No 12 (2020)

Articles

Assocations between human psychophysiological conditions and duration of stay in high Arctic

Pryanichnikov S.V.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess associations between psychophysiological- and physiological state of the human body and the duration of stay in high Arctic. Barentsburg, the Spitsbergen archipelago. Methods. Altogether, 112 people aged 35-43 years from Barentsburg (Spitsbergen or Svalbard) were examined. By duration of stay they were dichotomized into two grous: ≤ 6 months (group 1, n = 60) and > 6 months (group 2, n = 52). Psychoemotional state was studied using Spielberger anxiety scale and the differentiated self-assessment of the functional state (SAN) test. Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed using the «Omega-M» complex. The two groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U-tests. Results. Spectral analysis data in the range of HF, ms2, LF, ms2, and TP, ms2 and in normalized units were below the standard values. In group 1 there was a decrease in well-being (U = 200.5, p = 0.032) and mood (U = 207.0, p = 0.043). In group 2 there was an increase in the level of personal anxiety (U = 245.0, p = 0.002). In the group with a moderate predominance of central regulation an increase in LF, ms2 power spectrum was found in group 1 (U = 9.0, p = 0.006). In group 2 we observed a decrease in RMSSD (U = 27.0, p = 0.001) and SDNN (U = 48.0, p = 0.023) combined with an increase in SI (U = 49.0, p = 0.027) in the group with a pronounced predominance of the central contour of regulation. In a group with a moderate predominance of autonomous regulation we found an increase in SI (U = 226.0, p = 0.029) in group 1 while high TR i, ms2 (U = 218.0, p = 0.020), VLF, ms2 (U = 216.0, p = 0.018) were observed in group 2. Conclusions. Our study demonstrated a complex effect of stay in the High Arctic on the psycho-emotional state and HRV in both newcomers and long-term residents.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(12):4-10
pages 4-10 views

Concentrations of heavy metals in animal hair in an urban setting in the Altai Republic

Chanchaeva E.A., Lapin V.S., Kuznetsova Y.V., Kurilenko T.K., Aizman R.I.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to estimate concentrations of heavy metals in animal hair in an urban setting of the Altai Republic. Methods. The method of atomic absorption spectral analysis was used to determine the content of trace elements (Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Mn) in the hair of the outdoor dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) of Gorno-Altaisk. Results. The mean values for the concentration of trace elements in the hair samples of the examined dogs were the following: Cd - 0.13 pg/kg; Pb - 1.23 pg/kg; Cr - 4.0 pg/kg; Cu - 7.8 pg/ kg; Mn - 12.36 pg/kg. Concentrations of trace elements in animal hair was not associated with age, sex and area of residence of the animals. In general, the range of concentrations of the studied elements were comparable with the findings from other settings. A possible source of microelements in animal hair in Gorno-Altaisk is micro-fine solids of emissions from solid fuel heating systems and combustion engines exhaust. Conclusion: rancentrations of heavy metals in animal hair in the study setting is comparable with other settings and seems to reflect the peculiarities of the processes of accumulation of exo-toxicants and self-cleaning of the city air basin.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(12):11-17
pages 11-17 views

Physiological justification of the choice of the artificial gas environments composition potentially applicable for improving the fire safety of inhabited sealed objects

Bezkishkii E.N., Ivanov A.O., Eroshenko A.Y., Barachevskii Y.E., Shatov D.V., Tanova A.A., Linchenko S.N., Groshilin S.M.

Abstract

One of the trends for ensuring the safe operation of sealed inhabited objects is the creation of hypoxic gas environments, suitable for breathing and reducing the risk of fires. The aim was to test the effect of normobaric hypoxic environments of various compositions on a person, to select envitonments that are potentially applicable to improve fire safety of inhabited sealed objects. Methods. The randomized controlled study involved 60 men aged 20-55 years, divided into 3 groups (20 people each) depending on the composition of the gas environment in which they were kept for 4 hours. The composition of the tested gas environments: No. 1 - oxygen = 1617 %, nitrogen - the rest; No. 2 - oxygen = 14-15 %, nitrogen - the rest; No. 3 - oxygen = 14 %, argon = 35 %, nitrogen - the rest. The functional state of the subjects was assessed using complaint forms, physiological criteria and functional tests. Results. The most pronounced negative changes in subject's functionality were found when the subjects were in the gas environment No. 2, and the most of the indicators showed significant (p < 0.05-0.001) differences compared to other groups. The revealed facts indicate the inadmissibility of using such environments. The stay in gas environments No. 1 and No. 3 was accompanied by comparable and acceptable changes in the functional state of the subjects, despite the significantly lower oxygen content in the argon-containing medium (No. 3). Conclusions. 1. To increase the fire safety of inhabited pressurized objects, it is permissible to use gas environments No. 1 and No. 3. 2. Addition of argon to hypoxic environments reduces the negative effects of oxygen deficiency, which makes it possible to use gas environments with a higher degree of hypoxia and, therefore, more effective for ensuring fire protection of inhabited sealed objects.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(12):18-27
pages 18-27 views

