Vol 28, No 3 (2021)

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Full Issue



Kuzikova I.L., Medvedeva N.G.


Massive spread of opportunistic fungi in human environment is an emerging global environmental challenge. The amount of research on fungal contamination of the human environment and associations between anthropogenic mycocenoses and human health has been increasing in recent years. A significant number of fungal contaminants have been considered as causative agents of invasive aspergillosis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchial asthma, mucorosis, etc. Moreover, the incidence of mycoses caused by opportunistic fungi has been increasing globally. A significant number of pathogenic factors observed in opportunistic fungi are similar to those in the pathogenic ones. A unique ability to adapt to changing environment results in resistance to both human defense mechanisms and antifungal agents making control of fungal contamination a significant challenge. In this paper we review the evidence from national and international studies as well as own research on the distribution of various fungi species in human environment and their pathogenicity. We also discuss the need for development of safe, effective and ecofriendly fungicides.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(3):4-14
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Galchenko A.V., Sherstneva A.A., Lapik I.A., Kulesh V.I., Sukhno E.O., Zarov A.Y., Revyakina V.A.


Aim: To compare nutrition of fasting and non-fasting women in Moscow. Methods: Daily intake of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and their fractions, water- and fat-soluble vitamins, macro-, micro- and ultra trace elements as well as the total caloric content of diet was estimated in 33 fasting and 32 non-fasting women during the Lent. Nutrition was assessed by frequency analysis using Nutrilogic software. Results: Fasting women had significantly higher intake of carbohydrates (412 g vs. 174 g) and fiber (42 g vs. 17 g), but lower intake of cholesterol (74 mg vs. 401 mg) and saturated fats (18 g vs. 30 g). Fasting women were less likely to consume insufficient amounts of vitamins B1 (12 % vs. 91 %), B3 (52 % vs. 91 %), B5 (52 % vs. 91 %), B6 (48 % vs. 88 %), B9 (42 % vs. 94 %) and E (24 % vs. 72 %), potassium (6 % vs. 41 %), magnesium (21 % vs. 91 %), iron (18 % vs. 81 %) and copper (3 % vs. 41 %). P < 0.001 for all comparisons. All women consumed insufficient amount of vitamin D with food. Conclusion: Diet of fasting women had more favourable macro- and micronutrient composition and was richer in vitamins except vitamin D. This dietary pattern may be associated with health benefits in fasting women.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(3):15-24
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Balanova Y.A., Kontsevaya A.V., Myrzamatova A.O., Mukaneeva D.K., Khudyakov M.B., Drapkina O.M.


Introduction: Excessive salt intake (ESI) is a well-established risk factor of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Russia is among the countries with the high salt consumption. Population-based strategies to reduce salt intake have a potential for significant contribution to reduce the burden of NCDs. Modeling studies to justify the need and quantify the potential of these measures have been performed in several countries, but the evidence from Russia is still scarce. Aim: To forecast the efficiency of selected population-based prevention strategies to reduce salt intake in Russia. Methods: Potential efficiency of two population-based strategies was assessed. Introduction of the national excise tax on sodium used for industrial food production was the first strategy. The second strategy was a long term health literacy mass-media campaign aimed to reduce salt intake combined with a voluntary reduction in salt content in processed foods by manufacturers. Russia-specific impact of ESI on NCDs and population attributive risk (PAR) were calculated using previously assessed economic burden (EB) of ESI. The prediction period was 15 years. The changes in PAR after the introduction of population-based prevention strategies and changes in the EB of selected NCDs were calculated. Results: The first and the second programmed had a potential to reduce ESI prevalence by 2.99 % and 7.49 %, respectively. The corresponding numbers of prevented cases of NCDs were 23 352 and 57 874. Avoided direct medical costs exceeded 390 million rubles for the first strategy and over 969 million rubles for the second. The cumulative economic effect over 15 years was 4.10 billion rubles for the introduction of the new tax while the predicted cumulative economic effect of the second programme was 9.9 billion rubles. Conclusions: Although the population-based prevention strategies selected for this study have not yet been implemented in Russia, both have a significant potential to reduce the burden of NCDs and have substantial economic efficiency.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(3):25-33
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Maksimov D.M., Maksimova Z.V.


Introduction: Both smoking and heavy drinking have been consistently shown to be associated with social factors, such as age, gender and education, although their relative importance vary across populations. Aim: To assess the prevalence and social correlates of tobacco smoking and hazardous drinking among industrial workers in the Sverdlovsk region of Russia. Methods: Altogether, 2 432 employees (59 % men) of industrial enterprises of Sverdlovsk region took part in a cross-sectional study during annual medical checkup in 2015 using the WHO STEPS questionnaire. For this study only data on smoking, hazardous drinking, age, gender and education were used. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to study independent associations between smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption as dependent variables and education, age, gender and body mass index. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results: The prevalence of daily smoking was 45.2 % and 16.6 % among men and women, respectively. The corresponding numbers for hazardous drinking were 18.4 % and 10.2 %. The highest prevalence of both smoking and drinking were among 25-34 year-olds. Primary (OR = 3.2, 95 % CI: 2.0-5.3) and secondary (OR = 2.6, 95 % CI: 1.5-2.4) education were independently associated with higher prevalence of smoking. For associations between education and hazardous alcohol consumption the corresponding odds ratios were 2.7 (95 % CI: 1.5-4.6) and 1.8 (95 % CI: 1.3-2.5). Conclusions: Female employees in the Sverdlovsk region were more likely to smoke while men were less likely to drink heavily compared to the general population. Gender and education were significantly associated with both smoking and hazardous drinking. The youngest age-group had the highest prevalence of the studied unhealthy behaviors.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(3):34-41
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Nikanov A.N., Gudkov A.B., Popova O.N., Smolina V.S., Chaschin V.P.


