No 5 (2019)

Articles
CLIMATE AND HUMAN HEALTH AT THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST
Grigorieva E.A., Khristoforova N.K.
Abstract
Aims: To identify regional and seasonal patterns of climate at the continental part of the Far East and to study associations between climate discomfort and population health. Methods: Correlation coefficients between climatic indices in January and July and all-cause-, cardiovascular- and respiratory mortality and morbidity were calculated. Results: The overall morbidity was similar to the national average. It was slightly lower for circulatory diseases, but higher for respiratory diseases. In some regions the latter was significantly higher than the national average. Circulatory- and respiratory morbidity was almost twice as high in Chukotka (Far North East) than in the Jewish Autonomous Region (South Far East). At the same time, the low all-cause mortality in Chukotka needs further research. Conclusions: Common and specific patterns of spatial and seasonal variations and their associations with morbidity were observed in the continental part of the Russian Far East. Wet Kata Cooling Power index by Hill seems to be the best indicator of thermal discomfort. Significant correlations between health indicators and thermal discomfort expressed by bioclimatic indices are in line with other studies suggesting links between population health in the Russian Far East and climate. Low all-cause mortality in Chukotka requires further research.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(5):4-10
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MINING AND PROCESSING PLANT ACTIVITIES AND THE LEVELS OF BACKGROUND RADIATION IN AN ARCTIC SETTING
Nikanov A.N., Gudkov A.B., Shelkov M.V., Popova O.N., Shcherbina F.A., Shcherbina A.F.
Abstract
Aim: To assess background radiation levels in the area adjacent to a mining and processing plant in a Russian Arctic setting. Methods: An equivalent dose rate in μSv / h at an altitude of about 1 m as well as a flux density of alpha and beta radiation from the surface of water, rocks and soil were estimated. The MKS-01A Multirad-M portable spectrometry complex was used for the route radiometric survey to measure the dose rate of gamma radiation and the content of natural radionuclides in soil. Radon level measurements were carried out using an PAA-10 and IZV-3M radiometer aerosols. Result: Soil radioactivity in the swamp tundra varied from 7.03 to 71.06 Bq/kg while in the mountain tundra the corresponding values were from 15.17 to 27.75 Bq/kg. The radiation intensity of the Khibiny surface sediments ranged from 0.12 (soils of wetlands and lowlands) to 0.45 (bedrock, precipitation-scree deposits) μSv/h. On the territory of quarries and industrial sites, as well as in the mountains used for recreational purposes, the background radiation was from 0.21-60.0 μSv/h. Air radioactivity in the basements of buildings was from 17.3 to 57.6 Bq/m3. Conclusions. Our results suggest that the territories of quarries and other industrial sites, as well as mountain areas used for recreational purposes can be classified as areas for persons of category B meaning that a limited part of the population may be exposed to radiation. This does not raise concerns because of limited duration of stay of people in these areas which is is much shorter than the permissible exposure time for these conditions regulated by URB. The radon content and the assessment of the activity of the daughter products of its decay in the basements suggest that the average concentrations do not exceed the limit of 200 Bq/m3. The radiation environment of the study area can be considered as relatively safe.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(5):11-14
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QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER AND EPIDEMIC RISK OF WATER-BORN INFECTIONS IN TOWNS OF THE ARKHANGELSK REGION
Baydakova E.V., Unguryanu T.N., Krutskaya K.V., Minenko I.A.
