Vol 28, No 8 (2021)

Cover Page



Karpin V.A.


Northern territories of the Russian Federation have become a sphere of the National interests after discovery of rich oil and gas fields in the Arctic and Subarctic areas. Migration of workers to the areas with extreme climatic factors from the regions with temporal climate has become a significant public health issue. Health promotion and disease prevention among the residents of the Russian North is an important research area of the Medical Ecology of the North. We present a systematic review of the literature on Medical Ecology of the Russia North using both Russian and international databases. CyberLeninka, eLibrary, Russian State Library, PubMed and Springer databases were searched for the following keywords: "Medical ecology of the North", "Adaptation and maladaptation of the body", "Diseases of the alien population of the North". The results of the selection of papers were summarized chronologically. Firstly, we presented the main historical achievements that laid the foundation for a new science in the 1960-70s. Secondly, we summarize the main achievements of the "Northern" medicine in the subsequent years until present. However, the results of the review clearly showed that many social and medical problems of the Northern territories had not been completely resolved. The most important areas for further research were identified. Solving the identified problems will contribute to improvement of health and the quality of life of the population of the Russian North.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(8):4-11
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Eremeev S.I., Eremeeva O.V., Kormilets V.S., Kormilets A.Y.


Aim: To verify reference values of the heart rate variability (HRV) parameters among healthy 18-27-year olds in the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug - Ugra, Eastern Siberia. Methods: Data were collected in series of observational analytical cross-sectional studies between 2006 and 2020. The sample consisted of 13269 subjects - 7442 women and 5827 men aged 18 to 27 years permanently living in Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug. We studied parameters of background HRV on short-term recordings in the time and frequency domains, Poincare graph and cardiointervalography by R. M. Baevsky. For all HRV parameterswe assessed minimal and maximal values as well as the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 97th percentile. Gender differences in all studied variables were studied using Mann-Whitney tests after normality testing using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests with Lilliefors correction. Results: We observed significant differences between central tendencies of all studied HRV parameters between women and men (p < 0.01) with the exception of the relative power of the spectrum in the very low frequency range - an indicator of the adequacy of the regulation processes and the vegetative rhythm indicator. Conclusions: The reference values of the HRV parameters for young adults living in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Ugrawere verified. Significant gender differences in all the studied HRV parameters were observed except one, which is considered to be an indicator of the adequacy of the regulation processes and the vegetative rhythm indicator. We also discuss applying centile values of the relative spectral power of HRV to identify categories of heart rate modulation.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(8):12-20
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Khmelnitskaya E.A., Kiku P.F., Sabirova K.M., Kabieva A.A.


Introduction: High prevalence of behavioral and lifestyle risk factors have been associated with unfavorable trends in general health of Russian children. Aim: To assess health status of schoolchildren in Primorsky kray (Russian Far East) and to study the prevalence of risk factors for the development of chronic non-communicable diseases. Methods: Altogether, 10268 children aged 7 to 17 years were examined in 2016-2018 at the regional health center for children in Vladivostok. We assessed the prevalence of the most common risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases, namely, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, excess body weight, lack of body weight, low physical activity, stress, unhealthy nutrition, abnormal blood pressure and smoking. Differences in the prevalence of risk factors between gender, age-groups and years of assessment were studied using Pearson's chi-squared test. Results: The proportion of healthy children decreased from 32.6 % to 24.3 % over the years of the study. The proportion of children in the 2nd health group increased from 67.4 % to 75.7. Unhealthy nutrition, overweight and obesity, stress, low physical activity were the most prevalent risk factors. Significant differences in the proportions of risk factors were observed between genders, age-groups and years of observation. Conclusions: Our results may be of practical significance for the development of individual and population health promotion- and disease prevention programs for schoolchildren with further going aim to prevent non-communicable diseases in the Russian Far East
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(8):21-27
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Chernaya V.V., Voronin R.M., Suchkov Ч.A., Gornov V.A., Deryagina L.E.


