No 7 (2017)

Articles

ALLERGY AND PSEUDO-ALLERGY: ECOLOGIC ASPECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC PATHOLOGY

Smirnova S.V., Taptygina E.V., Bronnikova E.P.

Abstract

Those problems of modern people, which are related to their lifestyle in terms of the formation of geographic pathology, are deep and multi-faceted. Organism adaptive reconstruction caused by environmental changes is taking practical significance both for evaluation of functional state of organs and systems as well as for working out scientifically grounded principles of primary prophylaxis of geographical pathology, caused by the influence of natural conditions and anthropogenic factors. In the structure of geographic pathology huge niche belongs to allergic diseases, which are qualified not only as genetically, but also as ecologically determined «civilization diseases». Differentiated approach to studying the prevalence of allergic diseases in the North is considered in terms of the main pathogenic mechanisms: true allergy and pseudo allergy. As an example the results of epidemiologic examination for Evenkia population are presented. Epidemiology of allergic diseases distinctively shows that mankind should not only enlarge the spectrum of new anthropogenic factors and create new so called «blessings of civilization», which negatively influence an organism, contributing to the diseases, but should know the laws of living in consonance with nature, following those laws and not disturb them with mindless and massive persistency. Specific of the allergy mechanisms triggering in extreme ecologic conditions of the North is calling for solutions.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(7):3-10
pages 3-10 views

THE RELATEDNESS WITH THE PROFESSION THE PATHOLOGY OF MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM IN WORKERS OF UNDERGROUND MINES OF THE ARCTIC ZONE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Talykova L.V., Gushchin I.V.

Abstract

Results of a risk assessment of the development of the musculoskeletal system (MSS) pathonomia in workers of main professions of underground mine are presented in article. These results are based on the analysis of routine health screening of 289 representatives of the mentioned group in 2010. It has been stated that risk magnitude of MSS pathology development and its diversity in different professional groups could not be explained by age changes of MSS condition. At the same time similar risk values in the development of musculoskeletal system pathology in drillers and miners professions are opposite to considerable differences in data of annual detection of MSS professional pathology. It has been stated on the basis of the analysis of 132 cases of professional diseases of the specified class. Considering the peculiarities of carrying out an expert assessment of a disease relation with a profession, it is necessary to recognize that the quality of working conditions assessment fails to their actual parameters, in case of the conducted researches -load of labor process, and as a result, excludes the opportunity to connect the revealed violations of MSS with professional influence.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(7):11-15
pages 11-15 views

FEATURES OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGIC STATUS IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE (Literature Review)

Demin D.B.

Abstract

In the first part of the review the historical aspect of scientific fields of age neurophysiology has been provided, age-related features of morphologic and functional development of the brain and their reflection in his bioelectric activity have been considered. It has been shown that the morphological maturation of different brain structures reflected both in the psycho-physiological development of the child and in changes of amplitude-frequency spectrum of electroencephalogram and in the spatio-temporal organization of brain potentials. Literature data describing the developmental of electroencephalogram dynamics in children and adolescents have been presented. Age formation stages of electrogenesis of different areas of the brain, as well as specific changes in intra- and interhemispheric relationships have been shown. In the second part of the review peculiarities of the autonomic nervous system functioning in childhood and adolescence have been discussed; emphasis has been placed on the reactions of the cardiovascular system in patients with different types of vegetative tonus. These studies have demonstrated the changes of central hemodynamic and heart rate variability in adolescents according to age, sex, and living conditions. In addition, the main factors of external and internal environment that could cause the development of neurologic disorders and vegetative dysfunctions in children and adolescents have been considered.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(7):16-24
pages 16-24 views

PSYCHOSOMATIC BEHAVIOR STYLES IN STUDENTS WITH DIFFERENT METHODS OF SELF-REGULATION IN THE SITUATION OF EXAMINATION

Byzova V.M., Loviagina A.E.

