No 9 (2017)

Articles
HUMAN HEALTH IN CONNECTION WITH ARCTIC POLLUTION - RESULTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES UNDER THE AEGIS OF AMAP
Dudarev A.A., Odland J.O.
Abstract
Generalization of the results of environmental hygienic studies of pollution by persistent toxic substances (PTS) of Arctic environment, levels and dynamics of exposure to PTS and PTS health effects for residents of Arctic countries (Canada, Denmark/Greenland/Faroe Islands, USA, Iceland, Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russia) within the framework of the recently published "Human Health in the Arctic - 2015" Report of the international Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) have been conducted. The chronology of the previous AMAP reports on Arctic Pollution and Human Health 1998-2009 is presented; the algorithm of the introduction and development of international system for evaluation of quality assessment / quality control of laboratory measurements (AMAP ring-test) is described, along with the completed and ongoing studies in circumpolar countries (projects, cohorts, objects, scopes, dates), levels of PTS in the blood of the surveyed contingents with the geographical comparisons between the circumpolar and non-Arctic countries, incl. long-term dynamics. Adverse health effects associated with exposure to PTS of Arctic residents: neurobehavioral, immunological, cardiovascular, reproductive, endocrine, diabetogenic, carcinogenic - are analyzed; genetic/epigenetic aspects and effect modifiers are briefly considered. Short recommendations for future scientific research and management decisions in the Arctic are formulated, including the need to continue the biomonitoring of PTS (biota and human biological media), the need to develop adaptation strategies and adequate approaches to risk communication, application of the precautionary principle for "new" POPs, taking into consideration the global and regional consequences of climate change and the emergence on this background of the additional health risks for Arctic residents.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(9):3-14
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PERSONAL RESOURCES OF OIL AND GAS WORKERS FOR THE PURPOSES OF ADAPTATION TO THE NEGATIVE ARCTIC CLIMATE AND GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS
Degteva G.N., Korneeva Y.A., Simonova N.N.
Abstract
The article is devoted to determination of the personal recourses of oil and gas workers to overcome the negative impact of Arctic climate and geographical conditions. The study was carried out as a scientific expedition, with a participation of 70 oil and gas workers of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug from March to April 2015 (rotation shift duration - 30 days), aged from 24 to 60 years (average age 38.46 ± 1.410) The study was conducted through questionnaires, psychological tests. Statistical analysis was performed using the methods of descriptive statistics and discriminative analysis. Data processing was carried out using SPSS 22.00 software package. The study revealed the prevailing regulatory processes and mechanisms of psychological protection (as parameters of personal resources) for shift workers with low and high levels of situational and subjective meteoreaction in the Arctic. Workers with a low level of situational meteoreaction have an average level of programming and high-level of results assessment as the regulatory processes, the low level of psychological defense mechanisms - projection and regression, higher values - suppression, compensation and replacement. Specialists with low subjective meteoreaction are characterized by a higher level of programming as the regulatory process, a low level of psychological defense mechanism - compensation and high values - projection and rationalization.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(9):15-21
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RISK FACTORS FOR HEALTH DISORDERS IN COPPER-NICKEL MINERS IN THE KOLA POLAR REGION
Syurin S.A., Nikanov A.N.
Abstract
It is known that copper-nickel miners constitute a group of workers with an increased risk of common and occupational diseases due to the influence of a complex of harmful factors of the working environment and working process The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of working conditions and duration of work on the formation of health disorders in 1151 miners, engaged in production of copper-nickel ore in the Kola Polar region. It was found that the workers engaged in tunneling and blasting are at the highest risk of developing health problems, particularly diseases of the musculoskeletal system (36.0 % of all cases). The number of diseases diagnosed in one worker of different occupations ranges from (3.22 ± 0.32) cases (in sinkers) to (2.29 ± 0.28) cases (in electric welders). An important risk factor for health problems among miners of all professions is the length of seniority. Compared to the initial period of labor activity (up to 5 years), the prevalence of all health disorders per 100 workers increased by 1.50, 2.09, 2.70 and 3.47 times for the seniority of 6-10 years, 11-15 years, 16-20 years and more than 20 years, respectively. A direct correlation was established between the duration of the employee's experience and the number of his health disorders (r = +0.486). The conclusion is made about the need to prevent health disorders, especially diseases of the musculoskeletal system, from the very beginning of the miners professional career.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(9):22-27
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SUBJECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT OF MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM STATE IN WORKERS OF UNDERGROUND MINES IN THE ARCTIC ZONE OF RUSSIA
Talykova L.V., Gushchin I.V., Kuptsova S.N., Skripal B.A.
