No 10 (2021)

Articles

RESTRICTIVE MEASURES DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC AND SLEEP QUALITY IN SPRING 2020: RUSSIAN NATIONAL ONLINE SURVEY OF THE RUSSIAN POPULATION IN SPRING 2020

Antsiferova A.A., Kontsevaya A.V., Mukaneeva D.K., Ivanova E.S., Solovyeva A.V., Seledtsov A.A., Stolyarova E.A., Halfiev I.N., Drapkina Ю.M.

Abstract

Introduction: Good sleep is an important determinant of health. Poor sleep quality is associated with poor health outcomes. Restrictive measures introduced due to the COVID-19 pandemic in the spring 2020 have led to unprecedented changes in human lives worldwide warranting research on different aspects of the influence of restrictive measures on human health and behavior. Aim: To study associations between the restrictive measures during COVID-19 pandemic and sleep characteristics in Russia. Moreover, we studied factors associated with changes in sleep patterns. Methods: We conducted a national online survey between 26 April 2020 and 6 June 2020 when the tightest measures were in place. Eligible participants included all Russian adults aged 18 years and over. The questionnaire contained 31 items and included mostly close-ended questions. Sleep quality was assessed before the COVID-19 pandemic and in the last 7 days during the study period. The respondents were asked to determine whether they were getting enough sleep, whether they had trouble falling asleep, and whether they woke up earlier than they wanted. Results: In spring 2020, 2 432 individuals from 62 regions of Russia completed web-based questionnaires. Most of them were from the Republic of Tatarstan (n = 804), Irkutsk (n = 474), Sakhalin (n = 225) and Tver regions (n = 152). For most of the respondents, the sleep characteristics analyzed in the study did not change. Negative changes in comparison with the period before the pandemic were noted a fifth of respondents while positive changes were reported by by 12-30 %. A third of respondents (30.3%) reported that the number of days without getting enough sleep decreased , ranging from 13.8 % in Sakhalin Oblast to 56.9 % in Tver Oblast. Adherence to the self-isolation regimen (OR = 2.15, 95 % CI 1.62-2.86), the presence of children (OR = 0.7, 95 % CI 0.59-0.84) and living in rural areas (OR = 1.58, 95 % CI 1.26-1.98) were the main correlates of sleep problems. Conclusion: Most of responders did not report changes in sleep quality. However, substantial regional differences were identified. identification of characteristics associated with negative sleep changes may contribute to development of targeted measures to mitigate the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(10):4-12
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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VACCINATION AGAINST THE NEW CORONAVIRUS INFECTION (COVID-19) IN THE KRASNOYARSK TERRITORY

Mironova A.A., Narkevich A.N., Shesternya P.A.

Abstract

Introduction: Vaccination is considered to be the most important measure to control the pandemic of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19. This article attempts to present the results of vaccination campaign against COVID-19 during a six-months period in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The aim: To assess the effectiveness of vaccination against COVID-19 infection among adults in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Methods: We used population-based data from the Federal Register of Infected with COVID-19 on COVID-19 cases in the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Federal Register of Vaccinated against COVID-19 by July 30, 2021. Differences in mortality, proportions of patients who need in-hospital treatment, proportions of patients in extremely serious and serious conditions, proportions of patients who required artificial ventilation and hospitalization in intensive care between vaccinated and non-vaccinated, as well as immunized and non-immunized COVID-19 patients were calculated. Results: Those who were vaccinated (regardless of the timing of the disease after vaccination) and those who were immunized (42 days after the introduction of the first component of the vaccine) were significantly less likely to suffer from COVID-19 (14.6 patients per 1 000 vaccinated and 16.8 per 1 000 immunized versus 116.9 patients per 1 000 unvaccinated and 112.1 per 1 000 non-immunized, respectively), and in the case of the disease after vaccination, there is a much lighter course of disease with a lower proportion of cases requiring hospitalization (18.3 % versus 24.5 %) or treatment in intensive care units (0.8 % versus 1.6 %), artificial ventilation (0.6 % versus 1.3 %) and low case fatality(2.1 % versus 3.3 %). Conclusion: The study provides the evidence on less severe course of COVID-19 among vaccinated and immunized individuals supporting earlier reports on the effectiveness of vaccination against COVID-19 and in role of mass vaccination in combating COVID-19.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(10):13-20
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CELL DEATH UNDER CONDITIONS OF HAPTIC CONTAMINATION OF BIOLOGICAL MEDIA BY STABLE STRONTIUM

Dolgikh O.V., Dianova D.G., Krivtsov A.V.