Abstract
Aims: to assess the quality of drinking water using microbiological indicators and to assess epidemic risks of water-born infections in urban settings of the Arkhangelsk region. Methods: Secondary data on standard sanitary and hygienic assessments of the quality of centralized drinking water supply in Arkhangelsk, Severodvinsk, Novodvinsk, Kotlas and Koryazhma for 2006-2016 were used. Assessment of the microbial risk of water-born infections was performed. Results: All towns except Severodvinsk had moderate risk of water-born infections through centralized drinking water supply system. Arkhangelsk had 56 points while Kotlas, Novodvinsk and Koryazhma had 37, 30 and 19 points, respectively. Severodvinsk had low risk of water-born infections (5 points). Proportions of samples with abnormal concentrations of general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria in Arkhangelsk, Kotlas, Novodvinsk after water treatment varied between 16 % and 27 % while in Korazhma the corresponding proportions varied between 21 % and 53 % Irregular water supply have contributed with 18 % and 14 % in Arkhangelsk and Kotlas, respectively. Conclusions: The presence of general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria in drinking water detected immediately after water treatment and in water supply network are the main contributors to the epidemic risk of water-born infections in towns of the Arkhangelsk region. Irregularity of water supply was additional factor linked to microbial contamination in Arkhangelsk and Kotlas.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(5):15-20
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DEVELOPING A SENSOR SYSTEM FOR IDENTIFICATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AS ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICANTS IN AQUEOUS AND PROTEIN MEDIA
Plotnikova O.A., Mel'nikov A.G., Mel'nikov G.V., Tikhomirova E.I., Ilina N.A.
Abstract
Aim: to investigate the possibility of identifying toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous and protein media using a fluorescent sensor system based on serum albumins. Methods: The studies were conducted using fluorescent methods, in particular, by quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of proteins, recording the fluorescence of PAHs and using the pyrene luminescent probe. Results: It was experimentally found that when PAHs were introduced into serum albumin solutions, a general decrease in the fluorescence intensity of proteins was observed, indicating PAHs' binding to protein macromolecules and, probably, the formation of a non-fluorescent serum protein-PAH complex. The analysis of the fluorescence spectra of PAHs in serum albumins was carried out. The dependences of changes in the intensity of the fluorescence spectra maxima of PAHs in albumins with an increase in the concentration of PAHs were linear, which makes it possible to use these systems for analytical purposes to determine toxic PAHs in protein and aqueous media. Conclusions: The results of the luminescent study on the interaction of PAHs with protein molecules can be used for monitoring of environmental toxicants in various media, as well as for the development of the methods for early diagnosis of diseases associated with the effect of various agents on the proteins.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(5):21-25
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MULTIVARIABLE MODELING IN DIAGNOSIS OF LATENT FORMS OF CHRONIC DISEASES AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS
Ermolina T.A., Martynova N.A., Kuzmin A.G.
Abstract
Aim: To study associations between selected factors and levels of immune defense among medical personnel. Methods. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the individual contribution of the selected socio-demographic and occupational factors on the levels of immune defense in medical professionals using SPSS software. Results. We identified the following factors contributing to the studied outcome: department where a person works, category of healthcare worker, gender and age. All these factors were significantly associated with the outcomes in binary logistic regression models. Conclusions. The factors that we identified as significant predictors in our models should be used in development of health-protecting strategies directed towards healthcare personnel in clinical settings.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(5):26-30
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SERUM CONCENTRATIONS OF VITAMIN D IN WOMEN LIVING IN THE TYUMEN NORTH
Korchina T.Y., Sukhareva A.S., Korchin V.I., Lapenko V.V.
Abstract
Aim: To assess serum concentrations of vitamin D in women living in the North of the Tyumen region. Methods. 176 women from non-indigenous population living in the cities of the Tyumen region were examined. Of these, 96 were residents of Salekhard (Yamalo-Nenetski Autonomous Region - YаNAO), and 80 - Khanty-Mansiysk (Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Region - KHMAO). The mean age of women was 43.9 ± 11,3 years. Serum vitamin D was estimated by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay on paramagnetic particles using Architect i2000 SR equipment. Results. The mean values of serum D in both groups of women were significantly lower than the lower limit of physiologically optimal levels. Moreover, the concentration of vitamin D in serum of women in Salekhard (14.5 ± 1.0 ng/ml) was less than a half of the lower limit of the reference values and significantly (p=0.003) lower than the corresponding values in women from Khanty-Mansiysk (18.7 ± 0.9 ng/ml). A moderate deficiency of vitamin D was found in 37.5 % of women in Salekhard and 55.0 % of women in Khanty-Mansiysk while the corresponding proportions for severe deficiency were 22.9 % and 26.2 %. Critical vitamin D deficiency was observed in 36.5 % of women in Salekhard and 10 % - Khanty-Mansiysk. Conclusions. We observed significant differences between the settings in the mean values of serum Vitamin D concentrations. Moreover, greater proportions of women from Salekhard had more pronounced Vitamin D deficiency. Educational programs to inform both doctors and general public about the high frequency of hypovitaminosis D, the role of vitamin D in the protection of public health and the need to prevent hypovitaminosis D and its consequences are warranted to improve the situation.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(5):31-36
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ANALYSIS OF ADAPTIVE CAPABILITIES OF INDIVIDUAL SYSTEMS OF THE ORGANISM UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FACTOR OF ECOLOGICAL RISK
Samoylov A.S., Ushakov I.B., Popov V.I., Popova O.A.
