No 10 (2019)

Articles
STATE AND IMPROVEMENT OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELFARE MANAGEMENT IN THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC
Gorbanev S.A., Fedorov V.N., Tikhonova N.A.
Abstract
High morbidity, premature mortality and environmental pollution in the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF) require improved management of sanitary and epidemiological wellfare. The aim of the study is to conduct a review of the state of the environment and public health, as well as propose solutions on the management improvement of sanitary and epidemiological welfare on the territory of the Russian Arctic. Methods. The materials of socio-hygienic monitoring form No. 2 "Information on infectious and parasitic diseases" and summary databases of records of occupational diseases (poisoning) for 2007-2018 were analyzed in the context of municipalities of the Russian Arctic. The risk of health disorders caused by contamination of drinking water and atmospheric air was assessed in accordance with R 2.1.10.1920-04 (Guidelines for assessing public health risk from exposure to chemicals polluting the environment). Results. In some Arctic regions, there are problems associated with a migration outflow (Vorkuta) and high mortality of the working population, high infant mortality and low life expectancy (Chukotka Autonomous Region). The population of the Russian Arctic in the main classes of diagnosed diseases for the first time in life is higher than at the average for Russia, the Nenets Autonomous Okrug is the territory of "risk" morbidity. In contrast to Russia as a whole, an increase in the incidence of occupational diseases is reported on the territory of the Russian Arctic. Conclusions. In a number of regions of the Russian Arctic, the population is exposed to unacceptable risks of health problems associated with air pollution and drinking water. According to the results of the study, we propose some priority measures to improve the management of sanitary and epidemiological well-being in the Russian Arctic.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(10):4-14
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LABOR CONDITIONS AND RISK OF OCCUPATIONAL PATHOLOGY AT THE ENTERPRISES OF THE ARCTIC ZONE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Syurin S.A., Kovshov A.A.
Abstract
Human labor activity in the Arctic takes place in extreme climatic conditions, which significantly increase the indicator of integral professional risk. The aim of the research is to study working conditions and the risks of developing professional pathology among employees of enterprises in the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF). Methods. The data of socio-hygienic monitoring and information on occupational morbidity in the Russian Arctic in 2007-2017 were studied. Results. It has been stated that at the workplaces of enterprises in the Russian Arctic, the most common hazardous and harmful production factors are noise, severity and intensity of the labor process, chemical factors. Most often, professional pathology is detected in workers of mining and metallurgical enterprises in the cities of Vorkuta and Norilsk, as well as in the Murmansk Region (71.1 % of cases). The maximum prevalence of occupational diseases, which is 5-30 times higher than the similar indicators in other areas of the Russian Arctic, is observed among Vorkuta miners. Due to the effects of chronic cold stress in the Russian Arctic, the work experience sufficient for the development of occupational diseases can be reduced to 5-7 years. In four regions (the Nenets and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Districts, the regions of the Russian Arctic and the Komi Republic and the Krasnoyarsk Territory) there is an upward tendency of occupational morbidity indicators, and in three (the Murmansk Region, regions of the Russian Arctic of the Arkhangelsk Region and the Republic of Sakha) - to its decrease. In the Russian Arctic, in contrast to Russia as a whole, no decrease in the incidence of occupational morbidity has been observed in the last four years. Conclusions: there is a necessity to improve the system of socio-hygienic monitoring and develop more effective methods for occupational diseases prevention when carrying out activities in the Arctic.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(10):15-23
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FOOD SAFETY IN ARCTIC AND SUBARCTIC TERRITORIES OF THE RUSSIAN EUROPEAN NORTH
Shepeleva O.A., Novikova Y.A., Degteva G.N.
