No 8 (2019)

Articles
Complex study of the vaporous ammonia influence on the morphofunctional status of the female rats organism
Belyaev N.G., Rzhepakovsky I.V., Piskov S.I.
Abstract
The aim: to study on the experimental model the chronic effect of vaporous ammonia of the maximum permissible concentration for the working area air on the morphofunctional state of female rats. Methods: Rats' primer to ammonia at a dose of 20 mg/m3 was carried out using a modified chamber method for 2 hours per day for 45 days. The morphofunctional state of female rats exposed to ammonia was studied in comparison with a control group of animals in a regular air environment. The experiment included evaluation of erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet blood parameters, level detection of gonadotropins and sex hormones, morphometry of the adrenal glands, genitalia, microtomography of the femoral bones. Results: Ammonia priming of rats was accompanied by an increase in number of red blood cells, white blood cells, an increase in hematocrit, a decrease in volume of red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, as well as a decrease in the average content and concentration of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte and an increase in the total platelet concentration with a decrease in their total volume. Animals' inhalation with ammonia led to cardiac and adrenal gland hypertrophy (23.8 % and 41.0 % increase, respectively) and a decrease of the uterus' size by 36 % and mass by 47.0 %. Testosterone increased by 52.8 % and estradiol decreased by 27.5 % and FSH by 11.2 %, respectively. The mineral density of the trabecular and cortical parts of the femoral bones of animals exposed to ammonia was (0.13 ± 0.01) and (1.17 ± 0.01) g / cm3 against (0.27 ± 0.03) and (1, 24 ± 0.01) g / cm3 in the control group, respectively. Number and thickness of trabeculae of the epiphyseal part of the femoral bone decreased to 27.4 % and 22.7 %, respectively. Conclusions: The effect of vaporous ammonia on the organism of female rats was accompanied by negative changes in the state of peripheral blood, in the content of gonadotropins and the ratio of sex hormones, hypoplasia of the genitalia, a decrease in bone mineral density and a rarefaction of the trabecular bone structure.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(8):4-11
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The concentration of erythrocyte antigens in moksha and erzya, republic of Mordovia
Litovchenko O.G., Gusachenko L.A.
Abstract
To determine the peculiarities of erythrocyte antigen distribution is reasonable due to the necessity to study the causes of antigenic polymorphism occurrence in different ethnic populations. The aim of the work was to establish the frequency of antigens, the concentration of alleles, haplotypes, erythrocyte genes of ABO, Rh, MN systems in representatives of small indigenous groups Moksha and Erzya of the Republic of Mordovia. Methods: Antigen phenotyping (system ABO, Rh, MN) was carried out using a hemagglutination reaction with monochannel coliclone. The blood of 681 inhabitants from 7 regions of the Republic of Mordovia served as a study material. ABO gene frequency was calculated using formulas proposed by F. Bernstein for triallelic genetic systems. The frequency of haplotypes of Rh system was calculated using formulas proposed by A. E. Mourant. The Fisher test was used to compare the dispersion of the two variation series. Results: Distribution of blood groups in Moksha: O(I) (34.01 %) >A(II) (32.99 %) >B(III) (25.17 %) >AB(IV) (7.82 %). Distribution of blood groups in Erzya A(II) (36.69 %) >O(I) (31.26 %) >B(III) (23.77 %) >AB(Iv) (8.26 %). No statistically significant differences were found in phenotypes distribution in Moksha and Erzya. The concentration of Rh gene alleles in the studied groups did not differ significantly. The most common allele is D - 0.6; then c - 0.56; e - 0.44, 0.42; C - 0.4; d - 0.5; and the lowest concentration both in Moksha and in Erzya was observed in the allele E - 0.16; 0.2, respectively. Haplotype CDe had the highest concentration (0,436 - Moksha; 0,427 - Erzya), the haplotype cdE 0,373, 0,380; cDE 0,171, 0,173. Concentration of cdE haplotype - 0,012 was found in Moksha and 0,026 in Erzya. Conclusion: The obtained data can be used for the safety scientifically based transfusion support of small populations and in composition of the genogeographic map of the Russian Federation.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(8):12-17
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Specific character of the external respiration of the indigenous residents of Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous district - ugra aged 11-14 years
Nifontova O.L., Konkova K.S.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to identify the peculiarities of external respiration of schoolchildren aged 11-14 years old, the indigenous people of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra. Methods: To assess the function of external respiration, the hardware-software complex Spiro-Spectrum was used. The obtained results were analyzed using the software Statistica 10.0. The following groups were singled out: 1st - schoolchildren from the indigenous peoples of the North (Khanty), who come to boarding schools for the study period; 2nd - metis of the first generation (one of the parents - Khanty); 3rd - descendants of alien populations. Results: In all groups of schoolchildren, hyperventilation of the lungs was stated at rest. In groups of girls, the excess of the age norm of the minute volume of respiration was not less than 4 l / min, in boys - not less than 6 l / min, the maximum lung ventilation was lower than due values by more than 15 %. Lung ventilation rates in the metis groups were closer to those of the descendants of the alien population. Conclusions: The presence of restrictive disorders and reduction of the limiting capabilities of the respiratory apparatus was not excluded in the studied groups. Features of lung ventilation of metis of both sexual groups, in which only one of the parents is a representative of the Khanty, are mainly inherited from the adaptive types of the second parent with a genetic program specific for their birth regions. Only in metis girls the frontier of the respiratory system reflects its features peculiar to the representatives of the Arctic adaptive type.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(8):18-24
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A-allele of the fto gene is associated with increased fat accumulation in vegetarians
Bondareva E.A., Zadorozhnaya L.V., Khomyakova I.A.
Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) genotype may interact with dietary intakes in relation to adiposity; previous findings suggest that low dietary protein intake may increase the obesity risk. The aim of present paper was to test the effect of FTO variants on obesity related morphological trains (fat accumulation and topography) in adult vegetarians. Methods: Lifestyle, genetic (FTO T/A, rs9939609) and anthropometric data were collected from 114 adult Russian vegetarians (48 males and 66 females), mean age was 30,6 ± 7,0 yrs. Results: Vegetarian men had lower total body fat (11,4 %) compared with non-vegetarian Russian men the same age. Vegetarian women had normal total body fat (23,7 %). A lot of significant associations between A allele and obesity related traits were found in males' subgroup. In this subgroup the AA genotype carriers demonstrate abdominal fat accumulation. There were no significant differences between alternative FTO genotype carriers in obesity related traits in vegetarian women. Conclusion: Obesity risk allele (FTOxA) is associated with fat accumulation on trunk in vegetarian men.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(8):25-31
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Structural-functional peculiarities of physiological systems in persons with different types of hemispheric domination (review)
Kottsova O.N., Anikina N.Y., Gribanov A.V.
Abstract
This article presents the significance of research on hemispheric asymmetry for assessing the structural and functional parameters of various physiological systems. The authors performed the literature analysis on the functional hemispheric asymmetry (FHA). Special features of the right and left hemispheres according to the evolutionary-genetic approach have been given. Thus, the right hemisphere was phylogenetically attributed to the older one; therefore, the development of its bioelectrical activity was largely determined by the genotype. The left hemisphere was phylogenetically younger and had greater individual variability depending on environmental and social factors. Psychic asymmetry was described, by which we understood the functional inequality of the cerebral hemispheres in the implementation of neuropsychic activity. Concepts of various types and profiles of asymmetry were revealed. A brief overview of the changes was given. FHA changes during ontogenesis were traced: right hemisphere was predominant from birth to 6-7 years; by 10-14 years, the activity of the left hemisphere increased, the functional connections became more rigid, the brain's energy resources turned to the front sections of the left hemisphere; in old age, hemispheric asymmetry was smoothed out. Morphological and functional features of the hemispheres, depending on gender were also presented. Thus, cytoarchitectonic structures of men's brain had a pronounced structural asymmetry, while cytoarchitectonic structures of women's brain were more typical and were characterized by structural symmetry. Experimental-psychological and physiological methods of recording and assessing hemispheric asymmetry were described. A non-invasive method for the analysis of interhemispheric energy-exchange processes according to the distribution of the level of constant potential of the brain, reflecting the transformation of the membrane potentials of neurons, glia and the hemato-toencephalic barrier was presented. The effect of interhemispheric asymmetry on the success of adaptation processes was analyzed. Today, the interaction between the cerebral cortex and the autonomic nervous system remained understudied. Study and evaluation of the structural and functional state of human's physiological functions are recommended to carry out taking into account the type of hemispheric dominance.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(8):32-40
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A population study of the quality of life of the habitancy of the chukotka autonomous area
Ionova T.I., Kirin V.N., Sheidorova A.C., Porfirieva N.M., Nikitina T.P., Sukhonos Y.A., Gudkov A.B., Chashchin V.P.
