No 7 (2020)

Articles
CHILD AND ADULT MORRBIDITY IN THE BRYANSK REGION BY THE LEVEL OF RADIATOACTIVE, CHEMICAL AND COMBINED CONTAMINATION: AN ECOLOGICAL STUDY
Korsakov A.V., Domahina A.S., Troshin V.P., Geger E.V.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess associations between the levels of radioactive, chemical and combined pollution in the Bryansk Region and al-cause child and adult morbidity over a ten-year period from 2008 to 2017. Methods: The density of radioactive contamination of territories by Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Strontium-90 (90Sr) due to the Chernobyl accident was estimated as well as the average annual effective radiation doses of the population and chemical pollution. The main pollutants contaminating the atmospheric air were found: carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. Number of gross emissions of gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere was recalculated per area of the region. The primary morbidity of child and adult population was analyzed according to all classes of diseases. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using Shapiro - Wilk, Mann - Whitney tests and Spearman correlation coefficients. The data were obtained from Bryanskstat, Rostekhnadzor and Rospotrebnadzor. Results: Four groups of territories of the Bryansk region were constructed according to the levels of radiation, chemical and combined contamination. Child morbidity on the territories of combined pollution exceeds child morbidity on the territories of chemical and radioactive pollution by 34 and 11 % (1 660 vs. 1 235 and 1 501 per 1 000 population). A correlation analysis of the relationship between child morbidity and the level of radiation and chemical pollution revealed a statistically significant correlation with atmospheric air pollution by carbon monoxide (р = 0,42, p = 0,02) and higher and more significant correlations with the levels of radioactive contamination with 137Cs and 90Sr both in children (р = 0,64, p = 0,001 for 137Cs and р = 0,66, p = 0,001 for 90Sr), and in adults (р = 0,50, p = 0,005 for 137Cs and р = 0,48, p = 0,007 for 90Sr). Conclusions: Positive significant associations were observed between the levels of radioactive, chemical and combined pollution and child morbidity in the Bryansk region.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(7):4-14
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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT AMONG THE WORKERS OF SMELTING SHOPS OF METALLURGICAL PRODUCTION
Kir'yanova M.N., Plekhanov V.P., Markova O.L., Ivanova E.V.
Abstract
Health risk assessment and prediction of the disease occurrence among workers of metallurgical enterprises is warranted by the current state of industrial development. The aim of the study was to select criteria to improve reliability of the assessment of professional risk in the conditions of a reduction in the number of employees in certain occupational groups. Methods. The working conditions of employees of the main professional groups of the smelting shop on the basis of a modern metallurgical enterprise for the production of high-carbon ferrochrome were studied. Priority harmful factors have been identified for assessing the risk of workers' health - microclimate, noise, air pollution with aerosols of mainly fibrogenic effect. The occupational health risk of workers has been estimated according to morbidity indicators with temporary disability depending on age and length of service. Results. A direct statistically significant etiological relationship between working conditions and the incidence of smelting shop workers was revealed. The results of the analysis of disease incidence risk growth rate depending on age and employment duration (annual increase in risk) of employees are presented. Annual growth of disease incidence cases depending on employment duration (0,2 ± 0,03) is significantly higher than depending on the age (0,03 ± 0,005). An express assessment has been developed to predict the risk of exposure to harmful factors for this production, which can be used to improve measures for managing professional risk in the metallurgical and other industries. An express assessment has been developed to predict the risk of exposure to harmful factors for this production, which can be used to improve measures for managing professional risk in the metallurgical and other industries. Conclusion. A high occupational risk of smelting workers in the production of high-carbon ferrochrome indicates the influence of harmful production factors on the incidence rates from the first years of work, which should be taken into account when conducting preventive measures.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(7):15-20
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AGE-RELATED ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG ABORIGINAL RESIDENTS IN THE NORTHEAST OF RUSSIA
Averyanova I.V.
Abstract
The aim of the present research was to study anthropometric characteristics of the aboriginal population of the Magadan Region, North-Eastern Russia. Methods: A random sample of 135 young aboriginal men aged 17-21 form Magadan Region representing Koryaks, Evens ethnic groups participated in a cross-sectional study. All the subjects were split into 4 age-groups. Basic anthropometric measurements with subsequent calculation of anthropometric indices were performed. Results. In contrast to Caucasian young men, the group of aborigines showed annual growths of the body length during the adolescent period of ontogenesis, at the age of 18 and 2021, due to the height increase in the sitting position with a pronounced body mass increase (8.7 kg vs. 2.3 kg ), chest circumference (by 7.2 cm in Aborigines versus 3.3 cm in the Caucasians). The Aboriginal subjects also demonstrated an increase in their body build shifted from weak (at 17 and 18 year old age) to medium (at 19 and 20-21), whereas in the group of Caucasians a medium build was observed at the age of 17, 18 with the body strength developing to strong in the older age groups. These changes of the basic indicators of physical development demonstrated by the group of young Aborigines that took place against the background of an increase in the strength indicators could only occur in older age groups (at 19 and 20-21), which was associated with an increase in BMI. Conclusion. The results of a comparative analysis of the age dynamics of the main somatometric indicators and their calculated indices in the juvenile period of ontogenesis carried out in the two ethnic groups indicate the pronounced differences in somatometric status formation. The Aboriginal subjects showed a lag in their physical development rate.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(7):21-26
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THE PROBLEM OF HOMOGENOUS SAMPLING OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM PARAMETERS AMONG MIGRANTS IN THE RUSSIAN NORTH
Khadartseva K.A., Filatov M.A., Melnikova E.G.
