No 1 (2021)

Articles

SARS-COV-2: IMMUNE RESPONSE, STRUCTURAL CHANGES, TREATMENT STRATEGIES

Zolnikova O.Y., Svistunov A.A., Ivashkin V.T.

Abstract

In March 2020, WHO announced a pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. To date, there is still lack of knowledge about the pathogen and the clinical course of the disease and the emerging research results require systemic analysis and synthesis. The aim of our review was to analyze publications on clinical and experimental observations, reviews and international experience regarding to the immune response, organ changes, diagnosis and treatment of the new coronavirus infection. This review provides a qualitative synthesis of research papers on SARS-CoV-2 form 2020 and on SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, which were published from 2005-2020. PubMed was the source of literature for international papers while Russian papers were selected using Russian Science Citation Index database. The structural features of SARS-CoV-2 due to the spine-shaped protein allow the virus to bind to the host receptors via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Changing the parameters of the virus-cell interaction helps to reduce the production of type I interferon, which leads to rapid virus replication, activation of the immune response with the development of the "cytokine storm". A key role in the excessive production of cytokines is played by IL-6, which, through both classical signal transduction and activation of the soluble IL-6 receptor, exacerbates excessive cytokine production. The development of endothelitis, sepsis and septic shock against this background are key factors in the pathogenesis of the disease, increasing the risk of death in infected patients. X-ray signs of SARS-CoV-2 infection include multifocal, bilateral, peripheral frost-glass changes, and morphological findings confirm damage to the alveoli, hyaline membrane formation and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. The information for evidence-based treatment of patients with SARC-Cov-2 is still limited. However, an exponential growth of literature on this disease will soon provide opportunities for both qualitative and quantitative synthesis.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(1):4-10
pages 4-10 views

IMMUNOLOGICAL REACTIVITY IN MEGAPOLIS RESIDENTS

Philippova O.E., Shchegoleva L.S., Shashkova E.Y., Dobrodeeva L.K.

Abstract

Introduction: Living in an urban environment with a high population density, time pressure, increased frequency of involuntary social contacts privacy violation, lack of recreation areas may lead to not only mental health disorders, but also to somatic diseases. The evidence on the state of immune homeostasis of residents of the urbanized environment is limited. Aim: To assess immunological reactivity in residents of a megapolis. Methods: We assessed phagocytic activity, phenotypes of lymphocytes CD3+, CD5+, CD4+, CD8+, CD10+, cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, TNF-α, immunoglobulins IgA, IgM, IgE, IgG and carcinoembryonic antigen in a sample of 40-60 years old healthy residents of Moscow. Results: The analysis showed that in 83.33% of subjects the ratios of lymphoproliferation and differentiation of lymphoid populations were in balance. There was no deficiency of either CD8+ immunosuppressors or CD4+ T-helpers. Concentrations of lymphoid cells with receptors to interleukin - 2 (CD25+) were detected within the physiological standard in 98.79 % of the study participants. It was found that in 8.13 % of individuals the increased content of mature functional CD3+ lymphocytes was associated with greater concentrations of immunoglobulin E, but within physiological limits. Conclusion: The most common immune defense defect in 40-60-year-old residents of the metropolis is a deficiency in serum IgA (76,04 %) and mature T-lymphocytes (51,04 %) in peripheral blood
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(1):11-16
pages 11-16 views

EFFECT OF LOW TEMPERATURE ON CARDIOINTERVALS DURING PHYSICAL TRAINING IN MEN

Filatova O.E., Pyatin V.F., Filatov M.A., Shakirova L.S.

Abstract

Introduction: Effects of low temperature and excessive physical load on the cardiovascular system are among the issues of human physiology that require better understanding for successful exploration of the Arctic. Aim: To study cardiac rhythm before and after winter marathon (50 km) in men. Methods: Altogether, 15 healthy men took part in this study. Cardiorhytm parameters were measured using "Elox-01S" device before and after a 50 km marathon in winter at -12 0C. Matrices of paired observations before and after the exposure were constructed. The number of k-pares belonging to the to the same population were identified. Wilcoxon test for paired samples was applied for before-after comparisons. Results: Significant differences were revealed in six main parameters of the heart rate at p ≤ 0.05 before and after the marathon. Pairwise comparisons matrices of samples showed an increase in the proportion of chaos, since decreased the number of cardiointervals samples pairwise comparisons for which P ≥ 0.05 (k1 = 15 before and k2 = 11 after the marathon), which seems to be typical for the winter period. Other studies have reported that in women the differences were significant for three parameters only, while in men, all 6 parameters are changed after the winter marathon. The role of chaos increases for the studied parameters after long physical exercise. Conclusion: Our results suggest that heavy physical load in winter may result in increasing of the role of sympathetic neuro-vegetative system and decreasing of the role of the parasympathetic system.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(1):17-21
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HEMODYNAMICS AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY UNDER ORTHOSTATIC CHALLENGE TEST IN YOUNG CAUCASIAN MEN: PART 1

Maksimov A.L., Averyanova I.V.

