No 8 (2020)

Articles
MACRO- AND MICROELEMENTS DISTRIBUTION IN URBANIZED ECOSYSTEMS OF KARELIA
Gorbunov A.V., Lyapunov S.M., Ermolaev B.V., Okina O.I., Frontas'eva M.V., Pavlov S.S.
Abstract
The aim was to study the distribution of macro-and microelements in the main urban ecosystems of Karelia. Methods. Samples of soil, vegetation, surface water, sediments and biota (fish) were taken. In total, 300 samples were collected. The analysis of the material was carried out using epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), x-ray spectral analysis (XRF), and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with "cold steam" and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentration of 32 chemical elements in soil, birch leaves, sediments, water and biota (fish) was determined. Results. The distribution of macro- and microelements in soil and vegetation of these main cities of Karelia was determined. Geochemical profiles of distribution of elements in soils and vegetation were constructed. Concentration of heavy and toxic metals in the samples of water and sediments was close to the background values. High concentration of mercury in the muscles of predatory fish was found (CHg = 0.2÷0.3 mcg/kg). Conclusions. The levels of total accumulation of heavy and toxic metals in the soil of Petrozavodsk are classified as hazardous (Zc = 56), and soil pollution in Pitkyaranta, Sortavala and Suoyarvi is considered moderately dangerous (Zc = 15-31). A high degree of correlation between the concentration of elements in the soil and birch leaves was found. The water in lake Ladoga, lake Onega, and lake Suoyarvi in terms of the concentration of the elements presented in the article meets the Russian standards for drinking water.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(8):4-14
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GEOLOGICAL HETEROGENEITY OF THE EARTH CRUST AS A RISK FACTOR FOR CANCER
Karpin V.A., Gudkov A.B., Shuvalova O.I., Popova O.N.
Abstract
The aim: to study associations between earth crust local faults (ECLF) andcancer morbidity in the Northern city of Surgut. Methods. Firstly, we studied geological heterogeneity of the underlying soils of the city and identified ECLF cites. Then, the data on cancer incidence and mortality across the areas were assessed. Finally, cancer incidence and cancer mortality of the population living above the ECLF and above the solid mass were compared. Lung-, stomach- colon , breast-uterine and ovarian cancers were studied. Results. Altogether, 18 ECLF were identified on the territory of the city. Radon emanation above the ECLF was more than 1.5 times as high as over a solid array. An increased levels of cancer mortality was detected in areas over ECLF. The most pronounced associations were observed for lung cancer, uterine and ovarian cancers. Conclusions. Our results warrant detailed studies of the environment with special emphasis on radon in urban planning.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(8):15-19
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PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE AVAILABILITY AMONG THE RESIDENTS OF THE NORTHERN EUROPEAN RUSSIA
Zubatkina O.V., Dobrodeeva L.K., Popov A.A., Samodova A.V., Kruglov S.D.
Abstract
Metabolic pathways participating in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis play an important role in lymphocytes normal development and functioning. Energetic metabolism has an influence on differentiation, proliferation and fate of lymphocytes. The aim of the study is to define ATP availability of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the level of mitochondrial metabolism regulator sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) in healthy northerners. Methods. 106 volunteers, habitants of Arkhangelsk (76 women and 30 men, 21-63 years old) were surveyed. Amounts of immunocompetent cells with receptors (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD10, CD16, CD71, CD23, CD25, HLA DR, CD95) were determined by indirect immunoperoxidase method, ATP concentration in lymphocytes by bioluminescent method, and additionally SIRT3 (23 volunteers) by enzyme immunoassay. Two groups were selected using "k-means" cluster analysis which differed statistically significantly in all studied parameters. Results. It was found that 78 % of the surveyed participants were in the group where ATP concentration was 0,95 (0,487) mcmol/106 cells, in other group with 22 % participants it was 3,71 (1,319) mcmol/106 cells, р < 0,0001. Difference in relative amounts of particular cell phenotypes was revealed in the mentioned groups: in the group with lower ATP levels the higher was percentage of CD95+, CD23+ and HLA DR cells. In the group with higher ATP levels the higher was percentage of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD71+ cells and shift of CD10/CD95 and CD4/CD23 ratios was also detected in favor of CD10+ и CD4+ cells with high levels of metabolic activity. Difference of ATP levels was omni-directional with SIRT3, regulator of mitochondrial metabolism, level with concentrations 0,15 (0,039) and 0,39 (0,198) pg/106 cells, р = 0,0097. Conclusion. Intersectionality of ATP availability and reactivity of T cells was identified. It appears to be promising to determine the level of ATP for evaluation of lymphocytes functioning.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(8):20-25
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NATURAL AB0 ANTIBODIES IN MOKSHA AND ERZYA ETHNIC GROUPS OF THE MORDOVIA REPUBLIC
Gusachenko L.A., Litovchenko O.G.
