No 7 (2016)

Articles
DRINKING WATER QUALITY FOR THE POPULATION OF WATER-STRESSED REGION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE ORENBURG REGION)
Alferov I.N., Yakovenko N.V.
Abstract
The characteristic of providing the Orenburg region population with qualitative drinking water is given in the article. The region's arid zone development problem caused by natural climatic and anthropo-technogenic conditions is considered. Orenburg region natural waters, being a backbone aqueous component, have an enormous impact on the economic and social region's development due to a water shortage. The combination of severe natural and climatic conditions and constantly increasing anthropogenic pressure led to an adversity in the field of providing the population with drinking water. Main reasons of unsatisfactory quality of drinking water are discovered. Overdraft of surface and underground water is strongly reflected in their natural flow regime, reducing not only a runoff, but also reducing ground water levels, stopping of springs existence which are quite often the only source of water. In addition to natural polluting factors, the anthropogenic activity on catchment areas of water objects related to plowing, use of herbicides and fertilizers, construction of roads, bridges and gas and oil pipelines have a great influence on a water quality.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(7):3-10
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STRUCTURE OF SHOCK-PRODUCING TRAUMA IN PATIENTS ADMITTED TO I LEVEL INJURY CARE CENTER IN ARKHANGELSK
Matveev R.P., Gudkov S.A., Bragina S.V.
Abstract
We present structural specification of shock-producing trauma in 140 patients admitted to I level injury care center (Arkhangelsk Regional Hospital) in 2008-2013 and in 104 patients with shock-producing trauma, treated in Arkhangelsk Medical Preventive Institution (MPI) in 2002. Study is observational, cohort, longitudinal, retrospective. Statistic analysis was made by using programmes EpiInfo (TM) 3.4.1. and SPSS 19.0 for Windows. Among 140 patients I degree traumatic shock (TS) was identified in 36 (25,7 %; 95 % CI: 18,5-32,9), II degree - in 72 (51,4 %; 95 % CI: 43,2-59,7), III degree in 30 (21,4 %; 95 % CI: 14,6-28,2) and IV degree in 2 (1,5 %; 95 % CI: 0,5-3,4) patients. As can be seen from the above among patients with shock-producing trauma more than half have TS II degree and its occurrence exceeds 2 times - TS I degree, 2,4 times - TS III degree and 36 times - TS IV degree. Changes are observed in structure of polytrauma and traumatic shock in patients treated in Arkhangelsk Regional Hospital till (2002) and later when the hospital got the status of I level injury care center (2013). Patients' density with TS I degree increased 2,6 times, with с TS II degree - 5,6 times and with TS III degree - 2,4 times. These structural changes are due to routing of injured in pedestrian accidents and patients with catatrauma to I level injury care center. We have found out statistically significant decrease of patients density with pelvis injury - 1,7 times, 2 times with spinal cord injury and 1,6 times with intra-abdominal injury. However, significant increase of patients density with chest injury in 1,6 times is registered.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(7):11-16
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Kontseptsiya allostaza i adaptatsiiya cheloveka na Severe
Krivoshchekov S.G., Belisheva N.K., Nikolaeva E.I., Vergunov E.G., Martynova A.A., Elnikova O.E., Prjanichnikov S.V., Anufriev G.N., Balioz N.V.
Abstract
The age dynamic of parasympathetic and sympathetic activity of autonomous nervous system (ANS) in the heart rate (HR) regulation is considered in the article from the perspective of allostasis theory. Two groups of people are compared: working residents of Arctic region (aged from 20 till 75 years old, divided in 10-years age cohorts, total 267 people) and working residents of the Central Part of Russia (116 people). The model of allostatic influence on the organism's regulatory systems in the process of adaptation to the conditions of high latitudes is studied compared to clustered data of HR analysis recorded in the background. The model of allostasis implies to support an organism's inner stability not from the perspective of body balance control but through changes preservation according to external conditions. «The adaptation cost» as a result of allostaric load is described by means of peculiarities of HR regulation in indifferent groups of surveyed. A method of human adaptation potential assessment by means of the analysis of ANS parasympathetic parts contribution to HR regulation is rested and discussed in the article. This approach allows to reveal risk group candidates for adaptation process breakdown.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(7):17-25
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INTERSEXUAL DIFFERENCES IN DAILY VARIATIONS OF THE CENTRAL HEMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS IN STUDENTS OF THE NORTHERN MEDICAL UNIVERSITY
Shalamova E.Y., Safonova V.R., Ragozin O.N.