Abstract

Aim: To study hemodynamics and heart rate variability in response to an orthostatic challenge test among young Caucasian men born in the Russian Far North. Methods: Altogether, 172 healthy young men born in the Russian Far North comprised the sample. Cardiohemodynamic parameters in response to an active orthostatic test were studied using "Varicard" device and a tonometer. Results: A significant increase in heart rate, diastolic pressure, blood flow volume per minute, and reduction in systolic flow were observed among residents of the coastal areas as compared to the subjects from the continental areas. Young men of the coastal zone did not show any changes in the total peripheral vascular resistance during the test while the participants of the continental area showed a significant decrease in this indicator, which was most likely a compensatory reaction aimed at maintaining a sufficiently high stroke volume of blood as one of the mechanisms that proved to not allow the development of vasovagal syncope on the background of inadequate activation of the parasympathetic component and a decrease of the sympathetic regulation. It was revealed that the residents of the coastal zone demonstrated more adequate autonomic provision of hemodynamics in response to the orthostatic challenge test by reducing the activity of the parasympathetic link and the relative increase of the sympathetic regulation. The subjects of the intracontinental area tended to develop postural hypotension in response to the test, with a vagotonic type of reactivity and fewer correlations of cardiac hemodynamics with heart rate variability. Conclusion: Our results suggest that young men from the ontinental area develop a negative effect of synergistic amplification of dysregulatory manifestations of hemodynamic changes, autonomous and central contours of autonomic regulation, which can be considered a consequence of the allostatic adaptive tension caused by the particular area of residence.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(1):22-31
pages 22-31 views

EFFECT OF LOCAL HYPOTHERMIA ON THE NEURO-MUSCULAR SYSTEM IN WOMEN

Maystrenko E.V., Beloshchenko D.V.

Abstract

Introduction: Many studies on adaptation of the human body to the effects of cold suggest the presence of evolutional genetic mechanisms of adaptation to the climate of the North. However, the question remains open about the reactions of the human neuromuscular system (NMS) to local hypothermia. Aim: To study the changes of the parameters of the NMS (coordinates xi = xi (t) of the tremorograms) of a group of young women living in the North of the Ugra republic, Russia before and after local cooling of the hand in different seasons. Methods: Kinematograms of tremor of the fingers of the right hand were recorded using a biophysical measuring complex based on the «Tremograph» device. Limb displacement signals x1 = x1 (t) were recorded and processed (obtaining the derivative of x1, i.e., x2 = v (t) = dx1/dt is the coordinate of the finger's speed of movement) using software products applying fast Fourier transformation and Wavelett-analysis. Shapiro-Wilk's tests and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: All parameters of tremorograms of the neuromuscular system of women were had skewed distributions. The signal was always unique for each recording interval for every study participant. Medians of the parameters of the tremorograms in a group of women after local hypothermia in the autumn and spring periods of the year were reduced in 85-70 % of cases, but in spring these values were much greater both before and after local cold exposure compared to the autumn period. In 57 % of cases, the coordinates xi = xi (t) of the parameters of tremorograms were statistically different. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the response of the NMS in women significantly varies across the seasons, which may indicate adaptation of the body to exposure to cold.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(1):32-37
pages 32-37 views

EVALUATIVE PERCEPTION CRITERIA FOR URBAN ENVIRONMENT OBJECTS WITH RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS OF VLADIVOSTOK AS AN EXAMPLE

Kaptsevich O.A.

Abstract

Aim: To analyze the evaluative perception criteria for urban objects, in particular, residential buildings. Methods: The sample consisted of 100 residents of Vladivostok, divided into three groups: «students», «adults» and «seniors». Photos of the most common residential buildings in Vladivostok city were used as stimuli. Respondents were asked to rank them according to the degree of preference. Then the data were processed using a multidimensional scaling of individual preferences. Results. Two evaluative perception criteria suitable to the entire sample were identified: first - perceived comfort/novelty and the second - buildings originality and individuality. Intergroup differences were found according to the criterion «comfort/novelty»: students were more inclined to the comfort/novelty pole than the other groups, and they preferred new high-rise buildings located at this pole to a greater extent. This allowed us to assume that they had a special semantic content of images of such objects. According to the criterion of «individuality», the preferences of all groups of respondents consistently tend to houses perceived as non-trivial (these were new high-rise and historical buildings). At the same time, most buildings were perceived, on the contrary, as ordinary, devoid of originality, which reveals a mismatch between the preferred and the actual. The identified criteria are interpreted as two points of view in the perception of urban environment objects. The first one is associated with the tendency of mental projection inside the object, the second emphasizes the visual, external qualities of objects. Conclusion: Application of the photo ranking technique with subsequent multidimensional scaling method allowed us to identify the evaluative perception criteria for residential buildings. The results obtained can have value in the context of improving urban environment.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(1):38-44
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SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT FOR PEOPLE WITH AUTISM IN RUSSIA: EXPERT ASSESSMENT OF THE ACCESSIBILITY ISSUE

Mukharyamova L.M., Saveleva Z.V.