Abstract
Adaptation of migrants to the conditions of the Russian North is largely determined by the state of the cardiovascular system. Registration of its changes due to environmental influences is associated with significant difficulties due to loss of sample homogeneity and the emergence of the Eskov-Zinchenko effect. Objective: to study the problem of loss of homogeneity in samples of RR (cardiointervals) in different age groups. Methods: samples of RR intervals of were recorded using the Eloks-01 device in three age groups of migrant women of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (KhMAO) - Yugra. For recorded samples, matrices of paired comparisons of samples of cardiointervals and phase portraits (in 2 coordinates) were calculated. Results: calculated matrices of comparisons in pairs of samples of RR parameters steadily demonstrate a certain increase in the number of pairs (k), which have one (for this pair) common general population. The areas S of quasi-attractors, on the contrary, for cardiointervals (RR), decrease slightly with age, which can be described as a quadratic regression equation. Conclusions: All three age groups of women (alien population of KhMAO) demonstrate a steady loss of homogeneity of groups with changes in samples of cardiointervals, which confirms the validity of Eskov-Zinchenko effect. Moreover, such instability is more pronounced for individual test person than for age groups. It is proposed to calculate the parameters of quasi-attractors to assess differences in homeostasis of cardiovascular system, depending on the age of subjects. The areas S of quasi-attractors decrease with age (when normal aging), but for older-age migrants we have some increase in this area (possibly due to increase in pathological deviations in the cardiovascular system) which is not typical for indigenous population.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(7):27-31
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QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER AND ADOLESCENTS’ TASK PERFORMANCE IN THE SOUTH OF THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST
Koval'chuk V.K., Yamilova O.Y.
Abstract
Aim of the study: hygienic assessment of the combined effect of harmful substances and biogenic elements consumed with drinking waters on the task performance of adolescents in the South of the Russian Far East by simultaneous screening. Methods. Seven settlements in the Primorsky Territory were investigated. The content of chloroform, tetrachlorethylene, Fe, Mn, Si and the ratio Ca/Mg were assessed in tap water. 283 schoolchildren aged 15-16 were examined. The questionnaire method was used to determine the daily consumption of Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Si with tap, bottled (45 trade marks) and filtered (5 home filter models) water. The actual average total daily dose (AADD) of consumption of the substances with drinking water was calculated. Screening of adolescents' task performance in the settlements was carried out synchronously on February 8 and 9, 2017 at 8:50 - 10:30 AM. Anfimov's table was used for assessing task performance. The number of viewed letters, productivity coefficient, indicators of total errors and differentiation errors were taken into account. The relationship between AADD of substances and task performance was assessed using methods of paired rank (Rs) and multivariate partial (Rch) correlation analysis. Results. In some settlements, tap water contains a lot of Fe (0.74 mg/L), Mn (0.18 mg/L), Si (67.11 mg/L) and very little Ca (7.89 mg/L) and Mg (1.54 mg/l) against the background of safe concentrations of chloroform, tetrachlorethylene. The correlation dependences between productivity coefficient indicator and Ca/Mg ratio (Rs = +0.86; p ≤ 0.01) in girls, viewed letters indicator and the Mn-Fe-Ca/Mg complex when eliminating the influence of Si (Rch = -0.88; p ≤ 0.001) in girls and (Rch = -0.74; p ≤ 0.01) in boys, differentiation errors indicator and Mn-Si-Ca/Mg complex when eliminating the influence of Fe (Rch = +0.52; p ≤ 0,05) in boys were established. According to the scientific literature, the revealed correlations have a set of features typical of the cause-effect relationships. Conclusion: deficiency and imbalance of Ca and Mn in drinking water against the background of its contamination with Mg, Fe and a natural excess of Si is a real risk factor for reducing task performance in adolescents of the Primosky Territory.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(7):32-39
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RISK FACTORS AFFECTING THE HEALTH OF ADOLESCENTS OF RUSSIA AND THE USA: A LITERATURE REVIEW
Makarova V.I., Pavlova A.N., Makarova A.I.
