No 2 (2020)

Articles
RISK PREDICTORS OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE IN MEN OF OLDER AGE GROUPS LIVING IN THE CONDITIONS OF FAR NORTH
Popova E.K., Arkhipova N.S., Popov I.O.
Abstract
Permanent residence in extreme climatic and geographical conditions provides the stress of adaptation reserves of the whole human body and the work of homeostatic systems in the new conditions. The aim of the study was to analyze the frequency of atherosclerosis risk factors and their relationship with coronary heart disease (CHD) in elderly and senile men living in Far North. Methods. An analytical study of the frequency of metabolic risk factors of atherogenesis was conducted among men (n = 505) with verified coronary heart disease (case group, n = 244) and without signs of coronary heart disease (control group, n = 261) 60 years and older, living in Far North, taking into account age and ethnicity. To assess the results of the study, the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals for OR were calculated. Results. High cardiovascular risk was noted in the group of patients with coronary artery disease compared with the group of patients without coronary artery disease (p < 0.001). Patients with coronary artery disease haв higher body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and blood pressure. In the absence of significant differences in the content of total cholesterol, the lipid profile in men with coronary heart disease haв more atherogenic nature (p < 0.001). When ethnicity was taken into account, a relationship was found between smoking, arterial hypertension, central type obesity and an increased risk of coronary heart disease among non-indigenous men (p < 0.001). A more favorable metabolic profile was noted in male indigenous ethnic groups (the Yakuts). Conclusions. A comparative analysis of the risk factors of coronary heart disease revealed high rates of hypertension and obesity in the group of patients with coronary heart disease living in extreme conditions of the Far North, in comparison with the control group without ethnicity, while hypercholesterolemia was more often observed in the Yakut group, and hypertriglyceridemia and smoking in a non-indigenous ethnic group (p < 0.001).
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(2):4-11
views
SERUM NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE CONCENTRATION AND PARAMETERS OF CENTRAL HEMODYNAMICS IN FIREFIGHTERS AT THE BEGINNING AND AT THE END OF THE 24-HOURS SHIFT
Vlasenko N.Y., Makarova I.I., Vlasenko M.A.
Abstract
Aim: to study associations between concentration of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and indices of central hemodynamics in firefighters at the beginning and at the end of the 24-hours shirt. Methods: Altogether, 240 firefighters (aged 25-47 years) in the Tver region participated in the study. They were divided into three groups: 1-6, 7-15, 16-25 yearsof experience. Serum NT-proBNP level was measured using EIA assay. Several central hemodynamic parameters were assessed by tetrapolar thoracic rheography at the beginning and end of the 24-hours shift. Independent-samples ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc tests were applied for numeric variables. Before-after comparisons were performed using paired t-tests. Associations between the studied variables were assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients. Results: The average concentration of NT-proBNP increased from 2.23 ± 0.11 at the beginning to 2.95 ± 0.10 f / mol / ml (p = 0.037) at the end of the shift in the first group. In the second and in the third groups an increase was from 4.11 ± 0.09 to 5.81 ± 0.18 f / mol / ml (p = 0.009) and from 3.41 ± 0.10 to 4.59 ± 0.17 f / mol / ml (p = 0.020). The correlation coefficients for the associations between NT-proBNP and volume of blood circulation changed from r = -0.46 (-0.65; -0.37) to r = 0.73 (0.69; 0.77), shock index from r = -0.42 (-0.62; -0.22) to r = 0.71 (0.65; 0.77) and cardiac index with r = -0.32 (-0.55; -0.19 ) to r = 0.82 (0.81; 0.83). Conclusion: NT-proBNP concentration in firefighters reflects the state of central hemodynamics and its change before and after extreme loads.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(2):12-17
views
STATE OF ENERGY BRAIN EXCHANGE IN PATIENTS WITH PROFESSIONAL DISEASES FROM INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL FACTOR
