No 6 (2020)

Articles
PERCEPTION OF THE STATE OF EMERGENCY DUE TO COVID-19 BY MEDICAL STUDENTS AND STAFF IN A KAZAKHSTANI UNIVERSITY
Prilutskaya M.V., Grjibovski A.M.
Abstract
Aim: to assess perception of the state of emergency and associated restrictive conditions due to COVID-19 among medical students and university staff in a Kazakhstani setting. Methods. A crass-sectional study. Altogether 228 students and staff of the Pavlodar branch of the Semey Medical University participated in an online survey. The visual analog scales were used to study difficulties related to maintaining self-isolation/social distancing, the intensity of information flow, and the extent of psychological stress. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess affective symptoms. Categorical variables were analyzed using chi-squared- and Fisher exact tests. Mann-Whitney tests were used for numeric data. Sperman's correlation were calculated for associations between self-isolation/social distancing and the perception thereof. Results. In total, 30.3 % of respondents experienced substantial difficulties in maintaining self-isolation/social distancing. Their proportion was higher among those frequently watching, reading or listening to news about COVID-19 (41.7 % vs. 20.0 %, р < 0.001), and getting the infomation from online bloggeres (42.9 % vs. 26.8 %, р = 0.03). The psychological stress was reported by 92.7 % of the respondents. Those who experienced the difficulties with self-isolation/social distancing were more likely to feel excessive stress due to mobility restrictions (30.4 % vs. 6.9 %, p = 0.001), limited interpersonal communication (37.7 % vs. 17.0 %, p < 0.001), distance education (26.1 % vs. 11.3 %, p = 0.006), the suspension/reduction of clinical practice (33.3 % vs. 20.1 %, p = 0.044) than the others. That group with the difficulties had a higher proportion of anxiety (26.1 % vs. 11.9 %, p = 0.008) and depression symptoms (40.6 % vs. 22.0 %, p = 0.004). Positive correlations were observed between the severity of the perceived difficulties and the frequency of watching, reading !г listening to COVID-19 news (г = 0.26 p < 0.001). The difficulties correlated with symptoms of anxiety (г = 0.36, p < 0.001) and depression (г = 0.25, p < 0.001), stress due to mobility restrictions (r = 0.50, p < 0.001), limited interpersonal communication (r = 0.39, p < 0.001), and distance education (r = 0.31, p < 0.001). Conclusions. The absolute majority of the respondents experienced psychological stress, severity of which varied in particular conditions of the state of emergency. The difficulties with self-isolation/social distancing were significantly associated with anxiety and depression symptoms.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(6):4-12
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FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH RECURRENT PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE SUBARCTIC REGION: A LITERATURE REVIEW
Sheludko V.S., Kasparova A.E., Kovalenko L.V., Sokolova T.N.
Abstract
Mortality rate in the Russian Federation in 2018 exceeded the birth rate again. At the same time, a stable and high frequency of early reproductive losses was noted. Every fifth wanted pregnancy terminates spontaneously before the due date. Living in the subarctic zone is associated with several unfavorable climatic factors. Implementation of the reproductive function in these conditions is influenced by region-specific factors, which have multiple effects on the mechanisms of recurrent pregnancy loss. The literature search was performed using PubMed, Medline, Cyberleninka, Scopus and HAC databases. Assessing the degree of adaptation of women of reproductive age living in the subarctic zone of the Russian Federation helps to assess their psychosomatic status and heart rate variability. Taking into account the adaptation parameters, certain patterns were revealed for women of reproductive age, as well as for each trimester of a normal and pathologically ongoing pregnancy. Particular attention in the assessment of adaptive resources of the body deserve leukocyte indices, by changing the parameters of which it is possible to make a forecast of the ongoing pregnancy. The results of this review are of interest to the clinicians working in the subarctic zone of Russia from the standpoint of personalized approach to prevention and prediction of recurrent pregnancy loss.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(6):13-21
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IMMUNE ANTIBODIES IN MOKSHA AND ERZYA ETHNIC GROUPS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MORDOVIA
Gusachenko L.A., Litovchenko O.G.