Abstract

Introduction: The conditions of haptic contamination with stable strontium disrupt the implementation of programmed cell death, forming early health disorders of the child population. Aim: to study the indicators, characterizing cell death, in children with excess haptic contamination of biological media with natural stable strontium. Methods: Research group: children consuming drinking water from underground drinking water sources with excess content of natural stable strontium, comparison group: children consuming drinking water of satisfactory quality in terms of strontium content.The study of indicators characterizing cell death was carried out by flow cytometry; polymorphism of candidate genes by real-time PCR. Results: It was found that in children exposed to strontium, the content of protein-oncosuppressor p53, proapoptotic reception of CD95+- lymphocytes, Annexin V-FITC+PI--lymphocytes with a simultaneous increase in an average of 1.7 times lymphocytic phenotypes of CD95+- lymphocytes and associated with necrotic death of Annexin V-FITC+PI+-lymphocytes are statistically significant (p < 0.001) decreased by an average of 2.5 times. An increased frequency of the heterozygous genotype of the matrix metalloproteinase gene MMP9 Gln279Arg is 2.5 times higher than the results obtained in unexposed children. Conclusion: The results of the studies allowed us to establish that strontium concentrations in the blood in the range from 0.040 to 0.091 mg/dm3 are associated with inhibition of apoptosis and switching to an alternative pathway of cell death-necrosis, which, against the background of polymorphism of candidate genes, creates a risk of autoimmune pathology.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(10):21-28
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CARDIOHEMODYNAMIC RESPONSE TO LOCAL COLD EXPOSURE AMONG MEN FROM COASTAL- AND INLAND ZONES OF THE MAGADAN REGION

Averyanova I.V.

Abstract

Aim: To study the changes in cardiodynamics experienced by humans under local cold exposure in coastal- and inland areas of the Magadan region, North-Eastern Russia. Methods: In total, 124 residents from the coastal area (Magadan) and 62 residents from the inland area (Susuman) took part in the experiment. Parameters of heart rate and hemodynamics at rest and at the peak of a cold test were estimated using "Varicard" device and a tonometer. Results: At rest the examinees from the continental zone demonstrated a less economical mode of the circulatory system functioning with a simultaneous decrease in sympathetic activity and the transition of the autonomic balance towards parasympathetic predominance. That is considered a regional-related feature of the functional status of the cardiovascular system when adapting to more extreme environmental factors. Such features of cardiohemodynamics could be observed against the background of an increase in basal metabolic rate by 17 % in subjects from Magadan and 31 % in those from Susuman. The short-term cold exposure caused a hypertensive response in both groups. The subjects from the continental area showed a more pronounced vasoconstriction, which was combined with a decrease in the activity of the parasympathetic link in the heart rhythm regulation, while the Magadan subjects demonstrated the opposite reaction to the cold test which led to the activation of the parasympathetic link of the ANS. Conclusion: The results that the residents of the coastal areas develop the reaction of getting used to the influence of the cold factor, with a slightly pronounced metabolic adaptation Young residents of the continental zone, in response to the effects of cold, develop an isolation type of cold adaptation with sufficient activation of metabolic adaptation.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(10):29-36
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EFFECTS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY BIOFEEDBACK SESSIONS ON THE DYNAMICS OF THE EEG SPECTRAL POWER DURING EXPERIMENTAL HYPOTHERMIA

Demin D.B.

Abstract

Introduction: Determination of individual reactions of the nervous system during self-regulation under experimental cold conditions has a potential to contribute to better understanding of the "physiological costs" humans "pay" for adaptation to the climatic factors of the Arctic. Aim: To study the dynamics of the spectral power of the electroencephalogram (EEG) during heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV BF) sessions in experimental hypothermia. Methods: Thirty healthy male volunteers (18-20 years old) participated in the experiment. The experimental group consisted of men who performed the HRV BF session (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). The experiment included five stages: I - rest (+20 °С); II - HRV BF session for the experimental group and rest for the control group; III - whole cooling (-20 °С) for 10 min; IV and V - states after cooling, similar to stages I and II, respectively. EEG were recorded during each stage of the study using a portable electroencephalograph "Neuron-Spectrum-SM" (Neurosoft, Russia). Results: Body temperature significantly decreased on average by 2.2-2.7 °С (p < 0.001) during cooling. An increase in the power of theta- and alpha-activity of the EEG was revealed in the subjects during HRV BF session; the most pronounced changes were observed during stage V. Desynchronization of the EEG alpha-rhythm with the greatest decrease in the right frontal-central regions was observed in subjects of the control group by stage II (p < 0.05), and at the stage of rewarming (stage V), no significant changes in theta- and alpha-activities EEG were revealed. Significant increases in theta-activity EEG during HRV BF after cooling were observed in subjects in the left frontal, central and temporal brain parts (p < 0.05-0.01), which was caused by an increase in the activity of subcortical regulatory mechanisms and an increase in parasympathetic activity during the HRV BF session. An increase in the power of the EEG alpha-activity, reflecting the combined enhanced influence of thalamic and brainstem structures, was revealed over all brain parts, the most significant increases were also noted in the left frontal, central and temporal brain parts (p < 0.05-0.01). Concluzion: HRV BF training stimulates the central structures of autonomic regulation and parasympathetic activity when exposed to cold contributing to better adaptation to the climatic conditions of the Arctic.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(10):37-43
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Prevalence and Correlates of Insufficient Physical Activity among Diabetic Patients in Almaty, Kazakhstan

Zhuzenova M.A., Kasymova G.P., Akhtaeva N.S.