Abstract
The aim was to study the indicators of quality of life of the adult population of the Chukotka Autonomous Region (ChAO) and to identify characteristics specific to the remote arctic area. Methods: The study included 424 residents of the Chukotka Autonomous Region aged 18 to 77 years old (231 - women and 193 - men). Using the RAND SF-36 questionnaire, health-related quality of life indicators were evaluated. Results: The average indicators of the life quality of Chukotka population were the following: physical functioning - 87.1 ± 17.9 points; role-physical functioning - 79.0 ± 32.1 points; pain index - 76.2 ± 23.3 points; general health - 63.9 ± 20.0 points; viability - 65.1 ± 18.1 points; social functioning - 81.7 ± 19.3 points; role-emotional functioning - 79.9 ± 31.1 points; mental health - 69.7 ± 16.9 points. The life quality of women was significantly lower than that of men according to the following scales: physical functioning (84.0 versus 90.1 points), role-physical functioning (75.2 versus 82.6 points), role-emotional functioning (77.2 versus 82, 4 points), pain (72.5 versus 79.7 points) and social functioning (79.9 versus 83.3 points). The lowest vitality index (59.9 points), role-emotional functioning (68.6 points) and mental health (65.3 points) were stated in the age group of 55-64 years. Conclusion: The quality of life indicators in women living in Chukotka area are lower than in men according to the scales: physical functioning, role-physical and role-emotional functioning, pain index and social functioning. The scales: overall health, vitality, and mental health indices were similar in men and women. The highest indicators of quality of life were in residents aged 18-34 years. Urban residents had higher quality of life indicators than residents of rural areas and urban-type settlements. The quality of life of the indigenous population of Chukotka area was significantly lower than that of the non-indigenous population for all the indicators; no differences were found in the life quality indicators between the Chukchi and other indigenous ethnic groups of Chukotka. Widowed respondents showed the lowest indicators of quality of life.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(8):41-49
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Genetic polymorphism of sportsmens with different sport experience
Boronnikova S.V., Vasilyeva Y.S., Burlutskaya M.Y., Gavrikov E.P.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to identify the interconnection between polymorphic genes ACTN3, PPARG, NOS3 and PPARGC1A, associated with endurance and speed-physical skills in athletes practicing martial arts with different duration of the sport experience. Methods: 98 athletes aged from 9 to 20 years practicing martial arts participated in the study. Polymorphisms of four genes: R577X of gene ACTN3, Pro12→Ala of gene PPARG, G894T of gene NОS3, Gly482Ser of gene PPARGC1A were identified by laboratory methods using polymerase chain reaction. The interconnection between the genetic profile and functioning of skeletal muscles, cardiovascular system and lipid metabolism was studied. Results: The athletes were divided into three groups according to sport experience. It was stated that in the group with long sport experience (9 to 12 years) favorable genotypes R/R (0,17, p = 0,001) of gene ACTN3, Ala/Ala (0,17, p = 0,007) of gene PPARG and Gly/Gly (0,14, p = 0,012) of gene PPARGC1A prevailed. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that interconnection between sport experience and genotype of athletes practicing martial arts was positive, but weak in three genes ACTN3 (rs = 0,426), PPARG (rs = 0,280), PPARGC1A (rs = 0,180), and very weak in NOS3 (rs = 0,082) gene. Conclusions: The obtained results reflected the process of sport selection: in athletes with a longer sport experience, favorable genotypes and alleles were detected with a significantly higher frequency than athletes with short sport experience. Presence of favorable genotypes should be considered along with other factors that influence the progress of athletes in sport career.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(8):50-57
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The prevalence of noncarious teeth injury in pregnant and their interaction with ecology of oral cavity
Ulitovskiy S.B., Kalinina O.V.
Abstract
The aim was to study the prevalence and intensity of noncarious teeth injury in pregnant to improve their dental health. Methods: During the month, 129 pregnant women in the first trimester were observed. A clinical examination of hard teeth tissues in women included the results of a survey, visual and instrumental examination. The viscosity of the oral fluid was determined using a vpzh -4 viscometer. The concentration of hydrogen indicators of ions of the oral fluid was measured using a pH meter HANNA. Teeth hypersensitivity in women was assessed using L.Yu. Orekhova - S.B. Ulitovskiy tooth sensitivity index. Student t-test was used for statistical processing of digital material. Results: It was stated that the prevalence of tooth erosion in pregnant women reached the highest values between the ages of 31 and 35 years old - (30.34 ± 3.97) %, and the wedge-shaped defect in this age group was (27.12 ± 3.80) %. When conducting a preventive program for pregnant women with combined use of oral hygiene based on extracts of walnut leaves and liquorice tree, vitamins C, PP and E, as well as lactoperoxidase and lactoferrin, the acid-base efficiency of the oral fluid increased to 3.21 % during the month, the values of the effect of viscosity of the oral fluid reached 44.12 %, and the desensitive effect was 53.88 %. Conclusion: During pregnancy, it is necessary to take into account the acid-base state and the viscosity of the oral fluid as factors determining the ecology of the mouth, to monitor the hypersensitivity of the teeth, and the monitoring allows to correct the state of the hard tissues of the teeth in pregnant women by means of preventive programs.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(8):58-64
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