Abstract
The study of natural antibodies as a function of maintaining immunological homeostasis from the position of physiological adaptation of a population is one of the goals of population physiology. The aim is to study natural AB0 antibodies across blood types among Moksha and Erzya ethic groups of the Republic of Mordovia. Methods. The cross-sectional study involved 294 and 387 people from Moksha and Erzya ethnic groups, respectively, randomly selected in 7 districts of Mordovia. The determination and activity of natural full AB0 anti-erythrocyte antibodies a (anti-A), р (anti-B) was carried out by titration. Results. The activity of natural antibodies of the first blood group in Moksha was from a-1: 8 р-1: 4, to a-1: 128 р-1: 64; in Erzya from a-1: 2 р-1: 2, to a-1: 256 р-1: 256. The titer of natural р-antibodies of the second blood group in Moksha and Erzya was not high. The most common titer was 1:8, 1:16, 1:32. The highest titers of natural antibodies in women were observed: in Moksha 1:64 and in Erzya 1:256. Normal a-antibodies of the B(III) group in Moksha and Erzia met with different titers, most often titer 1:8 was found as in Moksha men (45.45 %), and 1:16 in Erzya women - 43.55 %, in Erzya men - 40 %. An increased activity of antibodies was observed in women: 1:128 in Moksha - 13.46 %, 1:128 in Erzya - 14.32 % and 1:256 - 3.22 %. An increased antibody activity was also observed in Erzya men as 1:128 - 6.66 % and 1:64 - 20 %, in Moksha - 9.09 %. Conclusions. Physiological immune system in Moksha and Erzya actively responds with a production of natural, normal, group antibodies, which are of the great importance in studying of the physiological structure of population in specific environmental conditions.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(8):26-32
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THE FUNCTIONAL STATE OF TURNER STUDENTS DURING THE APPRENTICESHIP
Kiyok O.V., Pokrovskii V.M.
Abstract
The aim was to study the functional state of students in terms of their heart rhythm variability, lability of visual analyzers, physical capabilities and psycho-emotional state at the beginning and at the end of the apprenticeship. Methods: Altogether, 30 students training as turners were enrolled in a cohort and divided into more adapted (group 1) and less adapted (group 2) groups, according to the Eysenck's psychological types of personality and to Strelau's theory. Measurements wereperformed at the beginning and at the end ofthe apprenticeship. Heart rhythm variability, physicalcapabilities, thelability of the visual analyzer, and the psycho-emotional state wereassessed before and after the apprenticeship. Results: Less adapted individuals had more pronounced changes in heart rhythm variability: the decrease in the total spectrum power (SP) to 69,0 % in group 1 and to 84,7 % in group 2; the stress index (SI) at the end of the apprenticeship increased to 19.9 % in group 1 and to 90.9 % in group 2. The humoral-metabolic regulation mechanisms increasedto a greater extentin more adapted students: the relative value of the low-frequency waves power VLF% changed by 92.7 % in group 1 and by 45.0 % in group 2. The critical flicker fusion frequency at the beginning and at the end of the apprenticeship was 44.5 ± 0.6 Hz, 43.4 ± 0.5 Hz (p > 0,05), respectively, and the hand power 44.7 ± 0.4 kg and 45 ± 0.4 kg (p > 0,05). After the apprenticeship, students' state of health according to the SAN scale decreased by 27 % from 5.6 ± 0.3 points to 4.1 ± 0.2 (p < 0.001); their activity decreased from 5.5 ± 0.2 points to 4.2 ± 0.2 (p < 0.001) to 24 %; their mood decreased by 13 % from 5.4 ± 0.1 points to 4.7 ± 0.2 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: it is necessary to take into account students' adaptive capabilities when assessing the impact of production factors on the body during theapprenticeship.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(8):33-39
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POST-EXTRACTION REGENERATION OF JAW BONE SANOGENESIS MODEL
Muzykin M.I., Iordanishvili A.K.