Abstract
Aim: To perform a complex analysis of the adaptive capabilities of the jejunal mucosa morphoenzymological parameters under conditions of chronic exposure to electromagnetic impulses. Methods: In an experiment performed on white laboratory male rats aged 4 months we studied changes in the mitotic activity of the jejunum mucosa crypts epithelial cells after 5, 7 and 10 months of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) of electrical discharges with a density of induced currents of 0.37; 0.7; 0.8; 2.7 kA/m2 and the impulse frequency of 50, 100 and 500 per week. Histoenzymological reactions were carried out on cryostat sections. Quantitative cytological evaluation was performed in the epithelium of 20 longitudinal villi from each animal's micropreparation (х400). Paired t-tests were used for analyses of continuous variables. Results. So-called "amplitude-frequency windows" were established, showing no shifts in relation to the indicators of control and indicating possible manifestations of tolerance and/or adaptation of the studied indicators to individual parameters and EMF. For undifferentiated epitheliocytes of the jejunum mucosa, the "window effect" was recorded with EMF with 0.8 kA/m2 and a frequency of 50 and 500 at 7 and 10 month exposure, respectively. At the same time, the highest level of adaptive reactions was recorded 5 months after the exposure to IEM regardless of density of induced currents with a frequency of 50 and 100 impulses per week. Conclusions. Our analysis made it possible to establish morphofunctional associations between the cellular populations of the epithelio-connective tissue complex of the intestinal system of the body, referring to them as a single system that takes part in the regulation of tissue homeostasis, and also reflects the actual levels of manifestation of reactive, dystrophic processes and adaptive capabilities, depending on the effect of the parameters of the electromagnetic factor.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(5):37-42
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THE INFLUENCE OF HYPOTHERMIA ON THE PARAMETERS OF THE ELECTROMYOGRAM AT LOW MUSCLE TONE STATE
Filatova O.E., Berestin D.K., Ilyashenko L.K., Bashkatova Y.V.
Abstract
Effects of sudden changes in temperature on the general state of functional systems of the body can be assessed by the effects of local cold expesure on the neuromuscular system. Aim: to study electromyograms of the retracting muscle flexor of the little finger with weak static muscle tension (F1 = 50 N) during cold exposure. Methods. Altogether, 15 men aged 20-27 years participated in the study. We used one of the stochastic methods in the form of calculation of matrices of paired comparisons of electromyogram samples as an indicator of k pairs of matches of samples. Matrices of paired comparisons of samples were calculated for each test subject at a static voltage F1 = 50 N before and after local cold exposure. At the same time built a quasi-attractor dynamics, the behavior of x(t) and determined area of the quasi-attractor. In the end, the analysis of the state of the muscles of the subjects in the development of static force F was carried out on the basis of a comparison of the area of quasi-attractors in the form of S. Results. With weak (F1 = 50 N) static force after cold exposure, the area of quasi-attractor increased by 2.5 times, while in the matrices of paired comparisons of samples after local cold exposure, the number of matches of pairs of samples increased from 8 to 14. Conclusion: the regularities of changes in the number of matches of pairs of samples k in the matrices of paired comparisons with changes in the static force and under the influence of local cold exposure were revealed; statistically significant differences were found for such samples k and S before and after hypothermia.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(5):43-48
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SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN APGAR SCORES IN NEWBORNS IN BARNAUL: THE RORE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
Fedorova O.I., Maltseva A.E.