Abstract
The article provides an analytical review of scientific research and statistical reporting data on the main problematic aspects of food safety and the state of health of the population of the Arkhangelsk Region and reveals primary morbidity indicators associated with food quality and consumption in all age groups of the population. The problems in the field of food security provision are identified. They are associated with the climatic and geographical location of the region, the features of the functioning of the agro-industrial complex, and insufficient properties. The key violations in the structure of food consumption are identified; certain problems are revealed in the field of providing food accessibility for the population. Consumption of basic types of food exceeds recommended, rational standards for products such as sugar by 62.5 %, vegetable oil by 11.7 %, and bread products by 9.4 %. Consumption of dairy products, meat, eggs, fish, vegetables, potatoes, fruits remains below the recommended level. The Arkhangelsk Region remains a risk territory for the general incidence and a number of nutritional diseases. This review makes it possible to draw attention to the fact that it is necessary to create the same level of priority ranking and comprehensiveness in the development of local measures aimed at achieving a high level of development of the agro-industrial complex and health care. In generating pricing policy and consumer preferences of the population, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the traditional nutrition formed over the centuries, which best takes into account the peculiarities of the "polar metabolism" of the northerners.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(10):24-32
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ELEMENTAL STATUS OF ADULT NON-INDIGENOUS POPULATION OF KHANTY-MANSI AUTONOMOUS REGION
Korchina T.Y., Korchin V.I., Sukhareva A.S., Safarova O.A., Cherepanova K.A., Bogdanovich A.B., Sharifov M.I., Nekhoroshikh S.S.
Abstract
The aim of the work is to study the elemental status of adult non-indigenous residents of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug. Methods. The elemental composition of the hair was examined in 1 211 adult non-indigenous inhabitants of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug: 348 (28.7 %) men and 863 (71.3 %) women aged 18 to 60 years. In the hairs of all examined individuals, the concentration of 25 chemical elements was determined by a combination of ICP- AES and MS-ICP methods. The results obtained were compared with reference values for the corresponding age. Results. In both groups, most of the average values of the concentration of chemical elements in the hair were in the range of physiologically optimal values. Mn concentration exceeded the upper limit in men by 1.5 times and in women by 1.7 times, Mg in women by 1.4 times and Hg in men by 1.4 times. A quarter of men and a fifth of women had Ca deficiency; in 26.4 % of men and 23.7 % of women - I. Mg excess was detected in 38.8 % of men and almost half of women; Mn excess - in half of men and 63.6 % of women. A quarter of the population of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug has I deficiency; a quarter of men and more than 40 % of women have Se deficiency. Zn excess in the hair was detected in 44.3 % of men and 34.5 % of women, and Hg in a quarter of men and 10 % of women. Conclusions. The relatively favorable picture of the elemental status of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug residents indicates the absence of serious environmental problems and reflects the high level of consumption and, probably, the availability of high quality medical services. Among women of childbearing age, the need to reduce the nutritional load of Hg should be promoted in order to reduce the risk of negative effects on fetal development during pregnancy.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(10):33-40
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PRINCIPLES OF HOMEOSTATIC REGULATION OF FUNCTIONS IN HUMAN ECOLOGY
Eskov V.M., Gudkov A.B., Filatov M.A., Eskov V.V.
Abstract
The founder of the homeostasis theory W. B. Cannon spoke about the lack of stability of homeostasis and systems of homeostatic regulation. However, to date, the postulate of the statistical stability of samples of homeostasis parameters in various functional systems has been working in human ecology. The aim of the study is to verify this fundamental postulate and to prove the lack of statistical stability of samples of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems. Methods: age-related dynamics of cardio intervals was studied in three groups (38 people in each group) of Khanty women and three groups of newcomers (228 people in total), tremor and tapping parameters were studied in two groups: women (18 people) and men (16 people). The Elox-01 device was used to record cardio intervals, and the patented tremograph was used to record tremorograms. Results: the absence of statistical stability of tremorograms was proved (the number of samples of k pairs that have one sampled population not more than k1 < 5 % for tremor and k2 < 12 % for tapping), for cardio intervals k3 < 17 %. The samples are not homogeneous, the probability of their statistical repeating in a row is p < 0.05 (for one subject in constant homeostasis). It is proposed to calculate the parameters of quasi attractors that really demonstrate statistical stability (in constant homeostasis). Conclusion: the samples of the parameters of neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems are not statistically homogeneous (they change chaotically). In this regard, to assess the norm (standard) of homeostasis, it is advisable to use the calculation of the parameters of quasi attractors along the first coordinate x1 (for example, the parameters of cardio intervals or tremorograms) and x2 (rate of change x1).
