Vol 29, No 2 (2022)

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Nanoparticles and nanomaterials as inevitable modern toxic agents. Review. Part 1. Application of nanoparticles and occupational nanotoxicology

Ivlieva A.L., Zinicovscaia I., Petriskaya E.N., Rogatkin D.A.


Almost every person in all spheres of activity is in contact with nanoparticles (NPs) worldwide. The use of NPs in medicine, everyday life, food industry, and many other areas is expanding. Therefore, in the 2010s, a new scientific direction, namely, nanosafety, was developed actively. The effects of contact with NPs on cells and tissues, including inflammation, development of oxidative stress, disruption of the DNA structure, apoptosis, and disruption of the functioning of tissues and organs, have been studied within the framework of the study of molecular and cellular toxicity. NPs with waste and emissions are carried by air, water, and soil, which then enter living organisms. The impact of NPs on ecosystems is assessed on the basis of their toxicity to the environment. NPs pose a significant danger to workers in production, where contact with NPs can be long and chronic. In occupational pathology, data are accumulated on NP-induced health problems and associated risk factors in workers in the nanotechnology industry. Given the abundance of NPs in human, expectant mothers and young children inevitably come into contact with them; therefore, studying the influence of NPs on the intrauterine and early development of offspring is an important area of research. The brain is a vulnerable place for exposure to NPs because of their ability to cross the blood–brain barrier. Evidence of disturbances in the structure and functions of the brain in adults and young animals is found in all areas of research on the toxicity of NPs. Methods for assessing various aspects of behavior based on various brain functions, including cognition, can provide insights into the negative consequences of contact with NPs for high nervous activity. These results are described in detail and systematically in the presented review. However, such results need further research. In a number of studies, the toxic effect of NPs remains unclear. Furthermore, whether these situations can be used for protection against the toxic effects of NPs must be investigated.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(2):73-88
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Cross-sectional study to measure health literacy among the population over 18 years old in selected regions of the Russian Federation: relevance and study design

Lopatina M.V., Popovich M.V., Fomicheva M.L., Ziganshina Z.R., Prischepa N.N., Kontsevaya A.V., Drapkina O.M.


INTRODUCTION: Health literacy (HL) is a key factor that determines the effectiveness of decisions made by people with regard to a healthy lifestyle, prevention, and treatment of diseases. In addition, high-quality, updated, and comparable data are required to comprehensively understand the overall situation and identify specific areas for intervention. Therefore, the WHO suggests the regular measurement of HL in accordance with the WHO Action Network on Measuring Population and Organizational Health Literacy.

AIM: This study aimed to develop a comprehensive system for measuring HL in the prevention and treatment of noncommunicable diseases and in health promotion among the population aged 18 and older.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. The questionnaire HLS19-Q-22-RU_Russian on measuring HL, which was adapted for the Russian population, was used to ensure the reliability and comparability of the data at the international level. Internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire were studied using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Participants of the study aged 18 years and older in three regions of the Russian Federation were selected using multistage random sampling. The population survey was conducted through personal interviews in households from November to December 2019.

Health literacy levels were formed by calculating the sum of dichotomous elements, which were standardized in the range of 0 to 100. Cut-off points of 50.0–66.6–83.3 were used as threshold values for determining HL levels. The resulting HL levels were labeled as “inadequate,” “problematic,” “sufficient,” and “excellent.”

RESULTS: Based on the HLS19 international research standards for measuring HL, the design of the first population study in Russia was developed, which included five stages: adaptation of the questionnaire, sampling procedure, training of interviewers and supervisors, conducting a population study, and data analysis. The assessment of the internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire using Cronbach’s alpha showed a high α value for the Russian questionnaire (α=0.9). Consequently, an international methodology for measuring HL, adapted for the Russian population, was applied.

CONCLUSION: The findings can be used by researchers, disease prevention, public health promotion, and decision-makers when selecting methods for comprehensive measurements of adult HL at the population level.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(2):89-98
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The influence of changes in the organization of medical care on the indicators of mental disorders in children

Volova T.L., Shelygin K.V., Menshikova L.I., Redko A.N.


AIM: This study aimed to assess the relationship between regulatory innovation strategy for changing the organization of medical care in children and adolescents and the dynamics of the incidence of mental and behavioral disorders in children aged 0–14 years.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The rate of chronicity was calculated as the ratio of the primary morbidity to the overall morbidity of mental and behavioral disorders. The presence of outliers (anomalous observations) in the series was determined using Irwin’s method, with n=11, λcr=1.3. Mathematical apparatus: for the three analyzed series (primary, general morbidity, and chronicity coefficient), three mathematical models were built: one one-dimensional model and two — with the introduction of dummy variables — for orders No. 1346, No. 72n, No. 216n and order No. 1687n). The statistics of fit was compared between the one- dimensional model and each of the four models with dummy variables for the corresponding series. Moreover, their logarithmic values were used to reduce the variance of the series. Significance was assessed at p ≤0.05.

RESULTS: Evaluation of the analyzed series for the presence of anomalous observations revealed a similar trend in the Arkhangelsk region and North–West Federal District. In all regions, except for the Russian Federation, emissions were concentrated from 2015 to 2017. In 2010, national analysis revealed only one anomalous observation. Graphical analysis and analysis by Irwin’s method revealed similar trends with regard to abnormal observations of the dynamics of the coefficient of chronicity in the Arkhangelsk region and Northwestern Federal District, which confirmed the previously established dynamic trends in the general and primary morbidity in children aged 0–14 years. In addition, after 2015, the dynamic changes were most pronounced in the Arkhangelsk region.