Abstract
Parameters of central hemodynamics in young men and women - junior students of the medical faculty of Khanty-Mansiysk State Medical Academy have been studied. As a result of daily monitoring, the average daily indicators of heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse (PP) blood pressure, vegetative index Kerdo (VIK) were detected. The values of HR, SBP, DBP, VIK, SBP time index, DBP time index, SBP variability, DBP variability were obtained in day and night periods. Thus the girls had significantly higher values of daily average HR, day and night HR compared to boys. The boys showed higher SBP values. According to DBP indicators vascular tone in the groups of boys and girls did not differ significantly. Thus, intersexual differences between girls and boys were observed in minute blood volume mechanisms related to heart work. As it turned out, male students had high parasympaticus tonus, especially at night, which corresponds to strengthening of parasympathetic activity. The activity of sympathetic nervous system in young women was significantly higher than in boys in all measurement periods. High pressure (SBP time index) effect on target organs was significantly higher in boys than in young women. BP variability in boys and girls was comparable to the normal values, but at night variability indices of SBP were higher in group of boys.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(7):26-30
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SEASONAL CHANGES OF EXTERNAL RESPIRATORY PARAMETERS IN SKIERS OF MASS CATEGORIES IN THE CONDITIONS OF RUSSIAN NORTH
Gudkov A.B., Manuilov I.V., Torshin V.I., Popova O.N., Lukmanova N.B.
Abstract
The study results of lung volume seasonal changes in skiers of mass categories in the conditions of European North are presented. Respiratory system study was carried out in September, January, April and July in the same group of 38 men skiers aged 18-22 (middle age: 19,6 (19,2; 21,7)), born and permanently residing in Arkhangelsk (64°32'n.l., 40°32'e.l.) and Severodvinsk (64°34'n.l., 39°51'e.l.). Survey sample had experience in cross-country skiing for 3-5 years and 1-2 senior degree. Spirograph «Dinamit-С» (Complex КМ-АР-01) was used for pulmonary function test. Lung volume was esteemed: respiratory volume (RV), inspiratory (IRV) and expiratory (ERV) reserve volume, inspiratoty capacity (IC), lung capacity (LC), as well as indices of lung ventilation: respiratory rate (RR) and respiratory minute volume (RMV). It is stated that skiers have seasonal functional alternation in the external respiration system. Thus, LC maximum was in winter, LC minimum - in spring, with difference 1,21 l. RV minimum was in summer, maximum - in winter, with difference 0,58 l. IRV was maximum in autumn, ERV and IC - in winter. Not only statistic lung volumes indices, but their nature of communication change in seasonal dynamic in surveyed sportsmen skiers. Percentage ratio calculation from RV to LC showed that breathing in rest conditions skiers use from 17 % in autumn and summer to 21-23,5 % LC in winter and spring. Comparison of the results obtained in skiers and people not engaged in sport activities revealed that seasonal changes of lung volume in skiers are more evident.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(7):31-36
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THE EXPRESSION LEVEL OF THE MOLECULES OF THE RECEPTOR COMPLEX CD95 AND CD8 HUMAN BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES UNDER CARBON MONOXIDE AND ULVTRAVIOLET LIGHT INFLUENCE
Artyukhov V.G., Tyunina O.I., Dorohov E.V.
Abstract
By means of enzymoiimmunoassay and flow cytofluorometry the effect of carbon monoxide and ultraviolet (UV)-light on the expression level of the receptor complex molecules (CD95 and CD8 markers) on the membranes of human blood lymphocytes has been studied. It was stated that the carbon monoxide causes decrease of CD95 receptors on the surface immune cells during (60 ^ 90 min). However, strengthening of this effect was registered in 24 hours. It is shown that UV-light in 453 and 755 J/m2 doses provides the pro-apoptotic effect as related to the expression level of CD95 receptors of analyzed cells. After daily thermostating of modified lymphocytes, different receptiveness of CD8 molecules to carbon monoxide was revealed. Thus, in patients with initially higher levels of CD8 markers - decrease is registered, and in individuals with initially low - increase in this marker levels. The obtained data of blood lymphocytes receptor profile changes in the presence of low molecular ligand (CO) must be taken into account in the Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation-therapy in patients with different etiologies.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(7):37-43
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DYNAMICS OF THE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS INCIDENCE OF TOMSK REGION POPULATION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH GEOPHYSICAL AND WEATHER-CLIMATIC FACTORS
Perova O.B., Agulova L.P.
Abstract
Long-term dynamics of the incidence pulmonary tuberculosis in the Tomsk region was studied. It was shown that in all considered cases the dynamics is the unsteady oscillatory process with complex modulation: there are cyclic trends with the period of 20 and more years and fluctuations of a shorter periods. The relation of the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis with tubercle bacilli in sputum with the air temperature and precipitation has been revealed. The coincidence is found during the cyclical trends of morbidity (26.4 y.) and precipitation (26.7 y.). The dependence of long-term epidemic process from the weather-climate changes is assumed. We have found a link between the seasonal dynamics of the tuberculosis and air temperature as well as the intensity of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) in Tomsk. The high incidence of tuberculosis (above average annual) is noted from November to April, low - in June-September. The vitamin D role in seasonal variations of incidence is discussed.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(7):44-50
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PROPENSITY SCORE MATCHING AS A MODERN STATISTICAL METHOD FOR BIAS CONTROL IN OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES WITH CONTINUOUS OUTCOME VARIABLE
Grjibovski A.M., Ivanov S.V., Gorbatova M.A., Dyussupov A.A.
Abstract
The authors presents a propensity score matching (PSM) technique - an effective method to control the effect of confounding factors in observational studies. PSM has been shown to be as efficient as linear regression analysis, but can be performed using smaller samples. This article presents the basic principles of PSM and its practical application using STATA 13 software for the studies with continuous dependent variable.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(7):51-60
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