No 9 (2020)


Concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids by body mass index among Arctic residents

Galstyan D.S., Bichkaeva F.A., Baranova N.F.


Aim. To study polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) blood concentrations by body mass index (BMI) among residents of the Arctic. Methods. A total of 756 healthy permanent residents of the different parts of the Russian Arctic zone aged 22 to 60 years comprised the sample. By BMI, all participants were divided into 3 groups: 1 - normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9, n = 280), 2 - overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9, n = 270), 3 - obesity (BMI >30, n = 238). Serum concentrations of ω3 and ω6 of PUFA were assessed and their ratios were calculated. Results. Greater BMI was associated with higher concentrations of dihomo-γ-linolenic (Me1 = 15.17, Me2 = 18.22, Mе3 = 22.63, p1-2 = 0.036, p1-3 < 0.001), γ-linolenic (Me1 = 2.79, Me2 = 3.51, Mе3 = 3.75, p1-2 = 0.015; p1-3 < 0.001) and docosahexaenoic (Me1 = 35.10, Me2 = 45.65, Mе3 = 43.77, p1-2 = 0.027) acid. In parallel, an increase in the following ratios were observed: dihomo-y-linolenic/docosahexaenoic (Me1 = 0.434, Me2 = 0.387, Mе3 = 0.497, p1-3 = 0.046; p2-3 = 0.004), dihomo-y-linolenic/eicosapentaenoic (Me1 = 0.749, Me2 = 0.805, Mез = 1.05, p13 = 0.002; p23 = 0.018), y-linolenic/ eicosapentaenoic (Me1 = 0,149, Me2 = 0,155, Mе3 = 0,173, p13 = 0.040). An increase in BMI was associated with a decrease in the following ratios: arachidonic/dihomo-y-linolenic (Me1 = 5.69, Me2 = 5.12, Mе3 = 4.06, p < 0.001; p2-3 < 0.001), arachidonic/y-linolenic (Me1 = 27.32, Me2 = 26.14, Mе3 = 22.82, p1-3 <0.001; p2-3 = 0.014), linoleic/y-linolenic (Me1 = 217.84, Me2 = 197.11, Mе3 = 173.76, p1-3<0.001), linoleic/dihomo-y-linolenic (Me1 = 42.06, Me2 = 37.72, Mе3 = 31.08, p1-2 = 0.016; p1-3 < 0.001, p2-3 = 0.007), arachidonic/docosahexaenoic (Me1 = 2.46, Me2 = 2.20, Mе3 = 2.13, p1-3 = 0.007). Conclusions. Our results may suggest that higher levels of y-linolenic and dihomo-y-linolenic acids are associated with overweight and obesity in Arctic residents and may play a role in the development of obesity.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(9):4-10
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Cytochrome p-450 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphisms in nenets - an indigenous ethnic group in the Arctic

Vorobyeva N.A., Vorobyeva A.I.


Resilience of indigenous ethnic groups to adverse climatic conditions of the Arctic is genetically determined. Moreover, genes determine the ability to metabolize environmental substances. This warrants research on ethnic variations in cytochrome P-450 and VKORC1 genetic polimorphisms with further going aim to develop personalized pharmacotherapy for the indigenous ethnic groups living in the Arctic. The aim was to study the prevalence of genotypes and allelic variants in CYP2C9, CYP2C19, VKORC1 genes in Nenets - an indigenous ethnic group in the Arctic. (n = 32) under conditions of permanent island living. Methods. A total population (n = 32) of the Vaygach island (70°01' N 59°33' E) participated in a cross-sectional study. Peripheral venous blood samples were taken. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral venous blood leukocytes using the express method. Results. SS genotype was the most common variant (90.63 %) of the CYP2C9*2 (rs1799853) gene. AA genotype of the CYP2C9*3 (rs1057910) gene was detected in 100 % cases. GG and GA genotypes of the VKORC1 G3730A (rs7294) gene were detected in 56.3 % and 43.7 % of cases, respectively, while no homozygous allelic polymorphism for the pathological allele was found. Conclusions. The study provides the evidence on the prevalence of genotypes and allelic variants in CYP2C9, CYP2C19, VKORC1 genes in Nenets of the Vaygach island. Replication of these results in other Nenets populations is warranted.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(9):11-17
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The choice of a health capital indicator in russian regions

Kudelina Ю.V., Kaneva M.A.


