No 3 (2020)

Articles
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MALIGNANT SKIN NEOPLASMS MORBIDITY IN SVERDLOVSK REGION
Ufimtseva M.A., Lipatov G.Y., Shubina A.S., Petkau V.V., Beresneva T.A., Adrianovskiy V.I., Komarov A.A., Martynov A.A.
Abstract
Sverdlovsk Region is one of the ten largest industrial regions, which accounts for 50.0 % of the total industrial production of the Russian Federation. The aim of the study is a comparative assessment of malignant skin neoplasms (MNS) incidence in the administrative districts of a large industrial region - the Sverdlovsk Region. Methods. We analyzed the data of state statistical reporting, approved by the Order of Rosstat dated December 29, 2011 No. 520 (as amended on December 30, 2015), annual forms of reporting documentation - form No. 7, form No. 35 for the period from 2003 to 2017 in the Sverdlovsk Region. The morbidity and mortality rates standardized by the world age standard were calculated, gender indicators, the morbidity structure in urban districts were estimated. Results. There was an increase in the incidence of MNS - both skin melanoma (SM) and skin cancer (SC) (an intensive increase by 49.1 and 69.8 %, respectively). The overall increase of SM and SC was higher among women: the increase of SM was 23.1 %, in men - 13.6; SC - women 52.7 %, men 40.5. Number of patients with SM of working age has increased by 41.7 % since 2003. Mortality from MNS has a tendency to decrease; however, the rates of first-year mortality are at a high level. Conclusion. There is an increase in the incidence of MNS in Sverdlovsk region - both SM and SC. However, the incidence rates of SC do not exceed the average Russian levels, in contrast to SM for the past 15 years. The highest incidence of MNS cases is registered on territories with functioning industrial enterprises (Gornozavodskoy and Yuzhniy Administrative Districts, Yekaterinburg) which require further study and preventive measures.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(3):4-9
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FUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE DYNAMIC COMPONENT OF THE POSTULAR BALANCE IN ELDERLY WOMEN AND ITS DETERMINANTS
Shiryaeva T.P., Torshin V.P., Gribanov A.V., Fedotov D.M., Bagretsov S.F.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to determine the indicators of the dynamic component of the postural balance and subjective characteristics of the functional state of the body in elderly women with postural instability. Methods. The study involved 246 healthy women aged 60-74 years living in an urban environment. The sample was divided into two groups: those who had falls (n = 95) and those without falls (n = 151). Analysis of the postural balance was carried out using the computer-based posturographic system Balance Master (USA) and included the following tests: Sit to stand, Simple walking, Tandem walk, Step/ quick turn and Step up/over. The assessment of the quality of life, situational and personal anxiety, subjectively experienced age (SEA) and the rate of aging were given. Results. Most of the studied indicators of the dynamic component of the postural balance were reduced in the group of women with falls compared to the group of women without falls. Women with falls needed much more time to perform complex motor acts (p = 0,016), they showed lower speed of simple (p = 0,026) and tandem (p = 0,030) walking and higher step width in tandem walking (p = 0,016), and they also had a higher level of anxiety (р = 0,012) and a lower level of physical (p < 0,001) and psychological (p < 0,001) components of life quality. Conclusions. A group of women with falls showed a decrease in most of the studied indicators of the dynamic component of postural balance, subjectively experienced age, quality of life, as well as a higher level of anxiety and the rate of aging. Thus, we can assume that the decrease in the quality of the dynamic component of the postural balance can be illustrated by the deterioration of the subjective characteristics of the functional state of the body in elderly women.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(3):10-15
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HYGIENIC CONDITIONS OF SUPPLEMENTARY EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND HEALTH OF CHILDREN
Gritsina O.P., Trankovskaya L.V., Perelomova O.V., Tarasenko G.A., Anischenko E.B.
Abstract
The aim: hygienic assessment of the conditions of stay and the study of the health status of children attending supplementary educational organizations (SEO). Methods: We performed comprehensive sanitary and hygienic examination of SEO and analysed children's health using the data from the "Children's Medical Records for Educational Institutions" (registration form 026 / у-2000). Incidence, prevalence and structure of chronic pathology as well as anthropometric characteristics were studied using the centile method based on regional standards. Results. The proportion of children with frequent acute diseases was lower among children attending SEO than among schoolchildren without additional educational load: 34.4% vs. 15.6% in group 1(p = 0,015); 12,5 % - in the 2nd (рх2 = 0,004); 10,9 % in the 3rd group (рх2 = 0,002). Better health indicators among children visiting SEO were observed. We found statistically significant differences in the proportion of schoolchildren caliber without deviations in physical development, in the prevalence of chronic pathology, as well as in the number of children belonging to the first and the second health groups. Correlation analysis showed the presence of significant associations between the number of SEO visitors and the number of chronic diseases in a child, as well as inverse correlation between the level of the dynamic component in the classes and the formation of chronic pathology. Conclusions. We observed an effect of the number of SEO visitors and the feedback effect of the level of the dynamic component in the study structure on the development of chronic pathology in children (the proportion of the variance of the studied parameters was 2-4 %).