Abstract

Introduction: Physical activity (PA) is an important contributor to health. However, little is known regarding the prevalence of insufficient PA in Kazakhstan. Aim: To study the prevalence of insufficient PA and associated factors among type 2 diabetic patients in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. In total, 480 patients selected using the national diabetes registry. Associations between insufficient PA and age, gender, education, occupation, alcohol consumption, smoking, intake of vegetables and fruits were studied using chi-squared tests and multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance estimation. In addition, the patients were asked about the reasons for not practicing PA as well as about the source of advice on PA. The results are presented as crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Results: The overall prevalence of insufficient PA was 60.4 (95 % CI: 56.0; 64.7) %. Education (PR = 0.80, 95 % CI: 0.68; 0.88), employment (PR = 0.74, 95 % CI: 0.64; 0.88), daily consumption of fruits (PR = 0.78, 95 % CI: 0.67; 0.92) and vegetables (PR = 0.80, 95 % CI: 0.70; 0.92) were all significantly associated with lower prevalence of insufficient PA in crude analysis. However, after adjustment for other factors, only employment (PR = 0.72, 95 % CI: 0.60; 0.86) remained significantly associated with the outcome. In total, 61.7 % of the patients received no counseling on PA. The lowest prevalence of insufficient PA (21.6 %) was observed in attenders of commercial sports centers. Conclusions: High prevalence of insufficient PA combined with poor counseling practices warrant intersectoral cooperation in the development of a strategy to improve PA among type 2 diabetes patients and general population in Kazakhstan.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(10):44-50
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OXIDATIVE MODIFICATIONS OF LIPOPROTEINS IN PATIENTS WITH VIBRATION DISEASE AND METABOLIC DISORDERS

Masnavieva L.B., Kudaeva I.V., Avramenko K.A., Chistova N.P., Dyakovich O.A.

Abstract

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome (MS) are characterized by development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular pathology. Vibration disease (VD) affects oxidative metabolism leading to the development of microangiopathies. However, the evidence on the combined effect of VD and DM or MS on oxidative modification of lipids remains limited. Aim: To study oxidative modification of lipoproteins in individuals with vibrationa disease and metabolic disorders. Metods: In total, 59 patients with VD (group I), 73 people with VD combined with MS (group II) and 35 people with VD and type 2 diabetes (group III) took part in the study. We assessed concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL), oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL), antibodies to oxLDL and thiol status. Results: Serum levels of total cholesterol, oxLDL and antibodies to oxLDL in all groups exceeded the reference values. The proportion of people with a high content of oxLDL varied between 61 % to 72 %. Increased levels of antibodies to oxLDL were observed in 63 % - 85 % of patients in all groups. The concentration of LDL cholesterol was the highest in group II: 3,6 (3,2-4,2) mM/l. Concentrations of oxLDL correlated with the levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Lower thiol concentrations were found in 57 % of cases in group II). Conclusion: Our results suggest that individuals with VD have hypercholesterinemia, increased oxidative lipid metabolism and increased production of antibodies to oxLDL independently of metabolic disorders Patients with VD and type 2 diabetes may have decrease antioxidant defense.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(10):51-56
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BODY COMPOSITION PARAMETERS USING BIO-ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS AND ULTRASOUND SCANNING: A RELIABILITY STUDY

Bondareva E.A., Parfenteva O.I.

Abstract

Introduction: Body composition assessment is essential in studies in medical, anthropological and sports science. The most commonly used methods are indirect (field) methods including bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA), caliperometry, and ultrasound scans (US). Aim: To study reliability of body composition estimates using ultrasound scanner and Russian bioimpedance equipment in adults. Methods: A total of 191 adults living in Moscow, aged 18-74 years, were recruited. Among them were 135 women, aged 18-67 years, and 56 men, aged 18-74 years. The examination program included measurement of height and weight, waist and hips circumferences, determination of body composition using the BodyMetrix™ ultrasound scanner (IntelaMetrix, USA) and bioimpedance analyzer (ABC-02 Medass, NTC Medass, Russia). Reliability analysis was performed using Bland-Altman method. Results: More than 37 % of the individuals were overweight and obese. In the group of females, no significant differences in the amount of body fat mass (BIA 19,7 kg, US 18,7 kg) and fat-free mass (BIA 43,9 kg, US 43,6 kg) as well as the percentage of body fat (BIA 30,1 %, US 30,2 %) estimated by these methods were found. Similarly in the group of males, body fat mass (BIA 12,1 kg, US 12,5 kg) and fat-free mass (BIA 61,2 kg, US 61,6 kg) as well as the percentage of body fat (BIA 16,5 %, US 17,3 %). We however revealed a systematic bias, which increases with an increase in the value of the estimated parameters. Conclusion: Our findings suggest moderate reliability of the absolute fat mass in the group of females. For all other estimates the reliability was low suggesting that ABC-02 "Medass" equipment does not seem to produce systematically valid results. Therefore, ultrasound scanners should be preferred in studies requiring high quality assessment of body composition.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(10):57-64
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