogenesis of autism. The neuromodulating effects of copper ions and their role for cognitive functions are described. The results of original studies on copper metabolism in children with autistic disorders (AD) arepresented. Our review suggests that the current evidence is contradictory. While several publications indicate an increased level of copper in blood, hair, teeth, nails of AD patients, other studies do not report any difference in the concentration of copper between AD and healthy children. It isassumed that the dysregulation of copper metabolism in children with AD is associated with dysfunction of transport proteins. Data on copper involvement in the processes of management of free radical in children with AD arediscussed. Monitoring of metal-ligand homeostasis in children with AD iswarranted as well as the development of effective methods of correction of copper metabolism disorders.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(4):42-47
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AIR POLLUTION AND POPULATION HEALTH IN THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC: A LITERATURE REVIEW
Saltykova M.M., Bobrovnitskii I.P., Balakaeva A.V.
Abstract
This literature review summarizes the evidence on the effects of air pollution on health of the population living in the Arctic Region. The available evidence suggests that the extreme climatic conditions of the Arctic affect the health of the population not only directly but also increase negative impact of air pollution on population health. An oxidative stress induces dysfunction of the vascular endothelium and membranes of epithelial cells. Synergetic effects of cold and air pollution accelerate aging of the human body in high latitudes affecting to the greatest extent the incidence of diseases of the circulatory and respiratory systems. This warrants development of special methods and tools for monitoring the state of the main target organs of such exposure for early detection of their dysfunction. These tools should be suitable for use in examining large groups of people working in the Arctic. Development of rehabilitation and treatment methods adapted to the conditions of the Arctic is also warranted.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(4):48-55
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AGE-RELATED FEATURES OF POSTURAL STABILITY IN ELDERLY WOMEN
Dyomin A.V., Gudkov A.B., Popova O.N., Shcherbina F.A.
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to study the age-related features of the components of the postural balance (CPB) in elderly women with preserved postural stability. Methods. In total, 424 women aged 60-69 years who did not experience a single fall in the last 12 months were examined. Women were divided into two groups: 60-64 years old (n = 251) and 65-69 years old (n = 173). To assess the CPB, a Sensory Organization Test (SOT) of the Computerized Dynamic Posturography «Smart Equitest Balance Manager» was performed. Results. When analyzing the quality indicators of the equilibrium function in functional tests 1-4 and 6, as well as the postural maintaining strategy (PMS) in 1-6 SOT conditions, no statistically significant differences were found between the groups (p > 0.1), but quality indicators of the equilibrium function in test 5 in women 65-69 years old were greater (p = 0.045) than in their younger counterparts. Quality indicators of the equilibrium function and SOT PMS did not differ between the groups indicating that women 65-69 years old who did not experience falls did not show changes in adaptive capabilities, as well as static and statodynamic neurophysiological mechanisms to maintain the balance. Analysis of somatosensory and visual (visual-spatial) information in balance control also did not reveal age-related changes between the groups. However, vestibular information indicators in monitoring balance maintenance in women 65-69 years old were higher (p = 0.045). Conclusions. The indicators of the equilibrium function in test 5 and the effectiveness of vestibular information in controlling the balance of women after 64 years will determine the preservation of postural stability functions and may have a beneficial effect on their life expectancy, and also determine the risk of premature changes in CPB.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(4):56-64
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