Bioelectric heart processes in healthy men at different levels of acute normobaric hypoxia

Bocharov M.I., Shilov A.S.

Abstract

The aim was to study cardiac bioelectric features across different levels of acute normobaric hypoxia (ANH) in healthy young men. Methods: We studied cardiac functions in response to exposure to ANH of mild (14.5 % O2) and medium (12.3 % O2) degrees for 20 minutes among 30 and 29 young men, respectively. Results. With mild and medium degree of ANH, SpO2 decreases to (91.6 ± 4.2) % and to (78.2 ± 5.2) %, respectively. An initial increase in the P1II wave was common for all ANH exposures. On average, during the period of mild ANH, the total BAL and BAR of the heart compartments decreased, only at the beginning the RR and QT intervals decreased, and in the end QT increased. Medium ANH was associated with more pronounced changes in ECG characteristics. On average, during the ANH period of 12.3 % O2, the RII wave (by 0.078 mV, p < 0.001), T1II (0.074 mV, p < 0.001), BAL (0.26 mV, р < 0.001) and BAR (at 0.12 mV, p < 0.001) of the heart decreased, RR intervals (at 100 ms, p < 0.001), QT (11 ms, p < 0.001), and Pc, PQc, QRSc, QTc increased. Correlations between QT deviations and SpO2, СО, SVR, VIK increased. For ANH of 14.5 % O2, the factor "positive chronotropic effect" dominated in the general structure of the ECG, while for 12.3 % O2 it was "chrono-inotropic conjugation". Conclusions. Changes in ECG parameters seem to be more pronounced in exposure to moderate than mild ANH. Possible extracardiac and myogenic regulation mechanisms in the organization of heart bioelectric processes with a mild and medium degree of hypoxia are proposed in the paper.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(12):28-36
pages 28-36 views

Seasonal and secular variations in selected indicators of the cardiovascular system among 7-11 years old children

Pankova N.B., Karganov M.Y.

Abstract

The aim was to study seasonal variations in selected indicators of the cardiovascular system (CVS) in primary school students over 5 academic years and compare the findings with the results obtained in 2004-2007. Methods. Heart rate (HR) and its variability, blood pressure (BP) and its variability and cardiac performance were studied using spiroarteriocardiorhythmograph (SACR). Data were collected in late March - early April and late September - early October. The measurements were taken in in 2016-2019 (n=214, 701 measurements) and in 2004-2007 (n=317, 810 measurements). The analysis of the dynamics of semiannual changes ("delta" indicators, in% of the initial level) of CVS indicators of schoolchildren was carried out. As a comparison group, we used adult women (sample size -285 people), surveyed once in different seasons in 2002-2012. Results. Seasonal variability was revealed only for systolic blood pressure and LF / HF ratio reflecting the level of autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system. In 2016-2019, in the sample of primary school students, an increase in systolic blood pressure over the school year (autumn - spring) and a decrease in LF / HF (in 2 nd - 5th grades ) was fixed. However, in 2004-2007 in children of the same age, seasonal changes had the opposite direction - a decrease in systolic blood pressure over the school year and an increase in LF / HF (in 1st - 5th grades), which corresponds to the seasonal variation of these indicators in adults. Conclusion. The obtained data showed a change in seasonal variability of the functional state of the CVS in primary school children. It has been suggested that such changes could be related to the computerization of education, but further research is warranted.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(12):37-44
pages 37-44 views

Psychosemantic research of students’ representations about distance education during COVID-19

Vasileva I.V., Deryagina L.E., Chumanov Y.V.

