No 2 (2021)

Articles

HUMAN ADAPTATION TO THE CONDITIONS OF THE FAR NORTH: EMPHASIS ON THE CORRECTION OF THE MICROBIAL-TISSUE COMPLEX OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

Salikova S.P., Vlasov A.A., Grinevich V.B.

Abstract

Severe natural and climatic conditions, special features of work, rest, nutrition, physical activity and communication of people in the Arctic zone can seriously affect intestinal microbiota. This review summarizes the research results indicating the decrease in the number, changes in the morphological and biological properties of lacto-and bifidobacteria, activation of opportunistic and pathogenic intestinal flora of the inhabitants of the Far North. Mechanisms of a complex interplay between the human body and intestinal microbiocenosis are presentd The influence of microbiota on intestinal permeability, nerve endings of the enteral nervous system, and immuno-inflammatory processes is shown. Data on the participation of microbial molecules in the modulation of neurotransmission in the brain and spinal cord, activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system are summarized. The positive effects of pro-, prebiotics and dietary supplements in the correction of conditions associated with environmental and occupational stress are highlighted.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(2):4-12
pages 4-12 views

CONCENTRATIONS OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN CHILDREN’S HAIR IN RURAL AREAS OF THE IRKUTSK REGION

Lisetskaya L.G.

Abstract

Introduction: Monitoring of different elements in human biological samples is one of the promising areas of environmental health and medicine. Aim: To assess concentrations of trace element in hair of children - permanent residents of rural areas with different climatic and geochemical conditions in the Irkutsk region, South-Eastern Siberia. Methods: Altogether, 372 children aged 6-15 years took part in the study. Hair concentrations of three essential elements (zinc, copper and magnesium) and three toxic elements (mercury, lead and cadmium) were assessed by the atomic absorption method using AAS-240DUO spectrophotometer (Agilent Technologies, USA). Data were presented using medians (Me) and interquartile ranges (Q1 - Q3) across the settings and age-groups. Results: The most pronounced deviations from the normal concentrations were observed for copper and magnesium. Concentration of copper in children's hair in the 7 areas varied between 3.48-6.15 pg/g. A half of the children of the Kazachinsky district had concentration of magnesium between 8.89-20.54 pg/g which is below the limit. Concentrations of zinc were greater in the northern districts of the region (212.89-308.52 pg/g) while in the foothill area a deficiency of zinc (53.01-66.21pg/g) was observed. An excessive levels of level of mercury were found in the Alarsky (0.66-2.30 pg/g), Balagansky (0.56-1.82 pg/g) and Katansky (0.34-1.20 pg/g) districts. An increased level of lead was observed in the Alarsky region (1.17-4.26 pg/g) while increased concentrations of cadmium were observed in the Katansky region (0.22-0.64 pg/g). Conclusions: Concentrations of essential and toxic elements in children's hair varied between the districts of the Irkutsk region. Our results warrant more biomonitoring research including variables on children's health particularly from the vulnerable groups.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(2):13-19
pages 13-19 views

BODY COMPOSITION AND METABOLIC PARAMETERS IN GIRLS WITH DIFFERENT SOMATOTYPES

Filatova O.V., Tretyakova I.P., Kovrigin A.O.