Abstract
The factors that form a teenager's health include biological factors (genetic status), the influence of socio-economic and environmental conditions. The state of reproductive health of adolescents can be attributed to the medical and social problem. On the basis of the study of scientific domestic and English-language publications over the past 10 years factors have been identified that form the health of adolescent children in the Russian Federation and the United States of America; the comparative characteristic of the reasons influencing the general level of health and its reproductive component has been given. It is proved that adolescent children who use drugs, tobacco, alcohol, are at risk for the development of deviations in the reproductive system. The knowledge of modern adolescent children on reproductive health is extremely poor, not all adolescents are focused on self-preserving behavior and there is no high-quality system of sex education and monitoring of reproductive health. The low awareness of children of this age group in reproductive health issues, the lack of a sex education system, and the weakening of the family's function in sex education issues lead to the early sexual activity, unwanted pregnancy, childbirth, and infection with sexually transmitted infections. The data presented indicate the need to create a single effective system for the prevention of reproductive diseases, the sex education system of the younger generation, affecting the formation of a holistic personality of a child, his health-saving behavior.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(7):40-46
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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MASTER'S PROGRAM «PSYCHOLOGY OF HEALTH» IN THE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY
Tomilova M.I., Soloviev A.G., Kharkova O.A., Peseshkian H.
Abstract
The aim of the study was the methodological substantiation and systematization of the areas of training for graduates in the Master's program "Psychology of Health" on the basis of a medical university. The experience of designing and implementing a master's program within the framework of the paradigm of mental ecology is presented. During the implementation of the program, a number of issues were solved with the study of its relevance, the identification of the types of professional activities of undergraduates, the list of competencies formed, the curriculum development, the development of educational and methodological support, the examination and review of the program. The main activities of future specialists are highlighted, and a six-module principle of drawing up the curriculum is proposed, including adaptive, pedagogical, scientific, practical modules, language training and health psychology from the modern perspective of environmental health. The practice-oriented interdepartmental nature of training is emphasized in close collaboration with psychiatric departments, psychological and socially-oriented centers. The role of the international component of professional training based on interaction with scientific and educational centers of the Barents Euro-Arctic Region and Germany is outlined. Moreover, the main scientific areas of the program that are significant for the Arctic territories of the European part of Russia are considered.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(7):47-50
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NON-SPECIFIC NON-MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES TO INSCREASE HUMAN RESISTANCE TO HYPOTHERMIA
Ivanov A.O., Barachevskii Y.E., Groshilin S.M., Stepanov V.A., Lobozova O.V., Linchenko S.N., Karakhanyan K.S., Skokova V.Y.
Abstract
The aim of the study is to compare the results of using innovative normobaric hypoxic training to increase individual's resistance to exogenous hypothermia. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed using two groups of men aged 22-34 years. Group 1 (n=9) was exposed to argon-hypoxic training consisting of a 2-hour continuous stay of the test subjects in a gas environment with the composition: Ar 33 % vol., 02 12 % vol., N2 55 %. Group 2 (n=9) was exposed to a normobaric hypoxic training: a 2-hour continuous stay in a nitrogen-containing gas environment, the oxygen content of which decreased from 17 % vol. (1st session) up to 13 % vol. (5th session), after which the composition of the gas environment was not changed. The total number of sessions- 20 conducted daily or after 1-2 days. Training schedules were identical in the two groups. Hypothermic resistance of the subjects was evaluated using 3-minute standard aerocryothermic tests. The activity of the mechanisms of nonspecific protection of the subjects was evaluated by the indicator of serum fibronectin. Results: An improved resistance to hypothermia was observed in both groups. The changes were more pronounced in Group 1. So, with the best subjective resistance to hypothermia exposures in group 1 (p = 0.010-0.014), rectal temperature decrease (p = 0.019) was significantly greater in group 1 than in group 2. Hypereactivity of systemic circulation indicators decreased in Group 1 to a greater extent (p = 0.010-0.038). In addition, with a significant increase in the level of fibronectin in both groups, these changes were significantly (p = 0.014) more pronounced in Group 1. Conclusions: Normobaric hypoxic training in the original regime is a safe and effective method of increasing human resistance to hypothermia. The effectiveness of this method can be improved by conducting argon-hypoxic training developed by the authors.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(7):51-58
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THE MOST COMMON ERRORS IN MEDICAL RESEARCH
Narkevich A.N., Vinogradov K.A.
Abstract
Conducting scientific research in the field of medicine, as in other areas of science, involves the need to comply with various standards and rules. Making various kinds of mistakes at the stage of planning or implementation of scientific research may lead to the fact that the research needs to be conducted again, and the existing results are unsuitable for publication, and even more so for the defense of a dissertation. The purpose of this article is to review the most common mistakes that researchers make at the stage of planning or implementing medical research. The article discusses the errors associated with the wrong definition and poor study design, incorrect formulation of the goals and objectives of the research, defects, sampling research and work with the generated databases, as well as errors made in a statistical analysis of the data. The material presented in the article does not claim to be an exhaustive list of possible mistakes that can be made during research. This material is a summary of the authors ' experience in reviewing and evaluating various types of scientific research. Taking into account the experience described in this article will prevent potential errors in medical research and ensure better planning and implementation of scientific research in the field of medicine.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(7):59-64
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