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(3):16-22
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HYGIENIC CONDITIONS OF SUPPLEMENTARY EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND HEALTH OF CHILDREN
Efimova N.V., Myl’nikova I.V., Turov V.M.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to provide comparative assessment of nutrition between urban and rural schoolchildren in the Irkutsk region. Methods. Altogether, 408 urban and 107 rural schoolchildren aged 11-17 participated in the study. Nutrition patterns were assessed using questionnaires and an automated computer-assisted program "Analysis of human nutrition". Results. The optimal frequency of meals food intake - 5-7 times a day - prevails in rural schoolchildren. Irregular meals were reported by 18.2 ± 2.1 % of urban and 6.3 ± 3.1 % of rural schoolchildren. Food ration of urban and rural schoolchildren regardless of age and sex does not meet the requirements of rational nutrition. Deficiency of energy value, some nutrients (proteins, amylum, dietary fiber, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A, B3) and an toxicity of mono- and disaccharides, added sugar, sodium, potassium were detected in 92.9 ± 1.3 % of urban and 89.1 ± 3.3 % of rural schoolchildren. Urban schoolchildren more often eat snacks and consume sweetened drinks. Conclusion. Or results warrant complex approach to the organization of healthy nutrition for urban and rural schoolchildren, development of proper nutrition skills in children and their parents. Our findings can be used for development of a regional program for the organization of proper nutrition for schoolchildren.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(3):23-30
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THE FUNCTIONAL STATE OF CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE AND FIRST GRADE STUDENTS AT INFORMATION LOAD WITH VARYING DEGREES OF STRESS
Krivolapchuk I.A., Chernova M.B.
Abstract
The aim of the study is to identify the features of functional state (FS) of children of senior preschool age and first grade students, manifested in the conditions of information loads. Methods. The study involved healthy children of the senior preschool age (n = 112) and first grade students (n = 137). We studied FS in four experimental situations: "comfortable wakefulness", "mobilization readiness", "load with a comfortable speed", "load with a maximum speed". Heart rate, ю-potential (OD), blood pressure were recorded. Anxiety and activity effectiveness were determined. The statistical significance of the differences was determined on the basis of Student t-test. Results. Information loads cause an increase in the level of CNS activation in children, an increase in the tension of regulatory systems and a shift in the autonomic balance towards the predominance of activity of the sympathetic division of the ANS. The most pronounced changes in the FS occurred during operation at maximum speed. Under these conditions, in senior preschool children, the shift in OD was 14,8 ± 1,3 mV (p < 0,001), heart rate (HR) 9,7 ± 1,1 beat/min (p < 0,001), average duration of the RR interval (RRNN) -31,4 ± 15,2 ms (p = 0,041), the spread of cardio intervals (MxDMn) -62,1 ± 13,9 ms (p < 0,001), quality of standard deviation (SDNN) -3,6 ± 1,7 ms (p = 0,036), mode amplitude (АМо) -6,3 ±1 ,9 % (p = 0,002), stress index (SI) 93,1 ± 17,6 rel. units (p < 0,001), systolic blood pressure (SBP) 8,5 ± 1,1 mm Hg (p < 0,001), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 7,0 ± 0,9 mm Hg (p < 0,001), double product (DP) 21,6 ± 1,6 rel. units (p < 0,001). The shift of ю-potential among first grade students was 22,4 ± 1,4 mV (p < 0,001), HR 12,7 ± 1,2 beat/min (p < 0,001), RRNN -55,0 ± 11,3 ms (p < 0,001), MxDMn -67,3 ± 12,0 ms (p = 0,003), SDNN -7,2 ± 1,9 ms (p < 0,001), АМо 3,3 ± 1,3 %, (p = 0,012), SI 116,5 ± 18,1 rel. units (p < 0,001), SBP 13,2 ± 1,6 mm Hg (p < 0,001), DBP 6,5 ± 1,6 mm Hg (p < 0,001), DP 15,3 ± 1,8 rel. units (p < 0,001). It was found that the efficiency at the maximum speed is lower than under loads performed at a comfortable speed. Conclusions. Psychophysiological value of activity in preschool children is higher and its effectiveness is lower than among first grade students. Two types of response to the information load have been found out.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(3):31-40
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ANALYSIS OF CHILD DISABILITY IN AREAS WITH DIFFERENT DEGREES OF ANTHROPO-TECHNOGENIC LOAD IN VORONEZH CITY
Myachina O.V., Esaulenko I.E., Puzin S.N., Achkasov E.E.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to describe the structure of children's disability living in Voronezh city in districts with differing degree of anthropo-technogenic load. Methods. The anthro-potechnogenic load in the city was analyzed using the information from the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology of the Voronezh Region. The structure of disability in children was studied according to the reporting form No. 19 "Information on Children with Disabilities" of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation for the period from 2009 to 2017. Results. According to the degree of anthropo-technogenic load in Voronezh, a relatively clean Central District (CD) and a dysfunctional industrial Left Bank district (LBD) have been identified. It was stated that environmental pollution in the city is caused by toxicants of the air (54 % of all cases), soil (19 %), drinking water (15 %) and noise level (12 %). In the structure