Health capital is a component of human capital providing a link to human health and being which is one of the main determinants of economic growth. Until present, the empirical modeling of health capital greatly depends on selection indicators of health capital fromroutinely collected statistical indicators. The aim of the study is to perform a comparative analysis of the available statistical indicators routinely collected by Rosstat in the Unified Interagency Information and Statistical System (EMISS) and assess their usefulness for building empirical models as health capital indicator. Methods. We performed systemanalysis of the theoretical concepts of health capital and a comparative analysis of the following health indicators: life expectancy at birth, healthy life expectancy, life expectancy at 15 years, proportion of healthy population (proportion of disabled) and healthcare costs. Results. The health indicators proposed by the authors were classified according to the World Bank Logframe methodology within the framework of the "input-output-outcome-impact" approach. Based on the proposed indicators of health capital, the regions of the Russian Federation were ranked, and the studied properties of the indicators were evaluated. Conclusion. It has been established that when choosing an indicator of health capital, it is necessary to rely on the characteristics of a qualitative indicator formulated by the authors - validity, universality, collectability and stability which must correspond to research tasks when building models. "Healthy life expectancy" and "actual per capita health care expenses" are the two indicators that satisfied the requirements. The results of the study can be used by regional governments when developing long-term public health regional policies and when monitoring health and quality of life of the population.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(9):18-27
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Economic burden of insufficient consumption of vegetables and fruits in Russia

Mukaneeva D.K., Kontsevaya A.V., Karamnova N.S., Myrzamatova A.O., Khudyakov M.B., Drapkina O.M.


Unhealthy diet is associated with high morbidity and mortality from chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) which in turn are associated with high economic costs. A significant proportion of these costs is attributed to insufficient fresh fruits and vegetables in the diet worldwide with large country-to-country variation warranting research in various settings including Russia. The aim: to assess the economic burden of insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in Russia in 2016 due to their contribution to the development of major NCDs. Methods: The calculation was made using population attributive risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and cancer from meta-analyses and the data on the prevalence of fruits and vegetables consumption and the abovementioned diseases in the Russian population. The economic costs from the main NCDs were calculated using the human capital method. The share of health care system costs and economic losses due to morbidity and mortality from NCDs associated with fruits and vegetables underconsumption was assessed. Results: The contribution of insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables to the morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases, coronary heart disease and stroke were 5 % each (95 % CI: 3.0-6.2), 5% (95 % CI: 3.7-6.2) and 10 % (95 % CI: 4.9-15.9), respectively. Corresponding proportions for lung cancer was 8.9 % (95 % CI: 3.7-14.4). The economic burden associated with this risk factor, amounted more than 134 billion rubles (95 % CI: 78.8-173.3 billion rubles), 0.16 % of GDP of the Russian Federation in 2016. Indirect losses due to premature mortality (86 %) prevailed in the structure of the economic burden. Conclusions: The high prevalence of fruits and vegetables underconsumption in Russia and its significant contribution to the morbidity and mortality from NCDs are associated with significant economic costs from this risk factor.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(9):28-35
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Social frustration and self-rated health among urban elderly in the Republic of Karelia

Hyanikyaynen I.V., Burkin M.M., Molchanova E.V., Kruchek M.M.


The aim was to study associations between subjective assessment of health status among urban elderly in the Republic of Karelia (Northwest Russia) and indicators of their social frustration. Methods. The level of social frustration according to L. I. Wasserman's test was studied as well as the subjective assessment of the state of individual's health using a questionnaire in 411 elderly people living in the city of Petrozavodsk - the capital of the Republic of Karelia. The average age of the respondents was 64.43 ± 6.57 years; Men accounted for 32.6 % (n = 134) of the sample. Results. Elderly in Petrozavodsk had low final average index of social frustration (Mean = 1.68 ± 1.22) points. At the same time, they were dissatisfied with their financial situation (30.90 %), the situation in the society (state) (30.41 %), health care (23.36 %) and services (20.68 % of respondents). Men were more concerned about their marital relations than women (р = 0,009). Inverse associations between the severity of frustration and self-rated health among the respondents. Conclusions. The abovementioned frustrating attitudes of the elderly in Karelia may lead to deterioration of their health. This warrants optimiziation strategies for the provision of medical and social support to the elderly on a population scale.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(9):36-41
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Quality of life of the russian navy in the Arctic: an assessment using international methodology

Dybin A.S., Svetlichnaya T.G., Menshikova L.I.