Abstract
The purpose of the conducted research was a comprehensive study and comparison of results of subjective and objective appraisal of workers' musculoskeletal system (MSS) state and links of observed disturbances with occupational environment exposures in underground mining in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Study method: for obtaining necessary data a questionnaire survey of underground mine workers within their routine periodic medical examination was conducted, the questionnaire being designed together with the Norwegian experts. Analysis results of 1874 respondent answers allowed to identify connection between subjective workers' appraisal of pain syndrome manifestation in various parts of spinal cord (cervical, thoracic and lumbar) and subjective workers' assessment of intensity of several exposure factors in their jobs. Subjective assessment of MSS state according to pain syndrome manifestation, given by the respondents, was found to comply with objective data on MSS diseases reported in the process of routine periodical medical examinations in the same jobs. Respondents' evaluation of workplace factor intensities is consistent with numerous published reports on health assessment of underground mining working conditions, including those in the RF Arctic zone. Received data don't correspond to the results of the special assessment of working conditions (SAWC) which considered such working conditions admissible. Conclusions: the study revealed a relatedness of MSS pain syndrome onset in underground mine workers to occupational factors and increase of syndrome risk development as the exposure intensity grows. The trend of subjective and objective appraisals of MSS disturbances manifestation is the same in the same jobs. SAWC doesn't reflect actual state of working conditions in underground mines of the Arctic zone.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(9):28-34
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INDICATORS OF THE LEVEL OF HEMOGLOBIN AND NUMBER OF RED BLOOD CELLS AS AN ADDITIONAL CRITERION FOR MAKING DECISIONS ON MEDICAL EVACUATION IN SEVERE COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA IN THE ARCTIC
Arkhangelsky D.A., Barachevsky Y.E., Zakrevsky Y.N.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the significance of hemoglobin and the number of red blood cells in cases of community-acquired pneumonia as a decision making criteria for medical evacuation to a specialized hospital. Study type - retrospective, clinical and physiological. The object of study - 27 stories of recruits with severe CAP aged 18-25 years who were evacuated to the Center of anesthesiology, intensive care of Naval Clinical Hospital of Severomorsk. When pneumonia was diagnosticated during hospitalization indicators of general clinical blood test, X-ray examination data, pulse oximetry were studied; numerical score on a scale of SMRT-CO was performed. A comparative analysis with related data was carried out on the second day of evacuees stay in Center of anesthesiology and intensive care with the negative dynamics of the disease. A statistically significant association of lung tissue volume destruction (number of segments) with hemoglobin level (r = 0.735 with p = 0.001) and the number of red blood cells (r = 0.65 with p = 0.001) was stated. Therefore, the detection in remote Arctic areas a young patient with CAP with lesions larger than 3 segments, hemoglobin readings below 117 g/l and the number of red blood cells is less than 3,8 x1012/l are additional criteria for medical evacuation necessity to a specialized hospital with respiratory support.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(9):35-39
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RISK CHARACTERISTICS FOR BABY’S HEALTH USING FOOD PRODUCTS IN EMERGENCY AREAS
Buymova S.A., Bubnov A.G., Kurochkin V.Y., Morozkin B.S.
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to assess individual health risk caused by food consumption, as well as possibility of use and calculation of safe amount of food for MRE package provided by Emergencies Ministry officers to kids under 3 years old in disaster zones. The samples studied include dry instant porridge, canned meat, liver pate, homogenized fruit and vegetable purees, sea biscuits, and bottled water of various brands. The paper shows that all tested food samples meet requirements regarding food safety and quality. Individual children's lifetime health risk caused by the consumption of tested foods and drinking water is estimated as (0,5-10,0) -10-5 for canned meat, (0,004-0,068) -10-5 for fruit and vegetable purees and drinking water for babies, (3,4-68,0) -10-5 for dry instant porridges, (0,023 0,28) -10-5 for liver pate, (0,068-1,74) -10-5 for sea biscuits, (0,004-0,42) -10-5 for bottled water. Calculation of estimated risk for individual showed that some samples could be classed among high risk products since risk calculation method takes into consideration all possible negative effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, embryogenic, etc.) of pollutants on a child's organism. Therefore, when choosing canned food suppliers for MRE package, risks of this food consumption along with sanitary and hygienic requirements must be considered. It is calculated that one MRE package per day for children should contain approximately 100 g of porridge, 50 g of canned meat, 50 g of vegetable puree, 150 g of liver pate and 100 g of sea biscuits. This information should be on the package label.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(9):40-47
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MORTALITY DYNAMICS AND LIFE EXPECTANCY OF POPULATION OF ARCTIC/SUBARCTIC REGION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 1999-2014
Revich B.A., Kharkova T.L., Podolnaya M.A.
Abstract
This article presents the results of analysis of mortality dynamics among population of 9 territories of Arctic and Subarctic regions, using linear regression technique. All-cause mortality reduction was significantly greater in the 4 territories of the country. These 4 regions were: Murmansk region and Komi Republic (for females), Archangelsk region (for both sexes) and Republic Sakha (Yakutia) (for males). The following regions displayed mortality reduction which was close to national averages or less: YaNAO, KhMAO and Magadan region. Mortality rates among males declined faster than that among females. Relatively lower mortality indicators in the territories of YaNAO and KhMAO could likely be attributed to migration of the population to mid-latitude regions with accumulated burden of northern pathology. Mortality reduction tendencies from the leading death causes (diseases of circulatory system, respiratory diseases, external causes) in the region are close to national averages. The most strongly mortality reduced from brain strokes, myocardial infarction and external causes of death. The mortality rates and the mortality dynamics can be described as relatively positive in the region on the whole, except for "other diseases of circulatory system" category, where mortality rates exceeded national average twice in particular years. Life expectancy in the Arctic region is close to that in Russia, except two autonomous regions - Khanty-Mansiisky and Yamalo-Nenetsky, where life expectancy was higher than national average by 1.7 and 2.6 years among males and by 0.4 and 0.7 years among females, respectively. The situation in Nenetsky and Chukotsky Autonomous Regions and in Magadan region remains unclear because of possible inaccuracy of primary data.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(9):48-58
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METEOROLOGICAL EFFECTS ON DAILY BIRTH FREQUENCY AND GESTATIONAL LENGTH IN BARNAUL, SOUTH-WEST SIBERIA
Melnikov V.N., Fedorova O.I., Maltseva A.E.
Abstract
In order to verify possible environmental predictors of labor onset in severely continental climate by means of correlation, multi regression and dispersion analysis we studied associations between daily number of births, gestational length and meteorological factors during the year of 1998 in Barnaul city, south-western Siberia. The medical records of 1 154 pregnant women aged 15-43 who gave births to single fetuses of both sexes were analyzed. The weak correlations were stated between atmospheric temperature, pressure gradient and daily number of births: its daily frequency grew in days with high temperature and sharp decrease of pressure by means of labor with decreased gestation length especially in January and February, the period of Siberian anticyclone. No associations were found with relative air humidity, wind velocity, and oxygen air concentration. The major role of atmospheric pressure was suggested among the external factors additionally influencing internal causes for labor initiation. Possible physiological mechanisms of pressure influences on human body are discussed.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(9):59-64
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