Aim: To perform expert assessment of monitoring data on air pollution and surface water in the Ryazan region, Central Russia. Methods: A descriptive study. The information of state standards and regulations in the field of sanitation and hygiene, local acts in the field of environmental monitoring, a number of federal and regional statistical books were studied, analyzed and systematized. Screening evaluation of the analytical information, identification and generalization of problems in the existing system of chemical monitoring and identification of hazards and risks were done. We used a method for analyzing and synthesizing statistical information and a method of converting absolute values to relative values. The system analysis allowed us to draw conclusions and recommendations and to suggest the directions for further research. Results: The analysis of atmospheric air and surface water pollution information in the Ryazan region is presented. The urgent need to change the existing system for monitoring atmospheric air and surface water is shown. The ways of the environment chemical monitoring effectiveness increasing and increasing the level of objectivity of environmental quality assessment procedures in the Ryazan region are outlined. The necessity of working and organizing a system of continuous operational monitoring of environmental components, monitoring of toxicants and implementation of independent expert monitoring of environment components with the further going aim to develop "Medical and ecological Atlas of Ryazan region". Conclusions: The situation with chemical pollution of the atmosphere and surface water objects in the Ryazan region has been stagnating since the 1990s. Periodic ultra-high pollution parameters were detected, in some cases exceeding the maximum permissible standards by tens and hundreds of times. The solution of the effectiveness and environmental quality assessment reliability problem lies in the improvement of the state monitoring system and the support of independent expert monitoring.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(8):28-35
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Vorobyeva N.A., Kunavina K.A., Golubovich A.V., Vorobyeva A.I., Kharkova O.A.


Introduction: Classical risk factors do not fully explain the development of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have reported associations between periodontal diseases and metabolic disturbances, although the data from Russia is scarce. Aim: To study associations between the periodontal microbiota and the main markers of metabolism among the Nenets permanently living on the Vaygach island, Arctic Russia. Methods: Oral hygiene, intensity of gingival inflammation, DNA of the main periodontal pathogens and blood concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and lactate were assessed in 48 individuals. Mann-Whitney tests, correlation analysis and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to study associations between the studies variables Results: Oral hygiene in the examined subjects was good - 1,0 (0.3; 1.0), and there was little inflammation in the gum tissues - 0.0 % (0.0; 15.0). In 54.2 % of the study participants no periodontal pathogens with clinically relevant concentrations were detected while in 45.8 % from 1 to 5 periodontal pathogens at a clinically relevant concentration were found. The total cholesterol rate in blood serum was 5.1 (4.5; 5.9) mmol/L, triglycerides 1,3 (1.1; 2.7) mmol/L, glucose 4,9 (4.2; 5.4) and lactate 4.8 (3.8; 6.0). Positive correlation was observed between total cholesterol and the OHI-S score (rs = 0.681, p = 0.003). No other associations were found. Conclusions: Complex associations between periodontal microbiota and metabolic markers described in the literature warrant further research in Arctic settings aimed at identifying additional triggers for the development of vascular events.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(8):36-41
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Polyushkevich O.A., Ivanov R.V., Zhuravleva I.A., Zavialov A.V.


Aim: To study the signs of destruction of mental ecology of the Russian society after the terrorist attack on 17 October 2018 in Kerch by the assessment of the changes in values, perceptions, and attitudes of the population after the terrorist act, as well as the influence of the mass media and Internet resources. Methods: We performed a population-based cross-sectional survey of residents of the Irkutsk region (n = 1 200) as well as content analysis of the media and Internet resources (n = 61) shortly after the attack. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis. Unpaired t-test was used to study differences between the means of continuous variables. Results: We revealed a significant impact of the college shooting incident in Kerch on personal and social attitudes, perceptions and expectations being mostly negative in their nature, reinforce fears, alienation and anxiety contributing to the destruction of the mental ecology of the society. It was revealed that fear (P = 0.06), depression (P = 0.004) and activity (P = 0.002) were more important factors for the males, although not always reaching the level of statistical significance while anxiety (P = 0.05), indifference (P = 0.007) and empathy (P = 0.002) were more important for the females. The dominant state during an act of mass violence was fear for both the younger- (P = 0.05) and the older- (P=0.04) generations. At the same time, the younger generation was better characterized by activity (P = 0.006), indifference (P = 0.004) and empathy (P = 0.005) while depression (P = 0.003) and anxiety (P = 0.004) were more typical for the older generation. Conclusions: Our study demonstrate that mass violence, constantly discussed in the media and on the Internet, increases the level of anxiety and depression among the people and destroys mental ecology of the society. Significant differences in the reaction on the information across genders and generations were observed.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(8):42-49
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Arkhipova O.E., Chernogubova E.A.