The aim of the study was to apply international methodology to study quality of life of the Russian Navy serving in the Arctic with the further going aim of development of health promotion and disease prevention programs. Methods: In total, 250 contract servicemen of the Russian Navy, serving at the White Sea Naval Base took part in a cross-sectional survey. Quality of life was studied using a short version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Numeric data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U-test or unpaired Student's t-test depending on data distribution. Results: The overall quality of life score was 100.98 points or 77.68 % of the maximum possible value. The lowest values were registered in area 4 "Social welfare" - 28.93 points (72.33 % of the maximum possible value). Detailed results are presented in the main text. Statistically significant differences were observed between quality of life by sailors and foremen in comparison with junior (t = -3.339, p = 0.001) and senior (U = 1875, p = 0.038) officers, warrant officers in comparison with junior officers (t = -2.785, p = 0.006). The risk factors that negatively affected the health of servicemen included limited opportunities for recovery, dissatisfaction with financial situation and limited access to high-quality medical care. An algorithm for the practical application of the WHO quality of life questionnaire in the development of organizational and managerial measures for the primary prevention of diseases in servicemen in the Arctic territories of the Russian Federation was developed. Conclusions. The study showed the average quality of life of the servicemen at the White Sea Naval Base. The lowest scores were registered for the social well-being domain. The use of the results of measurement and assessment of the quality of life in the development of programs for the prevention of diseases of military personnel in the Arctic territories makes it possible to identify significant socio-medical risk factors, which can serve as a basis for making organizational and managerial decisions aimed at improving the quality of life and preparedness of the Russian Navy in the Arctic territories.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(9):42-48
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Associaitons between blood pressure and mortality among middle-aged and elderly men and women: a cohort study

Imaeva A.E., Balanova Y.A., Kapustina A.V., Shalnova S.A., Shkolnikov V.M.


The aim is to study associations between blood pressure/arterial hypertension (AH) and all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality among middle-aged and elderly Russian men and women. Methods: This study is a part of the cohort study, conducted in Moscow. Altogether, 898 males and 978 females aged 55 years and older comprised the sample. AH was determined with systolic blood pressure level (SBP) > 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > 90 mmHg, or on condition of antihypertensive treatment (AHT). Obesity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia and a prior stroke were assessed as risk-factors. During the follow-up period (8,05 years) 547 deaths were identified, including 330 CVD. Results: No significant gender differences in the prevalence of arterial hypertension were detected. About 80 % of females and 65 % of males took AHT. Among them, effective treatment was registered in 42 % of females and 32 % of males. Elevated blood pressure was associated with increased all-cause and CVD mortality risk only among women (HR = 1.63; 95 % CI: 1.21-2.19, HR = 1.81; 95 % CI: 1.23-2.67, respectively). No associations were found between mortality and AH and AHT. The ineffective treatment of arterial hypertension increased all-cause and CVD mortality by 1.9 and 2.5 times, respectively, but only among females. SBP > 160 mmHg and/or DBP > 100 mmHg was associated with 2.6 times (p = 0.020) greater risk of all-cause mortality. No associations were observed among the males. Conclusions: Elevated blood pressure, especially among those taking AHT, significantly increased the risk of all-cause and CVD mortality, but only among women. The results of the study warrant better blood pressure control in females aged 55 years and older with mandatory prescription of AHT.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(9):49-56
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Temporal variations in mortality from the main causes of death in 20142018 in Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous district-UGRA (Western Siberia)

Ragozin O.N., Shalamova E.Y., Kicha D.I., Gudkov A.B., Popova O.N., Chursina I.I.


The aim of this work is to analyze the temporal variations in mortality from the main groups of diseases and external causes in the period 2014-2018 in Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra (Western Siberia). Methods. Data on mortality wereobtained from the Medical Information and Analytical Center in Khanty-Mansiysk. To test the hypothesis about cyclic variations in mortality, wavelet analysis was applied. Results. Fluctuations in death rates from infectious diseases, neoplasms, mental disorders, diseases of the nervous system and circulatory system, pathology of the digestive system appeared to have a significant circannual rhythm. For diseases of the endocrine system, respiratory system, musculoskeletal and genitourinary system, circannualpattern of mortality was not observed. Mortality from socially significant diseases demonstrate two-year, annual and intra-annual rhythms. Significant rhythms of mortality from injuries with a six-month (p = 0.012) and near-annual (p = 0.045) periods may have an exogenous nature, while circaseptan activity (p = 0.055) seems to have a social genesis. Fluctuations in mortality from suicide occur in near-annual (p = 0.002) and semi-annual (p = 0.068) rhythms. Temporal variations of road traffic accidents are characterized by insignificant six-month and two-week rhythms. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that mortality in the study areahas various duration and number of periods of rhythms, low-energy rhythmic activity with pronounced inter-seasonal and day-to-day fluctuations in weather factors, a changed photoperiodic regime, and seasonal exacerbations of endemic zoonoses against the background of constant exposure to unmodified risk factors for the development of diseases presented in this paper.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(9):57-64
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