PSYCHOLOGICAL MARKERS OF ALCOHOL RISK DEMAND AMONG THE EUROPEAN NORTH OF RUSSIA STUDENTS



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Abstract

The aim of the study is to identify psychological markers of the risk of alcohol demand among students in the European North of Russia.

Methods. The study involved 137 students of state universities in the city of Arkhangelsk (37 men and 100 women of 17-25 years of age), preliminarily selected for a number of criteria: born in the city of Arkhangelsk or the Arkhangelsk region, brought up in a complete, socially prosperous family, without financial and household problems that do not have chronic somatic and neurological diseases. The identification and analysis of the experience of alcohol consumption at the prenosological level was carried out by means of retrospective self-assessment of the subjects. The psychological status of the respondents was determined by assessing the indicators of the Freiburg multifactorial personality questionnaire FPI, accentuations of temperament and character, suggestibility, frustration, irritability and resentment, adventurousness, behavioral, social, professional, economic, political activity and social destructiveness.

Results. The condition for the selection of potential markers of the risk of alcohol consumption was the presence of extremely high or extremely low values ​​of psychotype indicators, in the case of statistically significant differences or tendencies towards statistically significant differences (P> 90%) in these indicators between the groups of men who consume and do not consume alcohol, as well as - women who consume and do not consume alcohol. In the group of men consuming alcoholic beverages, such conditions correspond to an extremely high value of extraversion (7.6 ± 0.50 units) and an extremely low value of shyness (2.5 ± 0.50 units). these conditions correspond to extremely high values ​​of emotivity - 18.3 ± 0.68 units, and behavioral activity - 7.2 ± 0.14 units.

Conclusions. For the first time, the analysis of the manifestation of psychotype indicators among students - representatives of the Russian population of the European North of Russia, consumers at the prenosological level and non-alcohol consumers was carried out. The psychological markers of the risk of alcohol demand among boys and girls permanently residing in the Northern Territories of the Russian Federation have been determined.

Full Text

Introduction
One of the most significant medical and social problems of the inhabitants of the Northern Territories is the prevalence of alcohol dependence among the population [10, 22, 23]. The negative role of social and socio-psychological environmental factors in the Northern Territories, contributing to the demand for psychoactive substances (PAS), has been determined: lag in the development of social infrastructure, transport disunity of territories, a high level of concentration of penitentiary institutions, low quality of self-preservation behavior of the population [3, 7, 12, 17]; the role of the population genotype in the addictive behavior of the population of the Northern Territories has been proven [20]; the relationship of a high level of alcoholism in the population of the North of Russia with poor sleep quality, mental and physical health problems caused by natural environmental factors has been studied [21]. It is substantiated that the consumption of surfactants is provoked by the body's demand for adaptogens, against the background of an increased level of functional and psychoemotional stress, caused, in turn, by the environmental conditions of the Northern Territories [4, 19]. In a number of works, the presence of systemic links between the level of alcoholism and the physical and geographical characteristics of the human environment has been determined. A positive effect on the risk of developing the propensity of the population to consume alcohol in the northern latitude of the place of residence was revealed against the background of the negative effect on alcoholization of solar radiation, the level of the average annual temperature, the length of the day in the winter season and the comfort of the environment [9, 25].
The results of the presented works are largely based on the study of the social status and genetic determinism of alcohol consumption among the inhabitants of the North. At the same time, there are no systemic studies of the psychotype of people permanently residing in the Northern Territories, in relation to their propensity to consume legal psychoactive substances. The available works characterizing the personal risk factors for alcohol consumption among young people, regardless of other conditions of their life, distinguish a universal set of the following psychotype indicators: emotional instability, impulsivity, anxiety, depression, suggestibility, propensity to shock and risk [5, 18]. The role of tobacco smoking in the aggravation of alcohol consumption in adolescence is noted. The mutual reinforcing influence of these addictions is explained by the common factors of their initiation and development [24]. In our own earlier studies, it was revealed that the geographical coordinates of the place of residence, as well as the severity of the average annual temperature and solar radiation have a statistically significant level of individual connections, both with the characteristics of the somatotype and with indicators of human behavioral and social activity, which have a potential impact on the demand for psychoactive substances [8].
In connection with the available information, it seems expedient, using the example of student youth, as the population group least dependent on the negative influence of social factors of the environment, to study the indicators of the psychological prerequisites for the formation of the propensity of residents of the northern territories of Russia to consume alcohol.
The aim is to identify psychological markers of the risk of alcohol demand among students in the European North of Russia.