Abstract

The article presents the results of empirical research of student's psychosomatic behavior during the session, and techniques of self-regulation in the exam situation. The aim of the study was to determine psychosomatic behavior styles in students with different techniques of self-regulation in the exam situation. Methods: psychological testing, clinical and psychological interview. Sample: 127 (60 young men and 67 young women) full-time students of 2-4 courses at the age of 19-23. Results: The students were divided into 4 groups, statistically different in the intensity of self-regulation techniques in the exam situation and the style of psychosomatic behavior. The first group poorly used self-control techniques and demonstrated the emotional style. The second group actively used visualization techniques, as well as self-awareness and followed cognitive and behavioral styles. The third group intensively used breathing techniques, refocusing, self-hypnosis, and was prone to emotional and psychophysical styles. The fourth group used varies methods of self-regulation and showed the social and cultural style. We described the characteristics emotional, cognitive, mental and physical, behavioral and socio-cultural styles of psychosomatic behavior and risk factors of psychosomatic disorders in students, prone to one or the other above-named style. Conclusion: psychosomatic behavior styles differ in students with different techniques of selfregulation in the exam situation.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(7):25-31
pages 25-31 views

AGE SELF-ASSESSMENT OF 55-64 YEARS OLD WOMEN AS AN EXPRESS METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE PARAMETERS OF LIFE QUALITY IN THE CIRCUMPOLAR REGION

Gudkov A.B., Demin A.V., Gribanov A.V., Torshin V.I., Paschenko V.P.

Abstract

The purpose of this study consisted in the comparative evaluation of the quality of life parameters (QOL) among the female residents of the Arkhangelsk region aged 55-64 years old with different levels of the age self-assessment. The study group (SG) of 104 women reported that they felt at their calendar age (CA) and older. The comparison group (CG) of 252 women - subjectively felt younger than their CA for 5 years or more. For the women surveyed, aging rate (AR) was calculated by the method of V.P. Voitenko (the 3rd version). It was established that the AR indicators in women of the CG were lower than those for women of the SG (p < 0,001). To assess the quality of life, the SF-36v2 questionnaire was used. It was found that all scales and grouped indicators in women in the comparison group were higher than in the study group. The obtained results indicated that the determination of the subjective assessment of wellbeing through a subjectively experienced age (SEA) in women could be an informative indicator of the general state of their health and quality of life as well as an independent important criterion for the prediction of adverse aging risk, the diseases development, as well as the degree of adaptation to the age-related changes.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(7):32-38
pages 32-38 views

FEATURES OF VISUAL RETENTION IN ELDERLY PEOPLE WITH DIFFERENT READING PRODUCTIVITY

Yemelianova T.V., Sokolova L.V.

Abstract

The article presents the results of a study of visual retention of the elderly people with different productivity reading. The importance of the reading process in the actualization of the psychic functions and their functional systems (for example, visual retention) has been described. It confirms the role of a reader's activities in the maintenance of cognitive reserve on the optimal level. The study included 89 people (aged 60-74 years old) born and permanently residing on the territory of the Arkhangelsk region. The technique of V.A. Borodina, S.M. Borodin was used to evaluate the productivity of reading skills. In order to study the features of the visual retention A. Benton test was used. The results of the study showed that in elderly age to safe the reading skills operations to retain clear visual images of letter marks, comparison of the optical performance with acoustic and speech motor components are relevant, otherwise it can lead to the degradation of a reader's activity. The results of correlation analysis revealed the relationship between deformations of the structural-spatial organization of the figures with the reading indicators: speed, digestion and reading productivity decrease with increase of such errors number as rotation, confabulation and distortion. Surveyed elderly patients with high reading productivity had safe function of cognitive control, reception, processing and storage of information.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(7):39-45
pages 39-45 views

THE ROLE OF BIOSIMULATION IN HUMAN CHEMICAL SAFETY SYSTEM

Sosedova L.M., Filippova T.M.