Introduction: Mineral content of tap water vary significantly between settings and may affect blood mineral composition in humans. The evidence from Arctic Russian settings is scarce. Aim: To assess blood mineral composition among residents of areas with low mineralization of water from underground sources distributed by centralized water supply systems in Arctic Russia. Methods: The study was performed in the town of Kirovsk, Murmansk region. Only permanent residents of the town aged 18-23 years participated. Concentrations of Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, Tl, V, Zn, Y in tap water and whole blood were determined by atomic emission spectrometry. Results: Tap water in Kirovsk has an increased pH value, with a total mineralization of 65.0 mg/l with the legal limit of 1000 mg/l). Magnesium and calcium concentrations were 1 000-1 500 and 150-300 times below maximum permissible (MPC) concentrations, re spectively. The concentration of aluminum exceeded MPC by 30-50 % while concentrations of other elements were tens to hundreds times below MPC. In blood, calcium concentration was slightly below the average value for healthy individuals while and the magnesium content corresponded to normal values. An increased concentration of boron (2.45 ± 0.11 mg/l) was revealed. Conclusions: Contrary to expectations, residents of the area with low mineral content of tap water did not have a significant decrease in concentrations of calcium and magnesium in whole blood. No signs of increased concentration of heavy metals in blood of the residents were observed. Despite the high concentration of aluminum in water, its concentration in whole blood is within the physiological limits. At the same time, an increased blood concentration of boron was revealed warranting further research.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(3):42-47
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Self-Perceived Health and Its Associations with Social Factors and Perceived Environmental Quality in Southern Kazakhstan: a Cross-Sectional Study

Alipbekova S.N., Buleshov M.A.


Introduction: Self-perceived health (SPH) has been shown to be a valid proxy indicator of health status in epidemiological studies. Substantial social variations in SPH have been previously reported from Kazakhstan. Southern Kazakhstan is among the poorest regions of the country with limited health information in international peer-reviewed literature. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess SPH in Southern Kazakhstan and its associations with selected social factors and perceived environmental quality. Methods: Altogether, 1 148 permanent residents of the Turkistan region aged 16-63 years participated in a cross-sectional study. Data on SPH, age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, perceived environmental quality, smoking and alcohol consumption were collected by a questionnaire. Associations between SPH and selected socio-demographic and geographical variables were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Results: Poor, satisfactory, good and very good SPH was reported by 4.4 %, 27.1 %, 55.3 % and 13.2 % of the participants, respectively. Men (OR = 2.11; 95 % CI: 1.53-2.89), cohabiting responders (OR = 2.37; 95 % CI: 1.30-4.35), those who perceived environmental quality as unhealthy (OR = 2.12; 95 % CI: 1.31-3.43) or satisfactory (OR = 1.75; 95 % CI: 1.16-2.66), smokers (OR = 1.64; 95 % CI: 1.02-2.64), alcohol drinkers (OR = 1.44; 95 % CI: 1.00-2.06) and residents of Ordabasinski district (OR = 1.98; 95 % CI: 1.22-3.23) were more likely to report poorer health (poor+satisfactory combined) than their counterparts in the reference categories in the final multivariable model. Conclusions: The observed variations in SPH in Southern Kazakhstan contribute to the knowledge on inequalities in health in Kazakhstan and warrant monitoring of health inequalities on the national level. Further research in Southern Kazakhstan should address the factors behind the associations documented in this study.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(3):48-53
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Narkevich A.N., Vinogradov K.A., Grjibovski A.M.


Modern analytical tasks in biomedical research require increasingly sophisticated methods of data analysis. In recent years, the term data analysis is not only related to classical statistical tests for hypothesis testing and correlation analysis for studying associations between variables. Classification tree or decision tree analysis is getting more and more frequently used in biomedical research. In this paper we present the use of classification trees in biomedical research and provide examples of their construction in the most commonly used statistical programs. The article is constructed as a problem solving exercise using classification trees with an example of a data set for creation of classification trees and description of how to build a classification tree model in IBM SPSS Statistics and StatSoft Statistica software. Moreover, we provide recommendations on how the results of this analysis should be presented in a scientific article. The use of the classification trees has a potential to contribute to better understanding of the factors behind the observed phenomena in medicine and biology.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(3):54-64
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