Shevchenko O.I., Lakhman O.L.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of energy metabolism of the brain according to neuroenergy mapping in patients with hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) and occupational sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Methods. 45 patients with HAVS associated with the combined effects of local and general vibration, and 71 patients with SNHL of professional origin were examined. The comparison group was represented by 38 men who were not exposed to the studied factors in their professional activities. The method of neuroenergy mapping was used, based on measuring of constant potential level. Results. Increased values of level of constant potential were observed in 62 % of patients with HAVS, 39 % of patients with SNHL, 31 and 52 % of patients, respectively, had a normal average level of neurometabolism, 7 and 9 % had reduced values of the constant potential level. An increase in metabolic intensity in relation to the average constant potential level in patients with HAVS was determined in the central (p = 0.027), right temporal (p = 0.043) regions. Patients with SNHL demonstrated an increase in bipolar indices in the central lead (Fpz-Cz = -5.0 (-13.1...3.8) mV) (p = 0.003), temporal right (Fpz -Td = -2.1 (-10.9...6.6) mV) (p = 0.014), temporal left (Fpz-Ts = -6.3 (-15.3...1.8) mV) (p = 0.031), occipital (Pz-Oz = -4.2 (-9.4...5.1) mV) (p = 0.022) regions of the brain associated with a decrease in constant potential level in frontal areas. According to the results of a discriminative analysis, the most informative neurometabolic signs in patients with HAVS were the indicators of constant potential level in the central lead (Cz, F = 9.672), in patients with SNHL - in the central parietal (Pz, F = 12.816). Conclusions. Functional disorders of the brain were observed in 69 % of the examined with HAVS and 48 % with SNHL; they were represented by increased energy exchange mainly in the central and temporal sections. Neurometabolic signs peculiar to HAVS were an increase in constant potential level of centralized lead and a decrease in the Td-Ts interhemispheric ratio; for SNHL, an increase in the left parietal, central parietal, and occipital divisions.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(2):18-23
views
FEATURES OF HEART RHYTHM VARIABILITY, BODY COMPOSITION AND PARAMETERS OF BIOIMPEDANESOMETRY IN GIRLS DEPENDING ON THE RATES OF BIOLOGICAL MATURATION
Filatova O.V., Bogdanova T.A., Tomilova I.N.
Abstract
The aim is to study the features of heart rate variability, body composition and parameters of bioimpedancemetry in 10 year old girls depending on the rate of biological maturation. Methods: 72 girls were examined using electrocardiography, anthropometry, bio-impedansometry. Results. The average power values of very low-frequency waves (VLF) of the cardiac rhythm are higher in retarded girls (2 128.1 ± 507.29) ms2 compared to accelerated (1,262.0 ± 179.54) ms2. Accelerated girls demonstrated an increase in the power of oscillations of high-frequency component HF (ms2) of the cardiac rhythm (2 257,8 ± 475,27), an increase in the percentage of high-frequency waves HF% (42,2 ± 5,33), a decrease in the LF/HF correlation (1,06 ± 0,288) in comparison with retarded ones (HF (ms2) - 1 796,0 ± 426,76, HF% - 27,3 ± 4,20, LF/HF - 2,35 ± 0,626). A statistically significant decrease in the normalized basal metabolism was shown: (46.9 ± 0.86) kcal / kg - retarded girls, (37.9 ± 1.45) - accelerated and increase in body fat mass: (15.5 ± 11.52) % - retarded, (25.0 ± 1.655) - accelerated. Conclusions: 1) differences in spectral parameters between groups with different biological ages were revealed in ten-year-old schoolgirls in terms of VLF and HF components, which indicates an increase in the activity of the segmental part of the autonomic nervous system during puberty; 2) the group of girls with a low level of anthropometric indicators and puberty is characterized by higher VLF values, lower HF values compared to the group with a level of physical and sexual development above average; 3) groups of girls with different levels of physical and sexual development differ not only in basic anthropometric indicators, parameters of the component composition of the body, but also in terms of the basic, specific, normalized metabolism; 4) a statistically significant decrease in the rate of normalized basal metabolism was found in the group of accelerated girls, compared to retarded ones.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(2):24-32
views
FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF STUDENTS OF TUVAN STATE UNIVERSITY WITH DIFFERENT STRUCTURE OF BEHAVIOR IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS
Kuular S.V., Buduk-ool L.K., Saryg S.K.