Abstract

The aim of the investigation was to clarify the role of experimental simulation and development of methodological approaches in solving issues related to human's chemical security in the conditions of increasing environmental pressing of population. The article deals with issues related to the experimental study of the biological effects on the organism of laboratory animals of nanostructured materials, industrial neurotoxicants, combined effects of biological and chemical factors. When nanosilver was administered to albino rats, encapsulated in a polymer matrix arabinogalactan, the formation of the process of neurons apoptosis in nervous brain tissue was stated, despite the absence of general toxicity in the course of intragastric administration of substance to the white rats (Class 4-ingredient low hazard). It substantiates the need to develop new approaches to assessing the risk of the general biological effects of nanopreparations with high specificity for biological targets, at cellular and subcellular levels. Scientifically grounded methodology for studying and assessing the nature of the combined action of biological and chemical factors in the experiment, based on integrated approach to the response of the organism, taking into account donozological body state. Ander the influence of neurotoxicants in experimental conditions the main points of the implementation of pathological process and factors were revealed which contribute to the formation and progression of toxic encephalopathy. A set of highly sensitive methods for assessing the various links of pathological process in central and peripheral nervous system has been developed and adapted. In general, experimental studies make it possible to manage risks and mechanisms of pathological processes formation under the influence of environmental factors on the human body and significantly increase the efficiency of developed methods of diagnostics, treatment, prevention and rehabilitation.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(7):46-52
pages 46-52 views

PREDICTIVE MODEL OF TOBACCO SMOKING CONTINUATION DURING PREGNANCY

Kharkova O.A., Soloviev A.G., Kiseleva L.G., Chumakova G.N., Gryzunova E.M.

Abstract

Tobacco smoking during pregnancy affects how the course of pregnancy and fetal development and subsequent child. The aim of this work was to create a model of survival probability prediction of smoking during pregnancy, aimed at finding appropriate approaches in the development of individual psycho-correctional program. Methods. In a cross-sectional study women living permanently in Arkhangelsk and the Arkhangelsk Region, in the III trimester of pregnancy were involved, who are hospitalized or ready to delivery in hospitals. On the basis of the psychological characteristics of the individual multiple regression analysis was applied. Results. Based on the regression coefficients and weighted odds ratios for each of the characteristic values it shows that the living conditions and the locus of control in the area of family relations are the most important features, and responsible for the continuation of smoking during pregnancy; further on the importance placed are an instinct of "freedom", a level of neuroticism and presence of the depressive type of psychological components of gestational dominants elements. Conclusion. The proposed model allows to predict the likelihood of continuation of smoking women based on their bio-psychosocial characteristics, to understand what is on the basis of chemical addiction, and to plan individual routes of medical and psychological assistance.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(7):53-55
pages 53-55 views

GESTATION-SPECIFIC LIVE-BORN SINGLETON NEWBORNS BIRTH WEIGHT, LENGTH AND HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE PERCENTILES AND CURVES (ARKHANGELSK COUNTY BIRTH REGISTRY DATA)

Usynina A.A., Postoev V.A., Odland J.O., Chumakova G.N., Grjibovski A.M.

Abstract

Birth weight, length and head assessment are important for postnatal confirmation of fetal growth retardation. In Russia, there has so far not been sex-specific, population-based birth weight, length and head circumference percentiles and curves for singleton newborns. The aim of this study was to develop percentiles and curves for live-born newborns born at 28-42 weeks of gestation and compare these to other available data from the literature. Data of the Arkhangelsk County Birth Registry (2012-2014), Russia, were used. In total, we included 42116 live-born newborns by both sex without congenital malformation that could potentially influence on the results of anthropometry at birth. Sex-specific birth weight, length and head circumference percentiles and curves were created between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation. Data on mean and standard deviation for each week of gestation both for male and female newborns are also presented. As we used data from a comprehensive, population-based birth registry, percentiles and curves in our study are representative also for other regions of Russia.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(7):56-64
pages 56-64 views

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