Abstract

Introduction: Environmental factors are known to influence human somatotypes in the process of evolution. There is a large body of literature on the adaptive capabilities, physical fitness and other aspects human physiology related to different body types. However, the evidence on the component composition of the body across somatotypes is still insufficient. The aim: To study body composition and metabolic parameters in young females with different somatotypes. Methods: Altogether, 155 female students aged 17-20 years living in an industrial city of Barnaul participated in a cross-sectional study. Body height was measured using a stadiometer. Body types were defined using trochanter index (TI) and classified as pathological (TI < 1.85), dysevolutionary (TI from 1.86 to 1.91), hypoevolutionary (TI from 1.92 to 1.94), normoevolutionary (TI from 1.95 to 2.0) and hyperevolutionary (TI > 2.0). Body composition was assessed using the AVS-01 "Medass" bioimpedance meter. Numeric variables were compared using unpaired t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests where appropriate. Categorical data were analyzed using Pearson's chi-squared tests. Results: The lowest fat mass (15,6 ± 4,38 kg or 26,9 ± 6,73 %) was observed in women of the normoevolutionary type while increased fat deposition was observed among women with a disevolutive type (24,3 ± 12,40 kg or 34,5 ± 18,0 %). Normalized basal metabolism was higher in girls of the normoevolutive type compared with women with the dysevolutive type (34,0 ± 1,98 kcal/kg, vs. 33,3 ± 2,68 kcal/kg, p = 0,002). Conclusion: We observed significant differences in body composition and metabolic parameters in young females with different somatotypes. The observed associations may be associated with long-term exposure to endocrine destructive pollutants earlier detected in the environment in Barnaul.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(2):20-27
pages 20-27 views

RESPONSES OF THE HANDS TO LOCAL COLD EXPOSURE AMONG AFRICAN AND LOCAL STUDENTS IN THE ARCTIC UNIVERSITY

Kozhevnikova I.S., Gribanov A.V., Kiryanov A.B., Startseva L.F., Pankov M.N.

Abstract

Introduction: Little is known on the adaptation of African students to living in circumpolar areas. Aim: To study similarities and differences in temperature responses to local cold exposures in African students and permanent residents of the Russian Arctic. Methods: A series of thermal images of the hands of 15 students from Central Africa and 18 students - permanent residents of the Russian Arctic were taken at arrival, after adapting to the room conditions for 15-20 minutes, and after 1-minute cooling of the right hand in cold water with a temperature of 2 °C until the initial temperature of the hand was restored. The study was conducted in a spacious room with an air temperature of 22 °C. Numeric data were analyzed using non-parametric Mann-Whitney tests after normality assessment using Shapiro-Wilk tests. Results: The initial temperature of the hands was significantly different between the local and the African students (32.75 °C vs. 28.56 °C, p < 0.001). Immediately after cooling, the differences between the groups did not reach the level of significance (33.35 °C vs. 29.77 °C, p = 0.343). Hand temperature in local students recovered significantly faster than in African students (0.70 °C/min vs. 0.26 °C/min, p < 0.001). The recovery time for the temperature of the hands among African students was significantly longer than among the locals (28.57 min vs. 14.83 min, p < 0.001). The difference between the initial and the final temperatures between the groups was greater among African students, but the results were inconclusive (1.21 °C vs. 0.63 °C, p = 0.086). Conclusions. On findings contribute to the knowledge on the differences in responses to local cold exposure between local Arctic residents and visitors from warmer countries. The results of the study also indicate the possibility of using matrix infrared thermography to assess local cold effects on human hands.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(2):28-33
pages 28-33 views

CHANGES IN HEMODYNAMICS, GAS EXCHANGE AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY AMONG YOUNG CAUCASIAN MEN UNDER RE-BREATHING: PART 2

Maksimov A.L., Averyanova I.V.

Abstract

Introduction: Studying physiological mechanisms of resistance to the effects of extreme environmental factors on the human body is on the top of research agenda related to active development of the Arctic regions of Russia. Aim: To assess changes in hemodynamics, gas exchange and heart rate variability during re-breathing among young men from the continental and coastal areas of North-Eastern Russia. Methods: In total, 271 young men aged 17-21 years with different resistance to hypoxic-hypercapnic exposure and who are permanent residents of the continental (Susuman) and coastal (Magadan) zones of the Magadan region participated in a cross-sectional study. Physiological parameters were estimated using "VARICARD" device, tonometer and "NPK Carbonic" gas analyzer. Results: We present the difference in oxygen levels at rest and during re-breathing taking into account correlations in the clusters. This analysis allowed us to propose an empirical formula for calculating the degree of allostatic adaptive load (AL) experienced by the body of a young male Caucasian born in the Far North-East of Russia. Residents of Magadan had AL values of 20.2 and 55.8 units for high- low resistant individuals, respectively. The corresponding values for Susuman residents were 26.5 and 55.9 units. Conclusion: Greater values of AL for high resistant residents of the continental area compared to the residents of the coastal zone may be explained by climatic factors. In addition, low resistant continental residents have AL twice as high their high resistant counterparts. As for low resistant subjects, no difference was observed in the AL values across the areas. Our approach with readjustments in hemodynamic, heart rate and gas analysis as well as with the structures of correlations in the intersystem clusters can provide quantitative assessment of the severity of climatic effects in the process of adaptation of humans to environmental extremes.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(2):34-46
pages 34-46 views

