Vol 29, No 5 (2022)

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Full Issue


Prevalence assessment adjusted for laboratory test performance using an example of the COVID-19 serological tests

Krieger E.A., Grjibovski A.M., Postoev V.A.


Assessment of the prevalence of the disease or condition should consider the accuracy of the diagnostic tests. In the context of the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) pandemic, laboratory testing has been one of the most important components of the overall strategy for the control and prevention of this infection. Seroprevalence studies have been used to assess and monitor the level of population immunity to the virus.

In this paper we provide detailed description of the methods to calculate and interpret the accuracy of laboratory tests as well as their sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative prognostic values of laboratory tests using seroprevalence of COVID-19 studies as an example for better understanding of the methodological issues. The use of the laboratory tests accuracy in prevalence studies has been demonstrated. A sample syntax to calculate confidence intervals for the prevalence estimates using the bootstrap procedure with known absolute values of true positive and true negative results, false positive and false negative results for R software is also provided. Presentation of the prevalence estimates adjusted for test performance indicators with confidence intervals improves comparability of the findings obtained using different serological tests.

The article is intended for undergraduate-, postgraduate-, and doctoral students in health sciences working with the assessment of the prevalence (seroprevalence) of diseases or conditions through population-based serological surveys.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(5):301-309
pages 301-309 views


Evaluation of the connective tissue dysplasia among adolescent’s population in Tyumen region

Nagaeva M.O., Kolpakov V.V., Oslina A.N., Tomilova E.A., Bespalova T.V.


BACKGROUND: It is crucial to organize a full-scale epidemic investigation into the rise in connective tissue dysplasia (DCT) among populations in varying climatic zones. Connective tissue dysplasia encourages the emergence and progression of several pathological conditions that harm life quality and length.

AIM: To identify the prevalence and structure of undifferentiated DCT syndrome among teenagers in different climate zones of the Tyumen region.

METHODS: An observational study in the Tyumen region, the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra, the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug included 578 teenagers, males, and females main groups (12 and 15 years) from secondary schools and residential schools. The evaluation of phenotypic symptoms for undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia syndrome was according to recommendations by the Russian medical therapist’s society for diagnostics, treatment, and rehabilitation of people with DCT. The undifferentiated DCT syndrome has relevance, structure, and severity.

RESULTS: The amount of teenagers with undifferentiated DCT syndrome in the Tyumen region is 58.5%. The detection rate of undifferentiated DCT in the Tyumen region (south of the region) is 52.3%, in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra, it is 61.6%; in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, 65.3%. Most of the registered phenotypic evidence of DCT included joint hypermobility, spinal scoliosis, hyperkyphosis of the thoracic spine, straight back syndrome, Varga index of 1.5–1.7, asthenic chest, bite anomalies, dysmorphism of the auricles, “Gothic” sky, loose and flabby skin, and myopia. A high average diagnostic coefficient, averaging 35.46±0.05 points, which surpasses the diagnostic threshold by more than two times and indicates possible complications of dysplastic changes. There are no differences in the severity of DCT manifestations according to several prognostically-significant criteria, depending on the climatic and geographical conditions within the studied area.

CONCLUSION: It is very important to take into account the high prevalence and severity of DCT among teenagers in the Tyumen region when planning programs for treatment, prophylactic, and rehabilitation measures.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(5):311-321
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Psychological features of alcohol consumption among student youth in the European North of Russia

Mulik A.B., Shatyr Y.A., Ulesikova I.V., Soloviev A.G., Nazarov N.O., Cherniy E.V.


AIM: to identify the psychological characteristics of alcohol consumption among students of the European North of Russia.

METHODS: The study involved 137 students of state universities in the city of Arkhangelsk (37 men and 100 women aged 17-25), pre-selected for a number of reasons: Russians, born in the city of Arkhangelsk or the Arkhangelsk region, brought up in a complete, socially prosperous family, without financial and domestic problems without chronic somatic and neurological diseases. Identification and analysis of the experience of alcohol consumption at the prenosological level was carried out by retrospective self-assessment of the subjects. The psychological status of the respondents was determined by assessing the Freiburg multifactor personality questionnaire FPI, character accentuations, suggestibility, frustration, irritability and resentment, adventurousness, behavioral, social, professional, economic, political activity and social destructiveness. For statistical data processing, the Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney method and Fisher’s F-test were used.

RESULTS: High levels of adventurousness (Me=10.5 units), extraversion (Me=8 units), behavioral activity (Me=7 units), and low shyness (Me=2.5 units) were found in the group of males who used alcoholic drinks. High levels of emotivity (Me=18 units), adventurousness (Me=9.5 units), and social activity (Me=7 units) were found in the group of women who consumed alcoholic drinks.

CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, an analysis was made of the manifestation of indicators of the psychological status of students (representatives of the Russian population of the European North of Russia) — consumers at the prenosological level and non-consumers of alcohol. The psychological markers of alcohol consumption in boys and girls permanently residing in the conditions of the Northern territories of the Russian Federation were determined.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(5):323-331
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Risk factors of liver malignancies in workers chronically exposed to ionizing radiation

Zhuntova G.V., Bannikova M.V., Azizova T.V.


OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of non-radiation factors and ionizing radiation on the incidence of liver malignant neoplasms in workers of a nuclear facility.

METHODS: This was a retrospective study that considered a cohort of Mayak PA workers (22,377 individuals hired during 1948–1982 and followed up until 31.12.2018). The analysis included 60 malignant neoplasms of liver that were histologically confirmed. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in relation to factors under the study using Poisson’s regression.

