No 12 (2019)

Articles
DENTAL CARIES PREVALENCE AND EXPERIENCE IN 10-14 YEARS OLD CHILDREN IN THE NENETS AUTONOMOUS AREA (ARCTIC RUSSIA) IN RELATION TO MINERAL COMPOSITION OF DRINKING WATER AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS
Gorbatova M.A., Matveeva I.V., Degteva G.N., Gorbatova L.N., Grjibovski A.M.
Abstract
Aim: to assess the prevalence and experience of caries among 10-14 years old children in the Nenets Autonomous Area (Arctic Russia) in relation to mineral composition of drinking water and socio-demographic factors. Methods. A cross-sectional study. Altogether, 308 schoolchildren were examined using standard WHO methodology. Caries experience was presented as a sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT). Samples of drinking water were taken. Caries prevalence and mean DMFT were presented with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Categorical variables were analyzed using chi-squared tests. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for numeric data. Spearman's correlation analysis was used to study associations between mineral components of drinking water and MDFT. Results. The prevalence of caries was 72.4 % (95 % CI: 67.2-77.1) with the mean DMFT of 3.46 (95 % CI: 3.13-3.79) % with no gender difference. On average, there were 1.28 (95 % CI: 1.07-1.49) decayed, 0.05 (95 % CI: 0.02-0.09) missing and 2.13 (95 % CI: 1.84-2.4) % filled teeth. Nenets children living in rural areas had lower DMFT-index compared to children from the boarding school and from urban areas (p < 0.001). Russian children from the boarding school had more decayed (p < 0.001) and missing (p < 0.001) teeth than rural and urban children. Weak inverse association (rs = -0.12; p = 0.031) was observed between nitrite-ion concentration and caries experience. Conclusions. No association was found between the mineral components of the drinking water and DMFT except for the nitrite-ion. Significant geographical variation is caries experience were observed. Moreover, mean values for the components of the DMFT-index varied between ethnicities.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(12):4-13
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HAIR MICROELEMENT PROFILE IN YOUNG ABORIGENAL- AND CAUCASIAN MEN IN THE CHUKOTKA AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT (ARCTIC RUSSIA)
Stepanova E.M., Lugovaya E.A.
Abstract
The aim is to assess hair macro- and microelement profile of young men - residents of the city of Anadyr, Chukotka Autonomous District Arctic Russia among indigenous and Caucasoid populations. Methods: atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry we used to assess concentrations of 25 elements, namely, Al, As, B, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Si, Sn, V, Zn in the hair of randomly selected indigenous and non-indigenous residents of Anadyr. Results. We observed a so-called "northern" element imbalance with the tendency towards deficiency of the basic essential chemicals. Individual concentrations of the most chemical elements in the hair were highly variable. Proportions of participants with low levels of elements in the body of the Caucasians significantly exceeded that in among the indigenous people. Conclusions. Ethnic variations in the hair microelement profiles were minor reflecting similarities in the structural profile of macro- and microelements. The difference in the concentration values from the reference values may be considered as a reflection of the characteristics of the genetically determined system of maintaining the balance of the body's element system in the indigenous peoples of the north and adaptation to extreme climatic and socio-ecological conditions in case of Caucasians living in this Arctic region for several generations.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(12):14-19
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LIFESTYLE AND SELF-PERCIEVED HEALTH OF THE NENETS POPULATION LIVING ON THE ARCTIC ISLAND OF VAIGACH
Svetlichnaya T.G., Vorobyeva N.A.
Abstract
The aim of this study was to study lifestyle and health status of the Nenets population permanently living on Arctic islands and to identify behavioral risk factors for health and well-being. Methods. All 48 Nenets at the age of 18 years and older who permanently live on Vaigach Island participated in this cross-sectional study. Data collection was performed according to the WHO STEPS tool. Results. The perception of health by the Nenets is satisfactory on average, which is explained by the young mean age of the population (42.5 years). The Nenets lifestyle is characterized by a wide spread of self-destructive behavioral strategies: poor nutrition (due to a lack of dietary products of plant origin and high salt intake) (100 %), smoking (98 %) and alcohol abuse (100 %). Conclusions: The results of the study warrant urgent development of preventive measures directed at health promotion among the Nenets population on Vaigach island and most likely in other areas populated by the Nenets minority.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(12):20-25
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CHAOS OF INVOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS UNDER CONDITIONS OF LOCAL COOLING
Eskov V.V., Popov Y.M., Filatova D.Y., Simanovskaya O.E.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of statistical stability in samples of tremorograms in two states (relaxation and cooling). Methods: the technique of numerous repetitions of tremor registration was applied; matrices of paired comparisons of tremorograms were calculated. Results. Numerous repetitions of tremorograms registration suggest that the degree of chaos in the work of the human neuromuscular system can only be determined through numerous repetitions as suggested by N. A. Bernstein which is in line with earlier proposed Eskov - Zinchenko effect. In the framework of this effect, statistical instability characterizes successively obtained samples of parameters xf of any movements. Conclusions. The statistical instability of tremorogram samples in unchanged homeostasis was found, and when a person's homeostasis changes under conditions of local cooling, a change in k number of pairs of tremorogram samples that statistically coincide is shown. The low-temperature effect acts as an environmental factor affecting the labor productivity of residents of the North of the Russian Federation, since cooling leads to a decrease in the accuracy of movements and a change in the spectrum of tremorograms, which manifests itself in the form of a change in k number during cold exposure.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(12):26-31
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CONSTRUCT DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTERNAL PICTURE OF THE DISEASE FOR OPTIMIZATION OF MEDICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION
Vasileva A.V., Karavaeva T.A., Mizinova E.B., Tashlykov V.A., Chekhlaty E.I.