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PATHOGENETIC FACTORS OF METABOLIC AND CIRCULATORY SYNDROMES IN YOUNG ADULTS IN A RUSSIAN ARCTIC CITY

Malavskaiya S.I., Lebedev A.V., Kostrova G.N., Torshin I.Y., Gromova O.A.

Abstract

Introduction. The presence of pathogenetic factors of metabolic and circulatory syndromes from a young age substantially increases the risk of atherosclerosis later in life. Extreme climatic conditions of the Arctic may also contribute to early onset of atherogenesis and neuroendocrine metabolic disorders. Aim. To study the complex associations between a large set of anthropometric, clinical, laboratory, and genetic factors in young adults in a Russian Arctic city. Methods. In total, 185 young adults participated in a cross-sectional study in a city of Arkhangelsk. Data on180 anthropometric, clinical and laboratory and genetic variables were collected for a comprehensive analysis of their interactions and identification of complex patterns related to proatherogenic conditions. Statistical methods of topological and metric data analysis were applied. Results. Anthropometric and bioimpedance indicators of excess weight were associated with glucose levels, insulin, HOME index, lipid profile (HDL, LDL), vitamin D- and iron deficiencies. Hyperglycemia was associated with lower waist/hip ratio (p = 0.042), higher extracellular water content (p = 0.0283), amount of adipose tissue (p = 0.030), increased uric acid levels (p < 0.001), HOMA index (p < 0.001) and insulin growth factor (p = 0.006) as well as decreased levels of red blood cells (p = 0.016), T4 (p < 0.001) and pyruvate (p = 0.016). Iron deficiency was associated with low levels of red blood cells (p = 0.003), hemoglobin (p < 0.001), elevated levels of creatine kinase (p = 0.028) and parathyroid hormone (p = 0.031), decreased blood antioxidant resource (ImAnOx index, p = 0.034), and decreased blood lactate levels (p = 0.035). Conclusions. Identification of the associations between pathogenetic factors of metabolic and circulatory syndromes in young adults in the Arctic shows the importance of their early detection, prevention and correction at young age with the further going aim reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the Arctic. The analysis also suggests the role of vitamin D deficiency in development of metabolic and circulatory syndromes.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(2):47-56
pages 47-56 views

ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON PUBLIC HEALTH: A REVIEW OF METHODS

Dyadik V.V., Dyadik N.V., Klyuchnikova E.M.

Abstract

This paper presents a review of national and international theoretical and applied research on methods of health impact assessment. We focuse on two main methodological concepts of health impact monetization, namely, calculation of illness costs and assessment of willingness to pay to minimize the risk of negative heath consequences. The theoretical grounds and principles of application for both approaches are presented. An example of calculation using the data on of the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of death from hazardous environmental influences is presented. The internal structure of the approach to the assessment of health impact based on calculation of illness's cost is also presented. Calculation of costs, research perspectives and competing approaches to estimate indirect costs are given using the human capital method and the frictional cost method. Possible areas of application of various methodologies for assessing environmental health impact are described, their advantages and disadvantages are identified from the point of view of their applicability in various settings. Conclusions on the basic principles of choosing and adjusting the methodology for determining the economic burden of the disease for solving various research problems are presented.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(2):57-64
pages 57-64 views

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