Methods
The object of the research involved 137 students of state universities in Arkhangelsk (37 men and 100 women of 17-25 years of age), preliminarily selected according to a number of criteria: Russians born in Arkhangelsk or the Arkhangelsk region, brought up in a complete, socially prosperous family who do not have financial and domestic problems, do not have chronic somatic and neurological diseases. The study was carried out in person, anonymously, during scheduled training sessions in November 2020. All work was carried out in accordance with the principles of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, in terms of Articles 4 (benefit and harm), 5 (independence and individual responsibility) , 6 (consent) and 9 (privacy and confidentiality) [2].
For the study, standard methods of questionnaire and blank testing were used. The gender, age, place of birth of the respondents, ethnicity of each of the parents were taken into account. The identification of the experience of alcohol consumption at the prenosological level was carried out by means of a retrospective self-assessment of the subjects, the experience of smoking of the respondents was taken into account.
The psychological status of the subjects was determined by assessing the indicators of the Freiburg multifactorial personality [15], accentuations of temperament and character [6], suggestibility, frustration, irritability and resentment [14], adventurousness [13], behavioral, social, professional, economic, political activity and social destructiveness [16]. For all the studied indicators, the normality of the distribution of their values ​​in the sample populations was calculated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The results obtained indicated abnormal

m distribution of the values ​​of the studied indicators in more than 70% of cases, which served as the basis for the use of nonparametric statistical methods for subsequent data analysis. A comparative assessment of the differences in the manifestation of psychotype indices in the observation groups was carried out by the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney method, with the calculation of the arithmetic mean (M) and the arithmetic mean error (m). The statistical significance of differences in qualitative indicators between the observation groups was assessed by Fisher's F-test. The formation of the database of primary information and statistical processing of the research results were carried out in MS Excel 2007 (12.0.6611.1000) (Microsoft), Statistica 6.0 (StatSoftInc., USA).
results
As a result of the study, a list of indicators was determined that characterize the psychotype of men and women - representatives of student youth in the European North of Russia who consume and do not consume alcohol at the pre-nosological level (Fig. 1). It was determined that in men who consume alcohol, a statistically significant prevalence of extraversion (p = 0.013), behavioral activity (p = 0.049), as well as the presence of a trend towards a statistically significant predominance of adventurousness (p = 0.054) and social destructiveness (p = 0.067) is recorded. ... On the contrary, in the group of men who do not consume alcohol, dysthymia (p = 0.029), anxiety (p = 0.031), shyness (p = 0.031) and suggestibility (p = 0.050) prevailed statistically significantly, as well as a tendency towards a statistically significant predominance of emotional lability (p = 0.083).
Among women - alcohol consumers, social activity (p = 0.005), behavioral activity (p = 0.010), prosociality (p = 0.010), poise (p = 0.031), as well as a tendency towards a statistically significant predominance of emotiveness (p = 0.069) prevail statistically. ). In the group of women who do not consume alcohol, there is a statistically significant prevalence of stuckness (p = 0.007) and masculinity (p = 0.037).
An additional analysis of the experience of tobacco smoking among students, characterized by different frequency of alcohol consumption, revealed unidirectional direct connections of socially acceptable addictions (Fig. 2). At the same time, the maximum proportion of smokers is present in the group of women who consume alcohol twice a week and more often, which is statistically significant (p <0.01) higher than the relative number of smokers among women who do not consume alcohol (F = 3.677) and consume it once per month or less (F = 3.853). It should be noted that among men, there were no persons consuming alcohol twice a week or more often. The relative number of smokers in the group of men who do not consume alcohol is statistically significant (p <0.01) less than the share of men who smoke among alcohol consumers 2-4 times a month (F = 2.378).
Further studies were aimed at identifying markers of the risk of alcohol consumption, taking into account the gender of the person. The condition for the selection of potential markers of the risk of alcoholization was the presence of extremely high or extremely low values ​​of psychotype indicators, in the case of statistically significant differences or tendencies towards statistically significant differences (P> 90%) in these indicators between the groups of men who consume and do not consume alcohol, as well as those who consume and non-alcoholic women. A comparative assessment of the psychotype of men and women who consume and do not consume alcohol revealed a number of pronounced relationships between the studied phenomena. In the group of men consuming alcoholic beverages, an extremely high value of extraversion is recorded (7.6 ± 0.50 units) and an extremely low value of shyness (2.5 ± 0.50 units), against the background of average values ​​of extraversion (5.4 ± 0.62 units) and shyness (4.7 ± 0.80 units) in the group of men who do not consume alcohol. In the group of women consuming alcohol, emotiveness has extremely high values ​​of the arithmetic mean values ​​- 18.3 ± 0.68 units. and behavioral activity - 7.2 ± 0.14 units. against the background of average values ​​of emotivity (13.7 ± 0.62 units) and behavioral activity (6.3 ± 0.28 units) in the group of women who do not consume alcohol.
To determine the boundaries of the potential criticality of the values ​​of the identified markers of the psychological risk of alcoholization, the calculation of the 95th percentile was undertaken for the complexly manifested indicators in the groups of men and women who consume alcohol. This procedure provided the differentiation of the continuum of the results obtained into two zones of values ​​that determine the boundaries of the critical values ​​for each indicator of the risk of alcoholism. The control values ​​of the indicators of the conditionality of the studied addiction correspond to the range from the 95th to the 100th percentile, inclusive. The results of calculating the control values ​​of risk indicators for alcohol consumption are presented in the table.