of disability in children living both in the CD and LBD diseases of the nervous system, congenital abnormalities, diseases of the ear and mastoid process and endocrine pathology prevail. The number of disabled people during the study period is higher among boys in both areas. There is a decrease in the age of registration of children's disability. In 2017, relative to 2009, the level of general disability decreases, but the rate of primary disability increases. The level of general and newly discovered disability among the children's population differs slightly, despite the fact that the studied populations are subjected to different aero-technogenic loads and are comparable with other regions of the Russian Federation. Conclusion. The study results can be used for development of preventive measures for the children's population of Voronezh city.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(3):41-46
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DEVELOPMENT OF NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS OF NEUROTROPHIC CHEMICALS
Zaitseva N.V., Zemlianova -.A., Koldibekova Y.V., Peskova E.V.
Abstract
Exposure to neurotropic chemicals (benzene, toluene, xylene, aluminum, manganese, nickel, etc.) as a result of environmental pollution can exacerbate unmodifiable (burdened heredity) and modifiable (intrauterine infections during pregnancy, childbirth and the first week of a child's life) damage factors of central nervous system. The review considers some aspects of the development of negative effects when exposed to benzene, aluminum, manganese, nickel and copper. The present-day data of international and national studies devoted to the study of this problem in terms of the development of the toxic action of neurotoxicants are presented. The individual links of the development of pathological processes are considered, namely, violation of the generation, conduction and transmission of nerve impulses, neurogenesis as a result of activation of oxidative processes, potentiation of excitotoxicity, synaptic dysfunction and neuro-inflammation. The review provides a detailed description of the development of neurotoxic effects. It is shown that when exposed to benzene, an effect is formed in the form of a violation of the synaptic transmission of the nerve impulse associated with the development of oxidative stress in the nervous tissue. Manganese and aluminum oxides are capable of causing direct cytotoxic damage to neurons, followed by the formation of a neuroinflammatory response and disruption of the process of neurogenesis. The mechanism of development of synaptic dysfunction may be associated with the action of aluminum ions, zinc, iron and copper. The presented generalized materials on the etiopathogenetic effect of neurotropic chemicals allow to expand the scientific understanding of the mechanisms of the toxic effects of exogenous chemical environmental factors on the central nervous system.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(3):47-53
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THE USE OF A POPULAITON-BASED BIRTH REGISTRY TO STUDY INFANT MORTALITY IN AN ARCTIC RUSSIAN SETTING
Usynina A.A., Postoev V.A., Pastbina I.M., Odland J.O., Grjibovski A.M.
Abstract
The paper presents experience in probabilistic linkage of the records in the Arkhangelsk County Birth Registry with regional infant mortality data. Practical issues of the procedure of independent depersonalized datasets linkage are discussed. Two datasets have similar indirect identifiers that were used to match the records. The combined database contains information on maternal health and pregnancy outcome as well as infant health. Also, it includes data on infant's age at death and cause of death. Our experience can be useful for researchers dealing with registry-based studies in settings where personal identification numbers are not available. Linked data sets give an opportunity to explore risk factors of neonatal and infant death and to investigate survival in newborns having different health problems, including prematurity. Our experience can be used for development of large birth cohorts using the data from the population-based birth registries in the Russian North as baseline for studying long-term effects of factors during pregnancy on health later in life.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(3):54-59
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INTEGRATION OF DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN MEDICAL PRACTICE: PREDICTION OF OSTEOPOROSIS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS
Safarova S.S.
Abstract
Currently, large amounts of information is available to clinical specialists ranging from clinical symptoms to various types of biochemical data and results of instrumental methods of diagnostics. In order to optimize decision making and to avoid treatment errors in medical practice, decision support systems based on artificial intelligence methods including artificial neural networks are becoming widely used in diagnostic procedures. Such systems allow increasing the efficiency of clinical analysis due to the processing of complex and interrelated medical data and integrating them into the results of diagnostics carried out by a clinician. This article describes the application of the methodology of artificial neural networks in medical diagnostics on the example of modeling and analyzing the risk of osteoporosis in diabetic patients.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(3):60-64
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