No 1 (2020)

Articles
HOMOGENEITY OF THE PARAMETERS OF THE CARDIOINTERVALS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN AFTER NORTH-SOUTH TRAVEL
Filatova D.Y., Bashkatova Y.V., Melnikova E.G., Shakirova L.S.
Abstract
The problem of selecting a homogeneous group of subjects can be addressed by calculating the coefficient of variation or by using the ABC method. However, this is not sufficient for homeostatic systems. The aim of the study is to establish the statistical and chaotic patterns of parameters of the cardiovascular system among girls in the city of Surgut following North-South travel. Methods: The data on indicators of the cardiovascular system (CVS) of girls were collected using pulsoximeter EL0X-01. The obtained samples of cardiointervals (CI) were processed as matrices of pairwise comparisons of samples. Results. After two weeks of rest in the South of the Russia, the number of k pairs of samples in the matrices of pairwise comparisons decreases indicating changers towards increased heterogeneity in the CVS parameters. In general, with statistical paired comparison of samples of CI in the group of girls, only 2-15 % of pairs of samples can be attributed to one general population. The calculation of the pairwise comparison matrix of samples of CI for one subject showed that the samples with repeated measurements in the same homeostasis may statistically less match than in a group of different people. Conclusions. Traditional statistics in the description of the CVS has low efficiency, the behavior of the CI is chaotic, because the forecast of dynamics based on the analysis of previous states and the initial value x(t0) is impossible. In the work within the framework of the new approach from the standpoint of the theory of chaos-self-organization, the features of the parameters of the CVS of girls under the action of various climatogeographic factors are studied.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(1):6-10
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GASTROINTESTINAL PATHOLOGY AMONG RESIDENTS OF THE AREAS AFFECTED BY CHERNOBYL NUCLEAL ACCIDENT
Dudarenko S.V., Lopatin S.N., Leontev O.V.
Abstract
Objective: to assess clinical and morphological characteristics and occurrence of micronuclei of mucocytes of the integumentary and epithelium of the gastric mucosa in residents of areas affected by Chernobyl nuclear accident taking into account Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and nutritional factors. Methods: a retrospective study was conducted using a micronuclear test in integumentary-pit epithelium to study cytogenetic effects of small doses of ionizing radiation. Results. Mucocytes with micronuclei were predominantly observed in persons permanently residing in radiation contaminated areas since 1986. The occurrence of micronucleation was not statistically associated with Hp infection. No associations were found for the total alpha and beta activity of biopsy specimens of the gastric mucosa and the density of contamination of the territory at 90Sr and 137Cs. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that gastrointestinal pathology in residents of the territories affected by Chernobyl accident seems to have multifactorial origin related not only to the nuclear accident in Chernobyl.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(1):11-16
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CADMIUM AND LEAD CONCENTRATIONS IN HUMAN HAIR IN THE TRANS-URALS REGION OF BASHKORTOSTAN REPUBLIC
Rafikova Y.S., Semenova I.N., Khasanova R.F., Suyundukov Y.T.
Abstract
Objective: to study the content of cadmium and lead in the hair of the inhabitants of the Trans-Ural region of the Republic of Bashkortostan (RB). Methods. Chemical-analytical studies of samples were carried out in the licensed laboratory of the Center for Biotic Medicine (Moscow) by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled argon plasma. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistica 6.0 software. Results. The distribution of cadmium and lead in the hair of the examined individuals was different from normal thus non-parametric methods of analysis were applied. The median (Me) content of cadmium in the hair of adult men was 0.089 |jg/g, which is higher than that for RB (0.075 |jg/g) and Russian Federetion (RF) (0.052 Mg/g). An increase in the level of cadmium compared to regional indicators was observed in 58.5 % of adult men. In the hair of girls aged 1-14 years, the level of lead was detected (Me = 0.764 Mg/g) compared with RB (Me = 0.410 Mg/g) and RF (Me = 0.727 Mg/g) lead level. The content of cadmium and lead in the hair of men and women had significant differences (p = 0.042 and p = 0.020 respectively). Conclusion: the results indicate the need to strengthen control over cadmium and lead level in the air, soil, water, food and develop measures to reduce the risk to public health.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(1):17-24
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HEALTH OF CHILDREN IN DIFFICULT LIFE SITUATIONS
Makarova V.I., Pastbina I.M., Poskotinova A.I., Shumov A.V., Plaksina N.Y., Babikova I.V.