Abstract
The aim is to study the functional status of students of Tuvan State University with different strategies of behavior in conflict situations. Methods. The study involved 208 students of Tuvan nationality. The following methods were used: diagnostics of personality behavior strategy in conflict interaction according to K. Thomas, simple visual-motor reaction, choice behavior, tapping test, "Kraepelin's table". Results. The prevailing type of behavior strategy in conflict among students is the adaptation strategy - it is chosen by 25.6% of the respondents, while a rather large part falls on the strategies of compromise (23.2%) and cooperation (22.0%), the minimum number of students chose an avoidance strategy (12.2%). Evaluation of the average time value of simple visual-motor reaction indicates that the majority (from 64.3 to 66.7%) of students who choose the strategies of avoidance, cooperation and compromise have this indicator below the norm. Among individuals whose reaction time falls within the normal range, the chosen strategies are rivalry (53.8%) and device (47.1%). Inertia of nervous processes was revealed in the students of avoidance group, according to the results of a complex sensorimotor choice behavior. Among Tuvan students, individuals with intermediate and degressive types of working capacity prevail. Conclusion. In general, all Tuvan students are characterized by a weak and medium-weak type of nervous system, a "slightly reduced" functional state of the central nervous system. According to the study results: a group with effective behavioral strategies, characterized by inertia, imbalance and instability of nervous processes according to simple visual-motor reaction, intensity to differentiative inhibition in complex choice behavior and the predominance of a strong type of nervous system; a group with a neutral behavior strategy, characterized by a low speed of sensorimotor reaction, low stability and imbalance of nervous processes, a "slightly reduced" functional state of the central nervous system in terms of the functional level of the system, the stability of the reaction and the level of functionality, steady attention and high mental performance, and a group with ineffective strategies, which is characterized by a higher speed of sensorimotor reactions, stability and balance of excitation and inhibition, intermediate and downstream types of mental capacity.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(2):33-39
views
THE CONCEPT OF UNIFORMITY OF A GROUP IN HUMAN ECOLOGY
Filatova O.E., Gudkov A.B., Eskov V.V., Chempalova L.S.
Abstract
Over the past 100-150 years, the selection of homogeneous groups in ecology as a whole has been carried out as part of the calculation of the coefficient of variation V = о / or by the ABC method. However, the Eskov - Zinchenko effect imposes serious restrictions on all statistical methods. The aim of the study was to verify the statistical homogeneity of three groups of Khanty women of different ages. Methods: The technique of repeating measurements of the same parameters of the Khanty women's cardiovascular system (three different ages) was used, for which matrices of all (105) different pairwise comparisons of samples for each such group were constructed (these measurements were repeated). Results. It was established that the same age, gender and living conditions (ethnicity) do not guarantee the selection of physiologically (statistically) homogeneous groups of subjects. The study proves the lack of statistical homogeneity of the three age-tested groups of Khanty women. The proportion of statistical similarity is less than 20 % of all 105 comparison pairs in all three age comparison groups. It is shown that repeated measurement of the same group gives a different picture of the distribution of pairs that can be attributed to one (common) general population. Each new dimension will give other pairs of k coincidences and it will never (from the standpoint of stochastics) be able to select a homogeneous group statistically coincident in the xi samples of the homeostasis parameter. In fact, the Eskov - Zinchenko effect spreads from one subject (in the mode of n iterations of experiments) to a group of different subjects (which cannot be homogeneous). Conclusions. From the standpoint of chaos theory - self-organization, other criteria of group homogeneity are required, in which the parameters of quasi attractors and the ratio of objects of these quasi attractors are already calculated.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(2):40-44
views
PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHUYA KAZAKHS AND SOUTHERN ALTAIANS
Chanchaeva E.A., Sukhova M.G., Aizman R.I.