Abstract

Aim: To study expert opinion on the social system benefits for people with autism in Russia and barriers for their inclusive development and life. Methods: Two questionnaire-based surveys were performed in 67 regions of Russia. Pediatricians, neurologists, psychiatrists and other specialists (N = 400 in total) comprised the study base for the first survey. The second survey included psychologists and educators working with children with disabilities (N = 470). The results are presented as proportions. Results: Altogether, 42.4 % of psychologists and educators gave 1 of 5 points to the accessibility of the environment for people with autism. As many as 28.1 %, 22.7 % an 5.7 % provided 2, 3 and 4 points, respectively. Only 1.1 % of responders gave 5 points. Forty-eight per cent of responders indicated that the challenges of early intervention for children with autism and their families have not been addressed at all while 35.9 % responded that that they have been partially addressed. The most common answer (51.3 %) for the measures to support children with autism was "public and private rehabilitation centers for children with autism". Altogether, 17.4 % of the participants answered that there was no special support for children with autism. Conclusions: Professionals working with people with autism conclude that the availability of community resources for this vulnerable group is poor. At the same time, the experts acknowledge positive changes of the situation in Russia, the creation of new institutions to support children with autism and their families, as well as development of inclusive education. A comprehensive national program to improve social environment for people with autism is warranted.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(1):45-50
pages 45-50 views

Survival of Stomach Cancer Patients in Western Kazakhstan: a Registry-Based Study

Tulyayeva A.B., Bekmuhamedov Y.J., Zhamalieva L.M., Iztleuov Y.M., Aitmagambetova M.A., Zholmuhamedova D.A., Zhurabekova G.A., Grjibovski A.M.

Abstract

Introduction: Stomach cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. Although there is a lot of international evidence on survival of stomach cancer patients, the data from Central Asia is still scarce. Aims: To study one- and five-years survival of stomach cancer patients and its correlates in Western Kazakhstan. Methods: All histologically confirmed cases of stomach cancer (ICD10 code: C16) registered from 2015 to 2019 in the Aktobe region, Western Kazakhstan, were included in a registry-based historical cohort study. One- and five-years survival with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) was calculated by life tables method. Independent associations between survival and its correlates were studied using Cox regression and presented as crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR). Results: Altogether, there were 793 new cases of and 587 deaths from stomach cancer in the Aktobe region over the study period. Sixty-five percent of cases were diagnosed at stage III or IV. The overall one- and five-year survival was 33.1 % and 8.4 %, respectively. Significant differences in survival functions across categories were observed for cancer stage (p < 0.001), morphological type (p < 0.001) and ethnic background (p = 0.017). After adjustment, only stage and morphological type of tumor remained significantly associated with the out come. Stage III (HR = 2.3, 95 % CI: 1.5-3.6) and stage IV (HR = 4.4, 95 % CI: 2.8-6.9) were associated with shorter survival compared to the reference category. Patients with intestinal type of cancer were more likely to survive longer (HR = 0.7, 95 % CI: 0.6-0.8). Conclusions: High proportion of cases diagnosed at advance stage and low survival warrant urgent measures on both population and institutional levels. Preventive activities, increased awareness of the population and implementation of routine screening should be among the priority actions to improve survival of stomach cancer patients and decrease cancer mortality in Western Kazakhstan.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(1):51-56
pages 51-56 views

ADAPTATION OF THE HEALTH LITERACY HLS19 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE RUSSIAN POPULATION

Lopatina M.V., Popovich M.V., Kontsevaya A.V., Drapkina O.M.

Abstract

Health literacy is recognized as one of the most important determinants of health on the global level. International comparative population-based surveys on measuring health literacy using unified methodological approaches contribute to decisive national instruments on measurement, monitoring and improvement of health literacy in a population. These studies also contribute to the adaptation of the measures, taking into account the level of health literacy of vulnerable groups in particular. Until today, there was no instrument in the Russian Federation for measuring health literacy at the population level providing internationally comparable data. We attempted to adapt the HLS19 questionnaire developed within the international Health Literacy Survey in 2019 for use in Russia. The adaptation of the questionnaire was based on the European methodology which was tested in several countries of Europe and Asia and included 5 stages: translation from English into Russian, back translation from Russian into English, focus group, expert assessment and field testing. In spite of the fact that the instrument has already been translated into the Russian language and tested in some countries for the Russian-speaking population, a substantial adaptation of the questionnaire was needed taking into account the cultural and linguistic characteristics of the Russian population.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(1):57-64
pages 57-64 views

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