Abstract
In this study the parallels of organs and tissue atrophy development in interaction with environmental objects are considered from the perspective of dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. The aim was to develop a model of reparative osteogenesis for visual representation of post-extraction atrophy of the jaws. The method of theoretical modeling reproduces the pathological process on "artificial copies" of diseases-their experimental models. Results. The essence of the process of post-traumatic osteogenesis of the bone tissue after tooth extraction is described, the mechanisms of development of post-extraction atrophy of the maxilla and alveolar part of the lower jaw are demonstrated. Using radiological research methods, the principle of implementing the concept of this model in clinical practice is shown. The presented data allow not only to interpret the principles of post-extraction osteogenesis, but also to evaluate the regenerative capabilities of a particular method of bone grafting aimed at increasing the height, width and 3D-alveolar augmentation of the jaw for the purpose of subsequent (or simultaneous) installation of dental implants. Conclusion: understanding the pathophysiological principles of bone regeneration helps to characterize the metabolic sufficiency of the defect walls and make a decision about the possibility of using хeno-, allo-, synthetic grafts or give preference to the use of autograft to increase the probability of a predicted positive result.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(8):40-48
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SYSTEM OF EARLY COMPREHENSIVE ASSISTANCE TO CHILDREN FROM RISK GROUPS FOR MENTAL DISORDERS IN RUSSIA
Belova O.S., Soloviev A.G., Leppiman A.
Abstract
The increase in the number of children with mental disabilities in recent years warrants search for new opportunities to improve the effectiveness of care, starting from an early age (EA). Aim. The purpose of this paper was to provide methodological justification and systematization of modern directions of early care (EC) for children belonging to the risk group (RG) for the development of mental disorders. Methods. The methodological basis of the work was a comprehensive analysis of the Orders of the Ministry of health of the Russian Federation in recent years on the organization of psycho-neurological care for children, modern medical and social approaches and recommendations for psychological and pedagogical support when working with families raising children with mental disabilities and specialists of preschool institutions. Results. The main approaches to creating a unified EC system in Russia are presented. The most popular destinations of the effectiveness of integrated EC to children with mental disorders are analyzed with interdisciplinary approaches of mental ecology: preparation of recommendations on optimization and improving the efficiency of the medico-psychological-pedagogical aid to EA children; systematization of the main symptoms and syndromes characteristic for EA children and particularly important for pediatricians and pediatric neurologists; search for differential diagnostic criteria; development and evaluation of the effectiveness of available screening and instrumental methods for diagnosing abnormalities in EA children; introduction of methodological approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders; evaluation of the effectiveness of the EC system based on determining the quality of life of the family; training of specialists in providing EC to children with mental disabilities with justification of the main its directions with active interdepartmental interaction. Conclusions. At present, there are no unified approaches, norms and standards for organizing EC and coordinating the activities of organizations in different regions. The necessity of creating a system of EC providing to children with disabilities, including EA children from RG for mental disorders is justified. A search for ways to diagnose developmental disorders and provide EC is proposed, taking into account the assessment of factors and resources of children's mental health within the framework of interdisciplinary approaches to mental ecology.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(8):49-54
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THE MOST COMMON MISTAKES MADE BY RESEARCHERS IN PRESENTING RESEARCH RESULTS
Narkevich A.N., Vinogradov K.A.
Abstract
Presentation of research results in the form of an article, dissertation or conference abstracts is as important stage of the project as the others. Incorrectly presented research results can devaluate the importance and significance of even the most methodologically well-designed and well-conducted research. This paper reviews the most common mistakes made by researchers at the stage of publishing the results of medical research. The article presents errors related to incomplete or redundant description of statistical methods, incorrect selection of statistical parameters for describing medical data, their erroneous interpretation, as well as defects in the application of statistical criteria. In addition, errors made in the graphical representation of research results are affected. The material presented in the article does not claim to be an exhaustive list of possible mistakes that can be made when presenting research results. This material is a summary of the authors' experience in reviewing scientific manuscripts and publications. Taking into account the experience described in this article will allow for better presentation of the results of implemented medical research in theses, articles and conference materials.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(8):55-64
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