Abstract
The aim of the work is to develop a construct of the internal picture of the disease (IPD) in case of neurotic disorders (ND) as the main personality factor that determines the use of environmental resources and adherence to treatment under stressful conditions of the disease; based on the assessment of the structure and mechanisms of the IPD, the determination of the basic emotional, cognitive and behavioral components in connection with the tasks of optimization of medical and psychological rehabilitation. Methods. A multivariate cohort analytical observational study of 1,262 patients with ND was performed. Clinical, experimental-psychological and statistical methods were used. Results. Four main types of IPD were singled out: depressive somatocentric (DS), depressive psychocentric (DP), phobic somatocentric (FS) and phobic psychocentric (AF) with the prevalence of the latter (p = 0.036). Individuals with ND were more characterized by "depressed" types of IPD (p = 0.028), with anxiety-phobic disorders - "phobic" (p = 0.032), with dissociative, s a wide variation in the representation of IPD types: DP - 35.9 %, DS - 26, 0 %, AF - 25.0 %, FS - 13.1 % was observed. The disharmony of the interpersonal sphere in ND was shown: a clear prepotence to conflict and dominance (dominance factor V 1.17 ± 0.45) over the tendency to cooperate and subjection (benevolence factor G -0.10 ± 0.41). Regardless of the type of IPD in HP there was a mistuning of the concepts "I-real" and "I-ideal", which manifested in a low degree of self-acceptance and the presence of a conflict attitude to oneself. The peculiarity of self-esteem in patients with "depressed" types of IPD was expressed in emphasizing weakness in emotional experience and at the same time reflecting traits of confidence, independence, perseverance in self-ideal; with "phobic" - alertness and straightforwardness in relations with others. Conclusions: the developed concept of IPD in case of HP was an emotional-cognitive-behavioral construct of personality adaptation to a disease as the basis for a psychological strategy in therapy and medical-psychological rehabilitation aimed at increasing the level of psychological resource reserve of patients.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(12):32-39
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ROLE OF PROGNOSTIC COMPETENCE AND INTUITIVITY IN MECHANISMS OF NEUROSOGENESIS
Mendelevich V.D., Granitza A.S.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to detect the relationship of intuitivity and prognostic competence (PC) in neurotic and somatoform disorders. The results of a survey of 197 patients with neurotic and somatoform disorders and 66 healthy subjects were compared. The experiment included patients with phobic anxiety disorders (F40-41), obsessive-compulsive disorder (F42), adjustment disorder (F43), somatoform disorders (F45). Methods. Clinical psychological and experimental psychological research methods were used. The PC test by V. D. Mendelevich, the assessment technique of intuitivity level by E. A. Naumenko, the scale "Faith in Intuition" from the questionnaire "Rational Experiential" by S. Epstein in adaptation by T. V. Kornilova and S. A. Kornilov, the questionnaire "Life Style Index" by R. Plutchik, G. Kellerman and G. Conte (adapted version by E. S. Romanova, L. R. Grebennikova) were used. Results. A comparison of subjects and healthy individuals revealed lower values of intuitivity and PC in case of neurotic disorders on the scales: "intuitivity" (U = 4,416; p < 0.001), "intuitive ability" (U = 2,941; p < 0.001), "use of intuition "(U = 2 683; p < 0.001)," temporary PC "(U = 4 944; p < 0.004)," spatial PC "(U = 2031; p < 0.001)," general PC "(U = 3 141; p < 0.001). Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder significantly differ from other subgroups with neurotic and somatoform disorders according to the "intuitivity" scale (the value of the Kruskall - Wallis test is H = 9.833 (p < 0.02)). Correlation and cluster analyzes have shown that anticipative failure and a reduced level of intuitivity play a significant role in the mechanisms of neurosis. Conclusions: intuitivity in neurotic and somatoform disorders is the link between PC and psychological defenses in the general system of coping.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(12):40-45
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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INHIBITION CONTROL FACTORS, SUCCESSFUL TRAINING AND HEALTH OF STUDENTS IN THE CONDITIONS OF STRESS LOADS OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS
Razumnikova O.M., Asanova N.V.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to clarify the role of inhibitory control, taking into account the importance of its central and autonomous components in success level of university students. Methods. The study involved 58 students aged 17-21 years. The functions of executive attention control were evaluated on the basis of testing the reaction time during the selection of congruent and incongruent visual stimuli. As an autonomous component of inhibitory control, heart rate variability indices were considered. For self-assessment of health status, the SF-36 questionnaire was used. Results. A connection between student success level and the functions of executive and autonomous control systems has been established. It indicated that faster selection of information and shorter decision making time, but greater tension in autonomic regulation of cardiac activity with increased tone of the sympathetic nervous system corresponded to a higher success level. According to the results of the regression analysis, the success predictors were indicators of the speed of information selection, the functions of the executive attention system and the adequacy of the processes of autonomous regulation, which explain from 10 to 19 % of its variability. According to the SF-36 questionnaire, the best self-esteem of physical health corresponded to a lower heart rate, and mental health - a lower index of autonomic balance, that was, the predominance of the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system. Conclusions. Higher success level corresponded to the best indicators of the central component of inhibitory control - effective selection of information, but with a greater strain of autonomous regulation of cardiac activity. This indicated the need to increase the stress resistance of students with high examination scores and train executive control of attention when success level was low.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(12):46-52
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INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL MARKERS OF TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACKS IN RESIDENTS OF THE REPUPLK OF KARELIA
Mikhailov V.A., Khyanikyainen I.V., Smirnova N.N.
Abstract
The aim is to identify the role of systemic psychodiagnostics using a biopsychosocial approach for a multidimensional comprehensive study of the influence of individual psychological factors on the occurrence and course of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) among residents of the Republic of Karelia. Studied: personality premorbid and psychological symptomatic status in patients of stroke neurological unit of the Republican Hospital of Petrozavodsk suffering from TIA (n = 60; average age (56.9 ± 18.5) years; gender index 1: 1). The comparison group included individuals without TIA (n = 32; average age (52.4 ± 6.5) years; gender index 1:1; p = 0.06). Methods: the "Questionnaire for the intensity of psychopathological symptoms" (Symptom CHECKLIST-90-REVISED - SCL-90-R) and the Freiburg Multifactor Personality Questionnaire (Freiburg Personality Inventory - FPI) were used. Results. It was revealed that the personality premorbid of residents of the republic with TIA is characterized by neuroticism and shyness (high walls: (7.27 ± 2.60) and (7.10 ± 1.75) FPI points, respectively). The somatogenic effect of TIA on the psyche of patients consists of anxiety and depression in combination with somatization and phobias (average values for SCL-90-R: (0.56 ± 0.45); (0.65 ± 0.19); (0, 97 ± 0.27); (0.32 ± 0.19) points for the indicated psychopathological symptoms, respectively). Conclusions: patients with TIA in the Republic of Karelia are characterized by markers of psychological distress, which requires an individual psychological and psychotherapeutic correction.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(12):53-57
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EFFECT OF TRICLOSAN ON TESTEICULAR FUNCTIONS: AN EXPERIMENTAL AND AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES
Chigrinets S.V., Bryukhin G.V.
Abstract
The aim was to study associations between triclosan concentration in seminal fluid or testicular tissue and germinal and endocrine functions of the testes in men. Methods. Atogether, 53 samples of seminal fluid in men with normospermia and pathozoospermia were studied. Concentration of triclosan was determined in the seminal fluid by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Spermological assessment was conducted according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (2010) with an assessment of the sperm DNA Fragmentation Index. In addition, the concentration of total plasma testosterone was estimated. The experimental part of the work was performed on white mature CD Wistar male rats (n = 20). For two months, the rats in the experimental group received 200 mg/kg of triclosan (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) daily with food. Functional and morphometric techniques were used to evaluate the generative and endocrine function of the testes. The concentration of triclosan in the testes was measured by the GC-MS method. Results. In 84.9 % of ejaculate samples, triclosan was found with a median concentration of 0.13 (0.05-0.22) ng/ml. Men with normospermia and pathozoospermia had statistically significantly differentd concentrations of triclosan in seminal fluid (p = 0.045) and sperm DNA Fragmentation Index (p = 0.004). In the experimental part of the study, rats receiving triclosan had significantly lower testicular mass (p = 0.001), smaller diameter of convoluted seminiferous tubule and lower thickness of seminiferous epithelium (p <0.001), as well as lower total number of Leydig cells (p = 0.001). Conclusions: triclosan has a negative effect on the germinal function of the testes in men and experimental animals and can be considered as an endocrine disruptor.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(12):58-64
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