Abstract
Improving health care system for children is one of the priorities of the state, and children in difficult life situations require special attention. The aim of this study is to assess the health status of children in this group, based on the data of medical preventive examinations conducted in 2017 on the territory of the Arkhangelsk region. Methods: an observational analytical retrospective cohort study. A cluster sampling procedure was applied. Altogether, 2 929 children from substitute families and 2 099 children from state institutions comprised the study base. Results: More than 90 % of children were covered by prophylactic medical examination according to the orders 216н and 72н of Ministry of Health. Indicators of physical development generally correspond to the average data for the Arkhangelsk region, although in the group of pupils of closed institutions their alignment is gradual, as the proper care of children and implementation of the recommendations of specialists. In the distribution of children by health groups, attention is drawn to the low percentage of practically healthy children with a clear predominance of persons with chronic somatic pathology (with a large number of children with group V health in public institutions explained by the participation in the study of specialized institutions). Recommendations for additional screening are implemented in about 50 % of children; this figure is higher only in children from orphanages (> 90 %). Conclusion: The health status of children in difficult life situations differs from that of children raised in biological families: the majority of children belong to groups II and III of health with a low percentage of healthy children (group I) and a relatively high percentage of children with disabilities (group V). Leading places in the structure of pathology are diseases of the musculoskeletal and digestive systems.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(1):25-31
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HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN GAS INDUSTRY EMPLOYEES IN THE NORTH
Govorukhina A.A., Slyusar E.N.
Abstract
Aim: to study heart rate variability in 102 women working as engineers at Surgut Research Industrial Institute in relation to duration of stay in the North and age. Methods: Heart rate variability was assessed using a diagnostic set "VNS-range" by the company 'Neurosoft'. Categorical data were analyzed using chi-squared tests. Statistica software was used for all calculations. Results: With increasing age, the values of the total power index (TP), the power of the very low frequency (VLF), and stress index (IS) significantly increase. The root-mean-square deviation of successive RR-intervals (SDNN), TP and the power of the high-frequency oscillation spectrum (HF) are significantly increase while the power of the low-frequency oscillation spectrum (LF) and the activation index of subcortical centers (IASC) decrease with increase in the duration of stay in the North. Thus, parasympathetic influences predominate with a tendency to vagotonia. At the same time, increases a state of stress to system of cardiohemodynamics. But, female engineers living in the North for up to 10 years have seen a significant tension in regulatory systems, since higher control levels are included in the regulation process, which leads to suppression of autonomous circuit activity and a decrease in the adaptive capabilities of the cardiovascular system. It can be assumed that the activation of the sympathetic link is considered as a nonspecific component of the adaptation reaction in response to various stressful effects. Decrease in heart rate variability indices indicates a changes in vegetative control and its regulation. The highest rates of HRV are recorded in healthy young people and living in the North for a short time. Decrease in these indicators may indicate adverse changes in the regulation of the cardiovascular system.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(1):32-41
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RISKS OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION IN THE INTERACTION OF THE STATE AND THE FAMILY IN THE ELDERLY CARE SYSTEM
Patyan L., Golubeva E.Y., Szeman Z., Robert M.A.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to establish the risks that contribute to social exclusion when receiving care by the elderly in the interaction of public services and the family in Central and Eastern Europe (Hungary as an example) and Russia. The article systematized the conceptual approaches to the elderly care system in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) in comparison with applied in the Russian Federation. The risks that may contribute to exclusion of social groups from care services are discussed. These include: inaccessibility of social and medical services, low social standards and quality of life, poverty of the elderly population, poor development of the transport network in geographically remote regions of Russia, etc. When comparing social care systems, it was revealed that the overall objective of social policy regarding older people, is the provision of care in institutions and at home with clients, where the state plays a decisive role. It was determined that closer cooperation between the official system and family members in caring for the elderly, as well as support and the provision of services, provide a higher level of care, increase the competence of participants in the interaction in care and control over its process.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(1):42-49
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GENDER PECULIARITIES OF BEHAVIORAL RISK OF HIV INFECTION
Mulik A.B., Ulesikova I.V., Mulik I.G., Nazarov N.O., Popov S.F., Shatyr Y.A.
Abstract
Purpose: to study gender-related peculiarities of psychological mechanisms of behavioral risk of HIV infection. Methods. The psychotype of the test subjects from the experimental group (17 men and 17 women-HIV-infected patients of the Volgograd AIDS Center), and the comparison groups (38 men and 22 women, graduate students and University professors of Volgograd, characterized by the lack of behavioral risk of HIV infection) was evaluated by a set of indicators of social activity and social destructiveness, adventurism, risk appetite, extroversion and neuroticism, accentuation of temperament and character. 112 men and 112 women, part-time students of Volgograd universities, selected by a simple random sample, who studied the relationship of the identified psychological indicators of the risk of HIV infection and personal characteristics of a person, taking into account gender, were involved as a control group of observation. Results. HIV-infected subjects, relative to persons with no behavioral risk of HIV infection, are characterized by the predominance of social destructiveness, reaching statistically significant differences for women (p = 0.014) and having a tendency to the significance of differences (p = 0.053) in men, as well as the prevalence of adventurism, reaching statistically significant differences for both men (p = 0.022) and women (p = 0.003). In the control group of observation, in men with respect to social destructiveness, a direct relationship with extroversion (p = 0,002), neuroticism (p = 0,049), pedantry (p = 0,008), excitability (p = 0,024) and emotivity (p = 0,047) was revealed. In the group of women presented indicators are characterized by negative relationship with social destructiveness by extroversion (p = 0,037), neuroticism (p = 0,049), excitability (p = 0,043) and emotivity (p = 0,031). Conclusions. The role of the inversion of gender psychotype on extroversion, neuroticism, accentuation of temperament and character in shaping the propensity of men and women to risky behavior is grounded.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(1):50-58
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SOCIAL STEREOTYPES ABOUT THE USE OF MEDICATIONS AMONG THE WORKING-AGE RESIDENTS OF AN INDUSTRIAL CITY
Svetlichnaya T.G., Smirnova E.A.
Abstract
The aim of this research is to identify the factors of related to social stereotypes about the use of pharmaceuticals by the working age population of an industrial Russian city. Methods. The study was performed in Cherepovets - a typical industrial Russian city. Altogether, 400 visitors of four randomly selected pharmacies filled out an anonymous questionnaire on the attitudes towards the use of medications, compliance to medical prescriptions etc. Results. The rational use of medicines only when health problems appear, as practised by the majority (75.2 %) of the work-age citizens, is combined with the low medicinal compliance. Every second individual (50.0 %) either frequently violates the medical prescriptions (43.8 %), or completely disregards them (6.2 %). The absence of doctor's credibility is manifested in the irrational motives in the choice of the medicinal products, amongst which the recommendations of the doctor consitute 36.4 %. The main reason of poor complience in using the pharmaceuticals is the wide spread in the social medium of the misconception with regards to medicines viewed as placebo, pacifier, poison and toxic (38.5 %). Conclusions. The existing social stereotypes in using the medicines reflect low health literacy of the population and sometimes negative experience of interaction with the health-care system. The situation is aggravated by the lack of understanding of the patients' cooperation in health promotion and disease prevention. Measures aiming at increasing health literacy and forming rational attitudes towards medicines are needed to a change health-related behaviour and increase compliance to medical treatment.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(1):59-64
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