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(10):41-49
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CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HEART RHYTHM VARIABILITY IN RESIDENTS OF MIDDLE OB REGION WITH DERMAL DISEASES
Gorshkova A.V., Rusak Y.E., Efanova E.N., Rusak S.N.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with chronic dermatoses, citizens of the Middle Ob Region. Methods. 74 patients with chronic dermal diseases (psoriasis and eczema), as well as 37 people who were included in the control group, were examined using the method of variational pulse oximetry using the Elox-01 hardware complex and the ELOGRAPH software product. The assessment of the constituent characteristics of HRV was carried out using different approaches: methods of mathematical statistics using non-parametric tests of Wilcoxon, Shapiro-Wilk and multivariate analysis of multidimensional phase spaces, which determined the evidential base for quantitative measures and diagnostic markers (criteria) in disorders of neuro-vegetative regulation of cardiac function in patients with dermatoses. Results. Peculiarities of the heart rhythm structure were found in patients with dermal diseases: a statistically significant decrease in the LF and HF components was revealed and an imbalance was found in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system with a predominance of sympathetic imbalance in patients with dermatoses living in the Middle Ob region in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Ugra. Diagnostic indicators of the characteristics of HRV in patients with eczema and psoriasis were determined, which made it possible to distinguish a complex of signs in the differences in the autonomic regulation of heart rhythm - Total P (mc2), VLF (mc2), LF (mc2) and the integral characteristics of HRV - Baevsky stress index (INB (cu), indicators of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system (SIM, PAR, cu). Conclusions. Patients with chronic dermatoses (psoriasis, eczema) living in severe climatic conditions of the Middle Ob Region have a tendency to early development of complicated forms of the disease with detection of imbalance in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system with a predominance of parasympathetic tone. The data obtained are important diagnostic aspects of the diseases pathogenesis, contributing to the determination of the further prognosis and correction of medical treatment.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(10):50-58
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POTENTIAL MISCLASSIFICATION OF ALCOHOL INTOXICATION AS CARDIOVASCULAR DEATHS IN YAKUTSK IN 2007-2018: A FORENSIC AUTOPSY DATA-BASED STUDY
Savvina N.V., Bessonova O.G., Borisova E.A., Kolbina E.Y., Kalmakhanov S.B., Grjibovski A.M.
Abstract
Aim: To study potential misclassification of deaths from alcohol poisoning as cardiovascular deaths in Yakutsk, Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, North-East Siberia. Methods: All deaths from 2007 to 2018 registered at the Bureau of Forensic Expertise (BFE) in Yakutsk comprised the study base (n = 9 708). Data on underlying cause of death, age, gender and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were obtained from the medical records at the BFE. Proportions of cases with BAC > 0 %, 2.50-3.99 %, 4.00-4.99 % and 5.00 % or more among those who had codes I00-I99 as an underlying cause of death (n = 4 067). All analyses were performed separately for men and women for the following age-groups: 15-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70 + years. Analyses were replicated for underlying causes of death coded as C00-D48 and J00-J99. BAC > 4,0 % was considered as potentially lethal dose. Results: Altogether, 37.6 % of men and 51.0 % of women who died from diseases of circulatory system had BAC > 0 % Proportions of cases with BAC of 4 % or more among those aged 15-29 years were 6.7 % for men and 16.6 % for women. Corresponding proportions for age-groups 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70 + years were 8,9 %, 7,6 %, 4,8 %, 4,9 %, и 1,2 % among men and 18,3 %, 10,3 %, 13,8 %, 4,0 % и 1,5 % among women. The highest proportion of cases with BAC > 4,0 % was observed among women aged 15-29 years (42.9 %) and among women aged 30-39 years (37.5 %). Conclusions: Contrary to the results of the earlier studies in the European part of Russia our findings suggest that a substantial proportion of sudden cardiac deaths and deaths from diseases of circulatory system in general could be caused by alcohol poisoning particularly among women
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(10):59-64
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