Abstract
ABO system's immune antibodies are common, but not as persistent as natural anti-A and anti-B antibodies. They are the result of hyper immunization of an iso- or heteroimmune nature and belong to the IgG class. The study of serum for the presence of immune antibodies of the ABO, Rh system is necessary for the diagnosis of hemolytic disease cases of newborns with ABO, Rh-conflict pregnancy. Clinically significant immune antibodies of erythrocyte systems capable to cause in vivo destruction of red blood cells are of great importance in transfusiology and immunohematology. The most common cause of their occurrence is alloimmunization with red blood cell antigens during childbirth. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the immune anti-erythrocyte antibodies in residents of the Republic of Mordovia belonging to the ethnic groups of Moksha and Erzya. Methods. The cross-sectional study involved 294 people from the Moksha and 387 people and Erzya ethnic groups, randomly selected in 7 districts of the Republic of Mordovia. Detection of IgG anti-A, anti-B ABO systems was performed by inactivation of disulfide bonds in IgM molecules using a 5 % unitiol solution and then by direct agglutination method at indoor temperature with standard red blood cells of group O(I), A(II), and B(III). The study of incomplete anti-erythrocyte antibodies of other systems was performed by indirect Coombs' test using gel technology. Results. The study of immune antibodies of the ABO system revealed from 10.61 to 16.00 % of anti-A antibodies and from 2.27 to 6.38 % of anti-B antibodies in both men and women Moksha and Erzya. We studied immune anti-erythrocyte antibodies: anti-D 0.34 % in Moksha and anti-D 0.26% and anti-Kell 0.26 % antibodies in Erzya. The scale of immunogenicity of red blood cell antigens in the studied groups: A>, B>, D> and K>. The alloimmunization index of transfusion-hazardous antigens was calculated as 0.34 for Moksha and 0.52 for Erzya. Conclusions. Physiologically, the immune system in Moksha and Erzya actively reacts with antibody's production and it is sensitive to immunization by the group of antigens.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(6):22-28
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THE SYNDROME OF MENTAL IMMUNODISPERSION IN PRE-NOSOLOGICAL PROPAEDEUTICS OF MENTAL MEDICINE: FROM ADDICTIONS TO COVID-19
Sidorov P.I.
Abstract
The objective of the article is to substantiate the pre-nosological syndrome of mental immunodispersion (SMIDis), which reflects the violation of the autochthonous rhythm of the "evolutionary pendulum of consciousness" in the path of ontogenetic and phylogenetic development. SMIDis is characterized by multidirectional changes in the functions of mental immunity (MI) as a matrix of identity and interface of consciousness. SMIDis is the universal dysfunctional basis of all psychopathological (including addictogenic) and psychosomatic (including COVID-19) diatheses, the further possible development of which is determined by the balance of the genome/ epigenome and menom/epimenom. It substantiates the possibility of building the entire psychopathology according to a single gradient of the dysontogenetic continuum, which is a counterfeit of mental evolution. Violation of the ontogenetic mechanism of mental immunomodulation, manifested by MI dysfunctions, triggers the symptom formation of epidemic (mental, psychosomatic and other) disorders. It is suggested to refer COVID-19 to a mental pandemic that is aimed to phylogenetically change the civilizational identity of humanity. The non-reducibility and non-supervenience of consciousness are increasingly becoming a mirror image of psychiatry's supervenient reductionism in its crisis half-life into DSM and ICD. This requires a radical revision of the, figuratively speaking, neuronavigation of Consciousness as the Brain of the World.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(6):29-33
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MODERN ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF RADON ISOTOPES NATURAL EMANATION: A LITERATURE REVIEW
Karpin V.A.
Abstract
Natural radiation is the main source of exposure of the population, accounting for about 70 % of the total dose of natural radioactive background. At the same time, radon and its pre-black decay products account for 40 to 90 % of all natural sources. The main danger to public health in residential areas and workplaces is the development of malignant diseases of the respiratory system. The main goal of the radon strategy is to reduce the incidence and mortality from radon-induced lung cancer. It should be taken into account that radon in the air is the second most important cause of lung cancer after smoking. The level of radon volume activity depends on two main factors - the geological and geographical environment and the structural features of buildings. A strategic goal aimed at reducing radon risk is the use of modern technologies to protect buildings from radon at the stage of their construction and re-construction. The current state of the radon problem indicates the need for constant monitoring and implementation of new modern measures to implement the radon strategy. The concept of radon hazard is constantly changing, refined and improved, which contributes to the development and adoption of new recommendations of the International Commission on radiological protection in the field of radiation protection of the population from natural sources of ionizing radiation. Strict implementation of these recommendations will ultimately significantly improve the quality of public health.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(6):34-40
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STATE OF ATHLETES’ CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM UNDER PHYSICAL LOAD IN THE RUSSIAN NORTH
Bashkatova Y.V., Filatov M.A., Shakirova L.S.