Abstract
The aim is to identify gender phenotypic signs of adaptation of the Kazakh and Altai populations to the conditions of Southeast Altai. Tasks: to characterize the morphological indicators of adolescents (13-15 years old) and adults (20-29 years old), depending on nationality and gender; to evaluate the macronutrient analysis of the daily food allowance and the biochemical parameters of blood plasma of adult Kazakhs and Altaians of both sexes. Methods. The study was conducted in the Kosh-Agach district of the Altai Republic. Length and body weight were assessed in Kazakh and Altai teenagers, and beside that the macronutrient analysis of the daily food allowance, as well as the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, glucose, high and low density lipoproteins in the blood plasma were estimated in adults. Results. The adult Kazakh population of Gorny Altai was found to be similar to the native Altai population according to morphological characteristics, type of nutrition, and plasma lipid indices. Compared to Altaians, they have more pronounced manifestations of sexual dimorphism in terms of length and body weight. In the puberty, Kazakh boys are significantly shorter not only their herd mates of a homogeneous population, but also peers from Northern Kazakhstan. Conclusion. The climatic and geographical conditions of the Altai highlands determine the manifestation of the following phenotypic signs in the Kazakh population: hyperstenoid body type, high fat intake, metabolic processes that ensure the stability of blood plasma lipids, more pronounced signs of sexual dimorphism at different stages of ontogenesis.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(2):45-50
views
CONTRIBUTION OF PNEUMONIA IN MAINTAINING A HIGH MORTALITY FROM STROKES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES (LITERATURE REVIEW)
Gerasimova M.A.
Abstract
Circulatory system diseases continue to occupy a dominant position in the structure of death causes in the world. Despite significant successes in organizing medical care for stroke patients, annual mortality from it in Russia remains one of the highest in the world. It is worth remembering that the importance of the stroke problem lies not so much in the disease itself, as in its outcomes. The immediate cause of a person's death may not be the episode of acute cerebrovascular accident, but its complications, in particular pneumonia, which makes a significant contribution in maintaining a high mortality rate both from strokes and their consequences. However, there are few works devoted to the role of pneumonia in mortality of patients with cardiovascular catastrophes. Since a stroke has medical, social and economic significance for society, it becomes necessary to predict the losses associated with it. Thus, the focus on nosocomial infections, in particular pneumonia and the fight against them will reduce the mortality rate from strokes and their consequences, including outside medical organizations.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(2):51-57
views
ROLE OF IXODIC TICKS IN CIRCULATION OF TICK-BORNE INFECTIONS IN THE SOUTH OF THE FAR EAST
Lubova V.A., Leonova G.N., Shutikova A.L.
Abstract
The aim of the work is to show the ecological, epizootological and epidemiological significance of ixodic ticks in the distribution and circulation of tick-borne pathogens in the south of the Far East. Methods. The material for the study was collected during an expedition conducted in the spring and summer of 2018 on five routes: in the northwestern territories of the Primorsky Territory (Spassky District, Lesozavodsky City District) and in the northern territories (Krasnoarmeysky District). 830 copies of ixodic ticks were collected. 187 samples were studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RT). Results. Of the total number of ticks collected, route 1 accounted for 24.7 %, 2 - 17.4 %, 3 - 19.5 %, 4 - 23.0 %, 5 - 14.8 %. It was shown that ticks I. persulcatus (73.1 ± 4.3) - (95.9 ± 1.5) % were the dominant species on all studied routes except route 3. On all routes, tick infection by I. persulcatus was most often observed, in which RNA tick-borne encephalitis virus was detected in 2 cases (1.9 %), DNA B. burgdorferi s. l. - in 40 (37.7 %), DNA B. miyamotoi - in 1 (0.9 %), DNA A. phagocytophilum - in 7 (6.6 %), DNA E. chaffeensis / E. muris-FL - 1 (0.9 %). In ticks of the Haemaphysalis genus, pathogens were detected only in H. japonica: - in 1 pool (1.2 %), DNA of R. heilongjiangensis - in 3 (3.7 %). Besides in 6 pools of ticks I. persulcatus, mixes of genetic markers of DNA of B. burgdorferi s. l. with various pathogens were detected. Conclusions. The data obtained indicate a different degree of infection of ixodic ticks with tick-borne pathogens, which indicates the need for monitoring studies with a wide coverage of all territories in the south of the Far East.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(2):58-64
views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies