No 6 (2018)

Articles
MORBIDITY OF THE POPULATION OF ARKHANGELSK REGION WITH INFECTIONS, MANAGED BY MEANS OF SPECIAL PREVENTION
Bryukhacheva M.V., Sokolova O.V., Buzinov R.V., Bobun I.I., Popova O.N., Gudkov A.B.
Abstract
Aim. To reveal the peculiarities of the incidence of the population of the Arkhangelsk region by infections controlled by means of specific prevention. Methods. A post-hoc epidemiological analysis of infection morbidity indices of the Arkhangelsk Region population, controlled by specific preventive measures (diphtheria, measles, rubella, poliomyelitis, tick-borne viral encephalitic - TBVE) has been carried out in the paper. Records and reports for the period 2011-2015 were used as data for a look back study. Results. Diphtheria morbidity on the territory of the Arkhangelsk region has kept the «zero» level during the last years. Measles morbidity in the period from 2007 to 2015 was registered in 2013 (10 cases) and in 2014 (1 case). Rubella morbidity in the period 2011-2015 was registered in 2013 году (5 cases). No cases of vaccine-associated paralytic polio were registered in the region in the period from 2006 to 2015. Infections vaccination coverage, controlled by specific preventive measures corresponds to regulated levels. The paper also presents the analysis and assessment of TBE morbidity indices, population immunization against TBVE and study results of the immunity stress to this infection in the Arkhangelsk Region. Conclusions. The results of serological examinations of children, adolescents, adults, when compared with the reference indicators, testify to sufficient specific protection, correspond to official information on vaccine coverage, and confirm the effectiveness of specific prophylaxis against diphtheria, poliomyelitis, measles and rubella. It is advisable to include immunization against TBVE in the regional calendar of preventive vaccinations.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(6):4-11
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RISK ASSESSMENT SANITARY-CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF WATER FOR THE POPULATION OF THE KHASAN DISTRICT IN PRIMORSKY KRAI
Kiku P.F., Kislitsina L.V., Bogdanova V.D., Sabirova K.M.
Abstract
The aim - to conduct a risk assessment of the sanitary and chemical indicators of water for the population and to determine the impact of the quality of centralized drinking water on health. Methods. To assess the risk of drinking water, the database of water test results for 2014-2016 was used. General principles of calculations are taken from the manual and guidelines. The analysis of water is carried out according to sanitary rules and norms. The risk of sanitary and chemical indicators was calculated for the conditions of prolonged and combined oral exposure of several chemicals based on the daily consumption of water by the population with a diverse elemental composition. The calculations used the standard values of water intake for adults (70 kg of body 2 l/day) and children (15 kg of body 1 l/day). To establish the statistical relationship, the Spearman correlation coefficient was used at a significance level of p < 0.05. Results. Analysis of chemicals in drinking water revealed exceedances of maximum permissible concentrations for manganese (by 1.4 times) and iron (from 4.1 to 13.0 times). In calculating the total risk, the critical organs that are most susceptible to the influence of chemicals in the water, such as the circulatory system, skin, genitourinary and immune systems, have been identified. The greatest contribution to the development of the risk of diseases of these systems is made by iron and arsenic. The level of morbidity in the circulatory system among adults is affected by arsenic (R = 0.61), and among children iron (R = 0.79). The hazard ratio was maximum for iron (HQ = 0.833) and arsenic (HQ = 0.426) in drinking water for the child population. A direct positive correlation was found between arsenic concentration and the incidence of adult population in the area for skin and subcutaneous tissue, and for children between the concentration of iron in water and diseases of the circulatory system. Conclusions. The results allow to determine the directions of sanitary-hygienic measures aimed at improving the quality of drinking water and preserving the health of the population.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(6):12-17
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ECOLOGICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MORBIDITY DISEASES OF THE CIRCULATORY AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS IN THE ZONE OF INFLUENCE OF ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS OF MULTIFUEL THERMAL STATION