Fig. 1. The severity of indicators characterizing the psychotype of alcohol-consuming and non-consuming men and women

 

Fig. 2 Relative number (%) of smokers among men and women with different levels of alcohol consumption

table
Calculation of control values ​​of indicators of risk of alcohol consumption in men and women

No.

Indicators

Men

Women

P95

Reference values

P95

Reference values

1

Extraversion

8,0

8-12

-

-

2

Shyness

2,6

0-3

-

-

3

Emotion

-

-

19,2

19-24

4

Behavioral activity

-

-

6,3

6-8

The discussion of the results
Analyzing the results of the studies performed, it is necessary to characterize the behavioral components of psychological markers of the risk of alcoholism in men and women.
Among students who consume alcohol, the genetically determined indicators of risk of consumption, first of all, include extraversion in men and emotiveness in women. As you know, a typical extrovert is optimistic, sociable, impulsive, has a wide circle of acquaintances and weak control over feelings and emotions [1]. This personality characteristic, combined with a low level of shyness, justifies the increased risk of alcoholism in men. An increased level of emotiveness, reflecting the weakness of the nervous system, as well as excessive sensitivity and emotionality, leads to psychoemotional maladjustment of a person, undoubtedly being a risk factor for the demand for alcohol in women. Pronounced behavioral activity, apparently, compensates for excessive modesty and, thereby, reduces the psychological barrier in women in relation to alcohol consumption. Additionally, it is necessary to take into account the presence of tobacco dependence, as a concomitant addiction of alcoholism, characteristic of both men and women.
The expediency of using the presented indicators as psychological markers of the risk of alcohol demand among students in the European North of Russia is justified by a number of points. First, by attracting students as respondents - representatives of the Russian population living in the Arkhangelsk region at least in the second generation, successfully adapted to the climatic conditions of the North. Their economic, social, physical and mental well-being minimizes the risk of exogenous causes of initiation of psychoactive substance use. The age of majority and relative independence, due to the social status of the student, endow the individual with the freedom to choose the consumption of legal psychoactive substances, which, in essence, reflects the person's actual need for alcohol consumption. Secondly, the presence of combinations of psychotype indicators, characterized by a stable manifestation of their special combinations for each of the four selected observation groups: alcohol-consuming and non-alcoholic men, alcohol-consuming and non-alcoholic women. Third, the critical (minimum or maximum) severity of indicators that claim to be psychological markers of the risk of alcohol consumption for men and women. The criticality of the severity of these indicators reflects the presence in a person of clearly manifested traits of character and temperament that determine one or another vector of complex forms of behavior, including those associated with alcoholism.
The identified markers of the risk of alcohol consumption are recommended to be applied to young people belonging to the indigenous Russian inhabitants of the European North of Russia. This limitation is associated both with the territorial specificity of the manifestation of environmental factors that predetermine the population phenotype and genotype of society [11], and with the age characteristics of the psychotype of the studied population cohort.
Thus, as a result of experimental studies, for the first time, an analysis of the manifestation of psychotype indicators among students - representatives of the Russian population of the European North of Russia, consumers at the prenosological level and non-alcohol consumers - has been carried out. The identification of psychological markers of the risk of alcohol demand among boys and girls permanently residing in the Northern Territories of the Russian Federation has been substantiated.

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About the authors

Alexander B. Mulik

Federal State-Financed Institution Golikov Research Clinical Center of Toxicology under the Federal Medical Biological Agency

Author for correspondence.
Email: mulikab@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6472-839X
SPIN-code: 8079-9698
ResearcherId: U-2142-2017

PhD in Biological Sciences, Professor, Leading Researcher

Russian Federation, Bekhtereva1 St., Saint Petersburg, Russia, 192019

Yulia A. Shatyr

Volgograd State University

Email: yuliashatyr@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9279-5282
SPIN-code: 2942-6250
ResearcherId: U-2181-2017

PhD in Biological Sciences, Associate Professor, Senior Researcher of the Laboratory of Psychophysiology

Russian Federation, Volgograd

Irina V. Ulesikova

S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy

Email: vestnik@rzgmu.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9284-3280
SPIN-code: 9859-6036
ResearcherId: D-3502-2016

Lecturer of the Department of Normal Physiology

Russian Federation, 6 Academician Lebedev St., St. Petersburg, 194044

A. G. Soloviev

Northern State Medical University

Email: ASoloviev1@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0350-1359
SPIN-code: 2952-0619

доктор медицинских наук, профессор, заведующий кафедрой психиатрии и клинической психологии

Russian Federation, Arkhangelsk, Russia

N. O. Nazarov

Volgograd State University

Email: naznik86@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0668-4664
SPIN-code: 9126-2809
Russian Federation, 400075, г. Волгоград, проезд Аптечный, 1а

Evgeniy V Cherniy

Email: cherney56@mail.ru

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