Introduction: Malignant neoplasms represent a substantial medical and social problem of this century. Neither significant progress in our ability to diagnose caner at an early stage nor advancements in treatment contributed to the reduction in the incidence of cancer. A need for better understanding of the distribution of cancer over time and space warrants studies of spatio-temporal clusters of the most common malignant neoplasms. Aim: To study spatiotemporal clusters in the incidence of the most common cancers in the Rostov region, Southern Russia. Methods: We studied the incidence of lung-, breast-, colon- and prostate cancers from 2001 through 2016 in the Rostov region using the official statistical data. Spatio-temporal analysis of the data and their visualization was performed using the tool "Analysis of emerging hot spots" from the "In-depth analysis of spatiotemporal patterns" set of tools of the ArcGIS Pro software environment. Results: The incidence of prostate- and breast cancer increased by 119.6 % from 9.7 in 2001 to 21.3 cases per 100 thousand population (p < 0.05) and by 27.2 % from 26.8 to 34.1 cases per 100 thousand population (p < 0.05), respectively. The incidence of lung cancer decreased by 32.3 % from 51.0 to 34.5 cases per 100 thousand population (p < 0.05). The analysis showed that the prevalence of cancer varies significantly across individual territorial systems. Spatial clusters of low incidence of cancer are localized in the northern and central parts of the region. The "Hot spots" of the cancer incidence are located mainly in the southern part of the region. Conclusions: Identification of spatial and temporal clusters of the incidence of malignant neoplasms allows to set priorities in the implementation of measures aimed at management of factors which increase the incidence of cancer. Temporal trends in the incidence of malignant neoplasms reflects the level of the ecological well-being of the region.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(8):50-56
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Public Health Rehabilition after Acute Myocardial Infarction: a Randomized Controlled Study

Zhamankulova D.G., Zhamaliyeva L.M., Kurmanalina G.L., Tanbetova Z., Grjibovski A.M.


Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main causes of death worldwide. The incidence of and mortality from CVD in Kazakhstan is greater than in most neighboring countries warranting urgent public health measures related to both primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Aims: To assess whether a newly developed 6-months public health rehabilitation program for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with home visits performed by physician assistants is superior to the standard rehabilitation of these patients in Western Kazakhstan. Methods: A randomized controlled study. A total of 75 AMI patients were enrolled after discharge form the hospital and 72 completed the trial. The control group (n = 34) participated in the standard rehabilitation program while the intervention group (n = 38) underwent and experimental rehabilitation program with home visits in addition to the standard program. Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipids, smoking and compliance to the treatment were assessed at the enrollment and after 6 months of the follow-up. Differences between the changes in the intervention and in the control group were compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The experimental program was superior to the standard program in reducing systolic- (-22.5 vs. -2.9 mm Hg, p < 0.004) and diastolic (-6.3 vs. -0.6 mm Hg, p = 0.032) blood pressure, body mass index (-0.99 vs. 0.53 kg/m2, p < 0.001), waist circumference (-3.0 vs. 1.7 cm, p < 0.001) and the number of smoked cigarettes (-12 vs. -3, p = 0.002). Blood lipid profiles improved in both groups. Although slightly more pronounced changes were observed in the intervention group, the differences did not reach the level of statistical significance. Conclusions: The program was more effective on blood pressure, smoking and obesity-related indicators than the standard rehabilitation. Larger studies are warranted to corroborate our findings prior to implementation of the program in practice.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(8):57-64
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