Petrov S.B.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess the primary morbidity and prevalence of diseases of the circulatory and respiratory systems in the adult population living in the zone of influence of atmospheric emissions of multi-fuel thermal station. Metods: The study was carried out on the territory of Kirov, in the zone of influence of atmospheric emissions of urban heat and power plant. By means of cluster analysis in the fuel balance of thermal power plants 2 time periods differing on the ratio of fuel types in the fuel balance were allocated: the period from 2001 to 2008 (the share of solid fuel was 17-22 %) and the period from 2009 to 2015 - characterized by increase in the share of solid fuel in the fuel balance to 27-32 %. On the data basis of simulation of thermal station emission dispersion zonation of atmospheric emission influence from thermal station was carried out. Two districts (clusters) were pointed. They differ significantly on a level of a calculated ground level concentration of particulates, sulfur dioxide and carbonic oxide. In each pointed area and for each timeframe the analysis of primary disease incidence of circulatory and respiratory systems was carried out. Results: the increase in the share of solid fuel in the fuel balance is accompanied by an increase in the mass of dust emissions of fly ash, soot, sulfur dioxide and an increase in the level of primary morbidity and prevalence of diseases of the circulatory and respiratory systems in the population of residential areas directly adjacent to the sanitary protection zone of the multifuel thermal station and located in the direction of prevailing winds. Conclusion: management decisions on expansion of multi-fuel thermal power complexes and changes in the fuel balance must necessarily be accompanied by an assessment of the health risk of the population and measures to reduce risks to an acceptable level.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(6):18-24
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RISK FACTORS - INFLUENCING THE HEALTH OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
Krasavina N.A., Startceva S.E.
Abstract
Purpose: to study the risk factors of recurrent acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI) in preschool children living in ecologically different districts of Perm. Methods. Retrospectively 710 records of 5-6 year old children with recurrent diseases of ARVI living in Ordzhonikidze district (group 1, n = 350) and Industrial district (group 2, n = 360) were evaluated. The study assessed the socio-biological risk factors of recurrent SARS and developed a prognostic factor by the method of Wald. Results. In group 2 children in the first year of life were more likely to have anemia 39.0 (95 % CI: 167.6-112.4) %, rickets 55.6 (95 % CI: 234.9-165.1) %, atopic dermatitis 55.6 (95 % CI: 272.9-127.1) %. In group 1, these diseases were less common - anemia 28.6 (95 % CI: 117.3-82.7) %, rickets 43 (95 % CI: 167.3-132.7) %, atopic dermatitis 28.6 (95 % CI: 148.8-51.2) %. Biologically significant risk factors for the formation of recurrent ARVI are: Smoking of the mother, the incidence of ARVI in the 1st half of pregnancy, etc. Mother's Smoking was more common in group 2 - 30.6 (95 % CI: 174.1-45.9) % against 3.4 in group 1 (95 % CI: 16.4-7.6) %. In the group 2 pregnant women were frequently sick with colds in the 1st half of pregnancy was 50.0 (95 % CI: 228.9-131.1) % against 22.9 per cent (95 % CI: 122.5-37.5) % in the 1 group. A prognostic index was calculated for each factor. In terms of sum of prognostic index a forecast of frequent ARVI was determined in children up to 5 years. Conclusions. Biologically significant risk factors for frequent ARVI in children were identified in two Perm districts. The risk factors were: smoking of the mother, ARVI incidence in the 1st and 2nd half of pregnancy, anemia, medical abortions and the risk of termination of pregnancy. Depending on the size of Wald's prognostic index children get in to a favorable zone (from +0.87 to +3.11), an unfavorable zone (from -0.06 to -9.62) and a border zone (from -0.06 to +0.87).
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(6):25-31
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THE ATTENTION FUNCTION DYNAMICS IN ONTOGENESIS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN RUSSIA’S NORTHEAST
Bartosh O.P., Bartosh T.P., Mychko M.V.
Abstract
Attention is one of the main psychoLogicaL factors that influence the study progress of primary schoolchildren. Our research was aimed at studying the dynamics of attention function in ontogenesis of primary schoolchildren Living in Magadan city and assessing effectiveness of attention correction by means of biofeedback. The study was carried out using correction task method (version by V. N. Amatuni) in ontogenesis of primary schoolchildren (1-4 grades) (n = 190). Results: the obtained findings testified to regular improvement of attention function by the end of every academic year and revealed such positive changes as shortened time for doing exercises (р < 0.01) , fewer mistakes (р < 0.01), attention densification, that was an indicative of positive dynamics of neurodynamic processes in CNC and normalization of interhemispheric correlation. Pupils who took 8-10 session course of biofeedback (computer simulator "Bos-Puls" - trainings "Vira" and "Ralli") were able to improve the attention properties for a shorter time (6 weeks) than their agemates (18 weeks) by means of progress in attention concentration, self-regulation and self-control skills learning. Thus, for the 6 weeks period the median (Me) of error rate decreased considerably in right and left parts of correction task to 1,5 (p< 0,01) and 2,5 (p< 0,01) respectively in pupils who passed Bos-training. And the median of attention concentration values increased significantly to 3.1 y.e. (p< 0,05). Conclusion: training a child self-regulation resulted in his/her more comprehensive attention organization for a shorter period of time which in its tern stipulated harmonious development of psychic functions in ontogenesis and led to a successful implementation of a training process.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(6):32-38
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EPIGENETIC PANDEMIC OF MENTAL IMMUNE DEFICIENCY: FROM PSYCHIC TRAUMATIZATION OF CHILDHOOD TO CUMULATIVE EXISTENTIAL STRESS
Sidorov P.I.
Abstract
The feature of the modern world is a steady increase in the prevalence of all major mental and psychosomatic disorders. The global predictor of this trend is in many ways the psychic traumatization of childhood and chronic existential stress. They trigger transgenerational and cumulative mechanisms of epigenetic development of the pandemic of mental immune deficiency (PMID). The task of the study is to describe and systematize epigenetic dysfunctions of mental immunity (MI), clinically manifested by the syndrome of mental immune deficiency (SMID) and triggering epidemiological cascade: mental epidemic - destructive mental epidemic - pandemic of mental immune deficiency. Early stress has both acute and long-term effects on epigenetic labels in the brain, which accumulate in MI, affecting cognitive functions and behavior, the risk of suicide and injurious acts or civil wrongdoing, dependent and psychic disorders throughout the life of today's and tomorrow's generations. SMID is clinically represented by a variety of borderline identity disorders. The pathogenetic basis of the SMID is the epigenetic accumulation of functional (reversible and dynamic) disturbances in the MI as the multimodal interface of consciousness and biopsychosociospiritual identity matrix. The MI is in many respects a standard placeholder, denoting the missing or indeterminate parameter in the network of the relationship between identity and behavior genome and epigenome. Functional family diagnostics and screening in mental medicine (MM) make it possible to focus clinical research on the entire accessible generational line: great-grandchildren - grandchildren - children - parents - grandparents - great-grandparents. This makes it possible to assess and predict latent genetic and epigenetic predictors by calculating probabilistic scenarios and trajectories of development of destinies. Our long-term studies of the early psychic traumatization of childhood have shown the multivariance of changes in MI and biopsychosociospiritual characteristics of the "traumatogenic family", depending on the severity and duration of transgenerational stress burden. Methodology of MM allows designing effective integrative programs for protection of public health.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(6):39-42
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EFFECT OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON PATIENTS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: MAIN DIRECTIONS OF RESEARCH AND MAJOR ISSUES
Saltykova M.M., Bobrovnitskii I.P., Yakovlev M.Y., Banchenko A.D.
Abstract
The article presents a review of the literature devoted to the analysis of the influence of weather conditions and helio/geophysical factors on patients with cardiovascular diseases. The main regularities of the influence of meteorological factors on public health, which are discussed in most publications, are the dependencies on 1) the season of the year, 2) the outside air temperature, 3) atmospheric pressure, 4) air humidity, 5) solar activity and changes of the electromagnetic field of the Earth. Particular attention is paid to the influence of heat waves and cold spells (prolonged periods of extreme heat or cold). In addition, the article discusses the impact on meteosensitivity of sex and age of patients. Most of the studies investigating the relationship between morbidity and weather factors are retrospective statistical analysis of the number of emergency medical calls or an analysis of mortality data. At the same time, the results of the analysis of the influence of the factors of both terrestrial and cosmic weather, obtained in various studies, are highly contradictory. Attention is drawn to the fact that this ambiguity of the results can be caused by the multifaceted influence of weather conditions and the lack of knowledge of the mechanisms that determine this influence, as well as the significant methodological problems in many studies related to insufficiently large sample sizes, inadequate statistical analysis, a relatively short period observation. In addition, a significant problem is associated with the paradoxical nature of the biological effect of weak low-frequency magnetic fields, including the Earth's magnetic field, whose energy is much less than the characteristic energy of biochemical transformations. The absence of reliably revealed regularities restrains further research aimed at revealing the subtle physiological mechanisms that cause the reactions of the human body to change the factors of terrestrial and cosmic weather. The solution, apparently, can be a comprehensive approach to the analysis of accumulated data involving physicians, biologists, physicists and mathematicians and the use of adequate approaches developed in different fields of science.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(6):43-51
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THE ELEMENTAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PROFILES OF DISABLED ATHLETES
Notova S.V., Kiyaeva E.V., Ermakova N.V., Kazakova T.V., Marshinskaya O.V.
Abstract
The aim of the research was to study the elemental and biochemical profiles of disabled athletes. Male athletes of sledge hockey club took part in the research. The control group consisted of men not going in for sports and working in hazardous industry. Methods. Biochemical blood characteristics were determined using a biochemical analyzer CS-T240 ("Dirui Industrial Co., Ltd", China). The study of hair trace elements content was carried out in the laboratory "Center for Biotic Medicine" (Moscow) using atomic-emission and mass spectrometry methods by means of Elan 9000 mass spectrometer and Optima 2000 V atomic-emission spectrometer. Data processing was carried out using the methods of variation statistics and by means of statistical package StatSoft STATISTICA 6.1.478 Russian, Enterprise Single. Results. Biochemical blood test of sledge hockey players showed higher level of glucose (p = 0.003), lower values of the common protein (p = 0.01), creatinine (p = 0.001), triglycerides (p = 0.005) and cholesterin (p = 0.005) in comparison with the control group. When comparing the elemental composition of hair of the sledge hockey players with the control group, higher content of Na by 2.3 times (p = 0.008), К by 2.5 times (p = 0.001) and P by 1.2 times (p = 0.001) in athletes was reveled. Fe level by 2.9 times (p = 0.001), I by 3.4 times (p = 0.001) and Ni by 2.8 times (p = 0.003) was lower, than in the control group. Besides, athletes had the lower level of Cr in 2.5 times (p = 0.0001) and V in 4.3 times (p = 0.0001). Conclusion. To maintain the health and athletic form of sledge hockey players, it is necessary to use specialized mineral complexes taking into account indicators of individual elemental status, biochemical profile and peculiarities of biogeochemical area.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(6):52-58
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SOFTWARE OF AUTOMATIC CLASSIFICATION OF A CHEST X-RAY BASED ON HYBRID CLASSIFIERS
Tomakova R.A., Filist S.A., Durakov I.V.
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to develop a method of classification of pathological formations, intended for the automated processing of x-ray images of the chest. Method to build classifiers with the aim of establishing the optimal parameters were applied to the Fourier descriptors, in order to form the space of informative features. Hybrid technology of classification of chest x-ray based on three-level hierarchic system is suggested. «Weak» classifiers, which are based on two ways of data analysis, are generated on the first level. The first approach of building the «weak» classifier is based on an analysis of amplitude of Fourier spectrum at a sliding window. X-ray pattern is scanning sequentially by windows of different scale. Each window determine the amplitude of Fourier spectrum with reference to which «weak» classifier is building. It assigns image segment, which is captured by sliding window, to certain class. The second approach of building the «weak» classifier is based on descriptors, resulting from approximation of intensity histogram on analysis window. The number of «weak» classifiers, based on two ways of analysis, is that of a number of the chosen scales of the windows. At the second hierarchic level, the solutions of the «weak» classifiers are combines in each way of analysis of the first hierarchic level. The definitive decision is taken by a final classifier, which aggregates the solutions of two classifiers of the second hierarchic level. The classifier built based on the neural networks of direct distrib. Results. Evaluated ution of trainees by implementing the algorithm of back propagation errors the quality of classification of the morphological formations in the images. Generated validation criterion of classification quality based on the number of incorrectly classified pixels in a given class to the total number of pixels of that class in the reference image. It is established that the proposed method of multi-window spectral transformation allows to perform differential diagnosis of pneumonia and oncological morphological formations by the criterion of not less than 15 %. Conclusion: The results of these studies can be used to build intelligent systems of decision support for the diagnosis and prediction of diseases.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(6):59-64
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