Abstract

Due to the widespread danger of coronavirus infection SARS-COV-2, which caused the COVID-19 pandemic, advanced readiness measures were taken in the Russian Federation, restricting movement and using exclusively distance educational technologies in educational organizations. The aim of the study is to assess the perceptions of students of psychological and pedagogical departments about distance education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. The study involved students of psychological and pedagogical departments of Tyumen State University (n = 353) and Kurgan State University (n = 53). A semantic field of 3,654 words (sometimes phrases) was obtained by the method of free associations to the stimulus "distant learning format under quarantine conditions". Results. The semantic field of self-awareness of students in conditions of distance learning due to COVID-19 quarantine is generally characterized by a stable, positive background. The associative array is focused on being at home (observing the prescribed self-isolation regime) in comfortable conditions, completing assignments (reading, writing) while at the computer, and striving to complete tasks before the deadline indicated by the teacher. Of the most frequently used associations of conventionally negative connotations, only indications of complexity and duration can be distinguished. The difficulty is associated with the need to master academic information without direct contact with teachers (before the universities left the "technical vacation" on COVID-19, the use of ZOOM and MicrosoftTeams services was not common among teachers). Conclusions. The basic needs of students for the most part are not frustrated, somatic and psychological stress symptoms are significant. The needs for communication and self-development are not stressful. Students are involved in the educational process, but have cognitive difficulties in material digestion online. The main focus of attention is shifted to the educational process, meeting a needs for knowledge, meeting the requirements of the educational process, which suggests the focus of students' (psychologists) ideas on involvement in the educational process during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(12):45-51
pages 45-51 views

Self-perceived health, availability of medical care and health attitudes among rural population in Russia

Blinova T.V., Vyalshina A.A., Rusanovskiy V.A.

Abstract

Health promotion, reduction of mortality and increase in life expectancy are among the national priorities in the Russian Federation. The aim of the study was to assess self-perceived health, availability of healthcare services and attitudes towards health among rural residents of Russia. Methods: This descriptive study is a part of the nationally representative population survey conducted by Rosstat in 2017 (n = 115 155). For the purpose of this study, a subsample of 65 046 individuals was taken with 11 063 of them being residents of rural areas. Results: A smaller proportion of rural respondents perceived their health as good (40.3 %) and very good (3.3 %) compared to their urban counterparts (47.7 % and 3.7 % respectively). Rural residents reported seeking medical care less often than urban residents, which is largely due to the low availability of medical services for the rural population. Residents of rural areas both free and fee-based medical care. The main reasons for using private clinics include lack of specialists or equipment at the rural polyclinics (35.4 %), long queues (28.3 %) and the remoteness of free medical care organizations (5.1 %). Rural residents were mostly dissatisfied with rising prices for medicines and the increased number of paid medical services. At the same time, rural residents were more satisfied with medical institutions than their urban counterparts. Conclusions: We observed substantial urban-rural variations in the availability of health care services. urban residents have greater demands on the quality and conditions for the provision of medical services, while rural residents are more concerned with the availability of medical care.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(12):52-58
pages 52-58 views

Interdisciplinary measures to prevent suicidal behavior among the presonnel of the internal affairs bodies

Sidorenko V.A., Sukhorukov A.L., Ichitovkina E.G., Soloviev A.G., Bogdasarov Y.V.

Abstract

Professional activities of employees of the Internal Affairs Bodies (IAB) are associated with increased stress which affects their emotional state, reduces the psychological resources and may have serious consequences for mental health including the risk of suicide. Development of suicidal behavior in police officers is a result of a complex interaction of social, personal and occupational factors. The Ministry of Internal Affairs (MIA) of Russia prioritizes promotion of mental health and prevention of mental illnesses. Thus, it is necessary to develop complex measures for early detection of deviations in the state of mental health of IAB employees associated with the risk for suicidal behavior. The aim of the study is the methodological substantiation and systematization of modern trends in the organization of interdisciplinary interaction for prevention of suicidal behavior in the Internal Affairs Bodies. Methods. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the regulatory documentation of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs on the reorganization of medical, psychiatric and psychological services for the employees. Results. Prevention of suicidal behavior in the system of the Ministry of Internal Affairs has two levels: 1) implementation of measures for the professional psychological selection of candidates for police services. 2) annual medical examinations and psychological services for the employees. Organizational and methodological measures aimed at the interaction of medical, psychological, personnel services and educational organizations of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs on prevention of suicidal behavior are proposed. A unified mechanism for monitoring of the state of mental health of employees has been developed using departmental electronic digital resources. Conclusion: to improve the effectiveness of the measures directed at prevention of suicide among police officers, it is necessary to take organizational and methodological measures aimed at systematizing interdisciplinary interaction with a consistent differentiation of services and specialists' functions and improving the regulatory and methodological basis to ensure the activities of specialists in the field of mental health.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(12):59-64
pages 59-64 views

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