RESULTS: The risk of total liver malignancies increased with attained age and for individuals with chronic liver diseases — HR=3,59 (95%CI 1,57; 7,21), chronic gallbladder and biliary tract diseases HR=1,83 (95%CI 1,07; 3,11), gallstone disease — HR=2,45 (95%CI 1,15; 4,77). Viral hepatitis elevated the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) — HR=7,41 (95%CI 1,20; 24,63). Gallstone disease raised the risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) — HR=14,69 (95%CI 3,05; 56,18). Risk of hemangiosarcoma (HAS) was increased in individuals with chronic liver diseases — HR=7,52 (95%CI 1,68; 24,48), and with diseases of the gallbladder and biliary tract — HR=6,01 (95%CI 1,86; 26,88). The risks of total liver malignancies and HAS were found to increase due to external exposure at gamma dose >0,5 Gy and internal exposure at alpha dose of plutonium >1,0 Gy. The risk of HCC increased with alpha dose >4,0 Gy and was not associated with external gamma-ray exposure. The risk of CC increased with gamma-ray exposure at doses >1,0 Gy and was not associated with alpha particle exposure. Among total liver malignancies, the number of HAS was high (26,7%) and among them 68,8% were observed at internal exposure alpha doses >4,0 Gy.

CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of liver malignancies in Mayak PA workers was associated with ionizing radiation, chronic diseases of hepatobiliary tract and viral hepatitis (in case of HCC). To investigate the risk related to occupational radiation exposure, we need to perform a dose-response analysis that will consider non-radiation factors.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(5):333-344
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Employees’ production risk factors for occupational diseases development of Bashkortostan Republic enterprises

Karimova L.K., Shaikhlislamova E.R., Muldasheva N.A., Shapoval I.V., Volgareva A.D., Fagamova A.Z., Stepanov E.G., Kabirova E.F.


BACKGROUND: Occupational morbidity, which is directly related to working circumstances is one of the primary markers that characterize occupational health risk. Thus, it is necessary to study the working conditions and occupational diseases, which form peculiarities in enterprises of various economic sectors, followed by the development and implementation of targeted interventions aimed at creating safe working conditions and preserving employees’ health.

AIM: to study industrial risk factors, occupational pathology main forms, and the timing of its development among employees at enterprises of various economic sectors.

METHODS: We studied the acts of occupational diseases investigation, sanitary, and hygienic characteristics of working conditions, and medical records of 339 patients who were diagnosed with occupational diseases by the Ufa Research Institute of Occupational Medicine and Human Ecology in 2015–2019.

RESULTS: It was discovered that the highest prevalent occupational diseases were diagnosed among workers of manufacturing industries and enterprises who engaged in mining with harmful working conditions (3.1–3.3) while conducting a retrospective in-depth analysis of occupational disease cases. Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue disorders predominated in the structure of the occupational disease. The largest number of patients had 30–35 years of work experience in harmful working conditions. Based on this research, targeted measures have been developed to create safe working conditions and alleviate the risk of occupational diseases.

CONCLUSIONS: According to the available material, a retrospective in-depth analysis of occupational disease cases revealed that workers in the manufacturing industries and enterprises engaged in mining were more at risk of developing disorders (46.1, 20.6%). It was discovered that the development of occupational diseases depended on the exposure intensity of harmful production factors and exposure time. The risk of occupational diseases is raised with increasing time of working in harmful working conditions (class 3.1–3.4). The greatest risk of occupational diseases was observed within work experience from 30–35 years. The structure of the analyzed occupational diseases cases was dominated by ailments of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (43.4%), injuries, poisoning, and some other consequences of external causes (17.5%), and diseases of the ear, and mastoid process (15%). The analysis of cases of occupational diseases should be used as the basis to measure development aimed at reducing the risk of their emergence and preserving employees’ health.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(5):345-355
pages 345-355 views

Overweight and obesity among rural schoolchildren of the Russian Arctic and North in 1994–2019

Kozlov A.I., Vershubskaya G.G.


BACKGROUND: There was not enough information on the spread of obesity among schoolchildren in rural settlements and small towns of Northern Russia in recent years. This study aimed to trace the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children aged 6–17 years living in rural areas of Northern Russia between 1994 and 2019.

METHODS: Data, including sex, age, body weight, and stature, were collected during regular medical examinations of 7548 children aged 6–17 years living in the rural settlements of Murmansk Oblast, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Komi Republic, Komi-Permyak Okrug in 1994, 1997–1998, 2005–2009, and 2016–2019. Individual assessments were made using body mass indices according to the procedures and cutoffs recommended by the World Health Organization.

RESULTS: The prevalence of excess body weight has substantially increased in all localities. It was 4–7% (including 0.6%–0.8% obesity) in 1994–1998, 7.5–18.7% (obesity 0.9–5.0%) in 2005–2009, and 23.9–26.6% (obesity 7.7–11.9%) in 2016–2019. As 2019 data showed, no difference was found between schoolchildren residing in rural settlements, small towns, large industrial centers, and Moscow.

CONCLUSION: A rapid spread of overweight and obesity among Russian children occurred in the second decade of the 21st century. The northern populations encounter this process in the same degree and extent as others. Geographic (Arctic, non-Arctic North, and Central Russia) and socioeconomic (various levels of urbanization) factors do not play a major role in that negative dynamics.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(5):357-366
pages 357-366 views

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