CONCLUSIONS: No correlation was found among normative innovations for changing the organization of medical care among children and adolescents, changes in medical birth criteria, the dynamics of the incidence of mental disorders and behavioral disorders, indicators of the chronicity of this pathology in children aged 0–14 years, and mental and behavioral disorders in the Arkhangelsk region, Northwestern Federal District, and the Russian Federation in 2009–2019.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(2):99-108
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Effect of subchronic intoxication with thyram on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the state of lipoperoxidation processes

Korolev I.V., Sedykh A.V., Korolev V.A., Felker E.V., Medvedevа O.A., Ryadnova V.A., Korolev E.V.


AIM: This study aimed to investigate the effect of oxidative stress on the antioxidant defense system and state of lipid peroxidation of the body.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Modeling of oxidative stress was carried out on 240 rats by daily administration of thiram at a dose of 1/50 LD50 (8 mg/kg body weight) in the diet of rats for 4 weeks. The catalytic activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase and the concentration of malondialdehyde and diene conjugates were analyzed.

RESULTS: The modeling of subchronic intoxication significantly decreased the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (p <0.05) and increased the concentration of malondialdehyde, diene conjugates in blood plasma, erythrocyte mass, and liver homogenate. After experimental subchronic intoxication, antioxidants such as vitamin E at a dose of 8.58 mg/kg and milk thistle extract at a dose of 13.74 mg/kg were used. Using such antioxidants within 30 days had significantly restored the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and it also reduced the concentration of malondialdehyde and diene conjugates in all investigated body media.

CONCLUSION: Fungicide intoxication with thiram affects redox homeostasis. In addition, the usage of vitamin E and milk thistle extract can restore the prooxidant–antioxidant balance of the body.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(2):109-118
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Long-term dynamics of the physical development of children in Russia

Popov V.I., Ushakov I.B., Levushkin S.P., Zhukov O.F., Skoblina N.A.


AIM: This study aimed to conduct comprehensive scientific research to monitor the physical development of children in Russia aged 55 years from 1965 to 2021 and characterize the current state of acceleration activities.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 2021 as part of the all-Russian population monitoring of the physical development of schoolchildren aged 7–17 years. A total of 30,965 boys and 33,290 girls were examined. The standard anthropometric technique, tools, and statistical processing were used. The subjects of the Russian Federation for which there were archival published data were selected to analyze the long-term dynamics of the physical development of child population. The monitoring parameters included data about the climatic-geographical and socio-economic characteristics of the regions. The conducted study did not endanger the participants, and it complied with the requirements of biomedical ethics and the statements of the Declaration of Helsinki. Statistica 13 PL (StatSoft, USA) was used for data processing.

RESULTS: In the prognostic model for the formation of indicators of physical development of children, the leading factor (p ≤0.05) is age–gender characteristics (β-coefficient=4.06–5.04), and the second significant factor is the index of social development of the region (β-coefficient=0.37–0.47). Living in regions with insufficient insolation (β-coefficient=−0.44) and living in rural areas (β-coefficient=−0.44) are also considered as significant factors for boys.

DISCUSSION: “Regional scenarios” are observed in the physical development of children; therefore, the regional standards for the physical development of children must be updated every 10–20 years.

CONCLUSIONS: In the second decade of the XXI century, no manifestations of deceleration with gracilization are recorded at the end of the XX century in the physical development of the child population of Russia. The activity of acceleration with disharmonious manifestations has been addressed. Data about the physical development of children in Russia, which were analyzed in the dynamics of 55 years of observation, indicate that “regional scenarios” are associated with the influence of climatic, geographic, and socio-economic factors.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(2):119-128
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Adaptation of the Quest Scale questionnaire to study the connection between the religiosity of women and their behavior during pregnancy

Maryanyan A.Y., Kuzmin M.Y.


INTRODUCTION: This article presents the results of the adaptation of the Quest Scale questionnaire to study the religiosity in a Russian population, including women at different stages of pregnancy. The authors suggest that the study of religiosity as a personal quest is applicable when studying the religiosity of modern women. In addition, this study aimed to adapt the Quest Scale questionnaire to study the religiosity of women.

AIM: To adapt the Quest Scale questionnaire to investigate the religiosity of women.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The questionnaire was adapted for 530 people (50, pilot sample; 162, a group of subjects of different genders and ages; 318, a group of women at different stages of pregnancy; M=32.8 years; SD, 8.27 years) of different levels of education and ethnic and religious affiliation. Consistency, reproducibility, and validity were determined using the Cronbach consistency coefficient α, ICC coefficient, and factor analysis, respectively. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficient r was calculated on the basis of the “index of basic spiritual experiences,” which is a scale of religious orientation (G. Allport, D. Ross) to determine the structure of individual religiosity (Yu.V. Shcherbatykh). Calculations were performed in IBM SPSS 23.0 program.

RESULTS: During adaptation, the questionnaire with a high level of scale consistency was obtained: for the first scale “willingness to solve existential problems without reducing their complexity” α=0.85; for the second scale “positive perception of religious doubts” α=0.78; for the third scale “openness to change” α=0.76. In addition, the level of scale consistency is higher in pregnant women, and lower in subjects of different genders and ages. A sufficient level of stability was recorded during repeated reproduction (ICC≈0.83 for the first scale, ICC≈0.75 for the second scale, and ICC≈0.85 for the third scale, p=0.0001). The factor structure of the questionnaire is also described. External validity was established during the discussion of the relationship between the scales of the Quest Scale questionnaire and the methods adapted for the Russian population.

CONCLUSIONS. The adapted Quest Scale questionnaire is suitable for studying the peculiarities of religiosity in the Russian population, primarily for women at different stages of pregnancy.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(2):129-141
pages 129-141 views

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