Abstract
Introduction. Environmental factors and their seasonal fluctuations have been shown to influence human health. Birth is one of the most critical periods of human development. Newborns are very sensitive to environmental factors. Our aim was to study associations between selected environmental factors and the first- and the fifth minute Apgar scores in Barnaul, Altay region. Method. Data on Apgar scores for all infants born in Maternity home N 2 in Barnaul in 1998 and 2014 were analyzed. Barometric pressure, the pressure gradient, Wolf number, 10.7 cm Solar flux, geomagnetic AP-index were used as independent variables. Associations were assessed using linear regression models. Regression coefficients, coefficient of determination (R2) and significance levels (P) were calculated. Results. We found positive associations between Apgar scores and AP geomagnetic index and indicators of solar activity. At the same time no associations between barometric pressure and newborns' Apgar scores were observed. Conclusions. Our findings are congruent with the evidence on the associations between Solar activity and human health indices. However, the effects were rather weak suggesting more important role of the endogenic factors influencing late stages of pregnancy.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(5):49-55
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EPIDEMIOLOGY OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AMONG CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN THE NORTH-WESTERN FEDERAL DISTRICT
Vishnyakov N.I., Kochorova L.V., Samoylova I.G.
Abstract
Aim: to describe the incidence and prevalence of infectious diseases among children and adolescents from 2012 to 2016 in the North-Western Federal district of Russia using official documentation. Methods: We analyzed all forms used for official registration of incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases, as well as medical documentation on incidence and prevalence of diseases of the nervous system, which are among the most common complications of infectious diseases. Separate analyses were performed for children (0-14 years) and adolescents (15-17 years). The regions included in the study were St. Petersburg, Leningrad Region, Vologda Region and Arkhangelsk Region. Results: We observed a decrease in both incidence and prevalence of infectious diseases in the Federal district. However, in the Leningrad region in incidence of infectious diseases among adolescents increased by 2.0 %. In St. Petersburg, Leningrad Oblast, Arkhangelsk and Vologda Oblasts, the prevalence of infections among adolescents increased by 2.3 %, 10.5 %, 3.7 % and 3.9 %, respectively. A similar pattern was observed for the incidence and prevalence of the diseases of the nervous system. Conclusions: our results have shown in increase in the prevalence of infectious diseases and diseases of the nervous system in several regions of the North-Western Federal district warranting public health actions from health authorities in these regions.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(5):56-59
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ORGANIZATION OF TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION FOR COMBATANTS WITH BORDERLINE MENTAL DISORDERS
Soloviev A.G., Ichitovkina E.G., Zlokazova M.V., Davydova N.E., Evdokimov V.I.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to determine the stages of treatment and rehabilitation for combatants of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MIA) having borderline mental disorders (CPD). Methods. Data from 653 case histories of combatants who attended the center for psychophysiological diagnostics of the medical and sanitary department of MIA in the Kirov region were obtained. Follow-up information on mental health four years after the execution of operational and service tasks under special conditions was analysed in two groups. The first group consisted of 338 mentally healthy combatants who received no medical or psychological support. The second group consisted of 315 individuals with CPD and who received treatment. Means and confidence intervals were calculated for continuous variables. Critical level of statistical significance was 0.05. Results. The proposed system with a multi-professional approach to the rehabilitation of combatants in the context of a departmental, general health care institution allows the optimal level of restoring of social functioning in a peaceful environment. Conclusion. We propose to establish special units for mental health in regional health facilities of the MIA health system with the introduction of multiprofessional therapy and medical rehabilitation of combatants with CPD followed by social rehabilitation with participation of educational and veteran organizations of MIA.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(5):60-64
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