Abstract
Athletics in the North of the Russian Federation has significant features that are to be studied within the framework of human ecology. In this case, of particular importance are studies that are associated with controlled physical activity. The aim was to study the state of the parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic nervous system of athletes regulating heart functioning under controlled physical activity. Methods: Data collection was performed on a group of 16 athletes according to the Helsinki Declaration. In total, 14 parameters of the cardiovascular system were recorded using the "Elox-01" and the parameters of quasi-attractors were calculated for the five-dimensional phase space. Results. Before the load (1,5 hours of playing mini-football), the indicator of parasympathetic (PAR) regulation prevailed almost 9 times (PAR = 16 c.u.) over the sympathetic (SIM) regulation (SIM = 1,75 c.u.). After the load, these indices became equal, but the volumes of quasi-attractors increased by 29 times. Conclusions. Athletes in the North of the Russian Federation can't significantly invert the state of SIM and PAR even after the load. The load only levels these indicators, but at the same time the volume of the quasi-attractor in the five-dimensional phase space of the states of diagnostic signs of the cardiovascular system of athletes increases. Such dynamic differs from the dynamics of the athletes of the Central Part of the Russian Federation, where the SIM indicator initially prevails over the PAR indicator.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(6):41-45
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ORAL HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG STUDENTS OF THE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY IN THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC
Popov V.A., Vyborova P.S., Gordienko A.A., Moseev R.I., Yushmanova T.N., Gorbatova M.A., Drachev S.N.
Abstract
The aim is to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and factors associated with OHRQoL among the students of the medical university. Methods. The cross-sectional study included 308 Russian speaking third year students aged 19-25 years from the Faculty of General Medicine, Paediatrics, Preventive Medicine and Dentistry of the Northern State Medical University (NSMU), Arkhangelsk, Russian Arctic. The Oral Health (OH) Impact Profile (OHIP-14) was used to measure OHRQoL. Information on socio-demographic factors, self-esteem of tooth and gingiva health, OH behaviour, and diet was obtained from the OH Questionnaire for adults (World Health Organization, 2013). Pearson's chi-square test and multivariable Poisson regression with robust estimate of dispersion were used for statistical analysis. Results: 33,8 % and 18,5 % of students had poor dentition and gingiva, respectively. 39,0 % of students consumed sweet pies/buns more than once a week; 39.0 % of students reported on low OHRQoL. The highest mean scores OHIP-14 were found for the dimensions "physical pain" and "psychological discomfort": 1.59 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.43-1.75) and 0.84 (95 % CI: 0.70-0.98), respectively. Female sex (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.73, 95 % CI: 1.23-2.45), poor self-esteem of teeth health (PR = 2.32, 95 % CI: 1.77-3.04), and sweet pies/buns consumption more than once a week (PR = 1.39, 95 % CI: 1.07-1.80), were all significantly and independently associated with low OHRQoL. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of low OHRQoL was observed in the examined students. Female sex, poor self-esteem of teeth health and frequent consumption of sweet pies/buns were associated with low OHRQoL. To enhance OHRQoL in Russian students, the preventive strategies for dental diseases and diet improvement should be implemented.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(6):46-57
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POSTURAL BALANCE AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF 70-74 YEARS OLD WOMEN
Dyomin A.V., Gudkov A.B., Chacshin V.P., Popova O.N.
Abstract
The aim was to study age-related quality of life (QoL) and postural balance (OPB) in 70-74 years old women. Methods. A total of 700 women aged 65-74 years were examined. The first (reference group) age group (AG) included women aged 65-69 years (n = 437), and the second AG (study group) included women 70-74 years old (n = 263). Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) associated with health were assessed using the questionnaire SF-36v1. To evaluate CPB, the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and the Motor Control Test (MCT) were performed using the computerized dynamic posturography Smart Equitest Balance Manager. Results. It was found that MCS indicators in women aged 70-74 were higher than in women 65-69 years old (p = 0.008), and PCS indicators did not differ between groups (p > 0.1) The study of the peculiarities of the CPB showed that in women 70-74 years old, compared with the previous age group, the ratio for sensory analysis - Somatosensory increases (p = 0.006). Thus, the values of the computerized dynamic posturography according to SOT and MCT data indicate the state of CPB in women 70-74 years old at the level of 65-69 year old women. Conclusions. The quality of life associated with health in 70-74 years old women concerning the Physical Component Summary does not differ from that of the 65-69 years old women, however, there is an increase in the Mental Component Summary after 69 years. Women 70-74 years old don't have changes in the Equilibrium Score, Postural Strategy Score, sensory organization of postural control, as well as an increase in the time of coordinated motor reactions. However, they experience an increase in the ratio for sensory analysis - Somatosensory.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(6):58-64
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