No 4 (2012)

Articles
ASSESSMENT OF SOIL EPIDEMIC HAZARD IN ARKHANGELSK REGION
Buzinov R.V., Parfenova E.P., Gudkov A.B., Unguryanu T.N., Gordienko T.A.
Abstract
Assessment of soil epidemic hazard in the Arkhangelsk region was carried out using the data of monitoring in 20072010. Incidence of geohelminthoses among the Arkhangelsk region population in 1995-2010 has been analyzed. The level of soil contamination by microorganisms of E. coli group in the urban areas was 10 times higher in comparison with the rural areas (<0.001). The Arkhangelsk, Kotlas and Holmogory regions were territories with high contamination by eggs and larvae of ascarids. Incidence of ascariasis among the Arkhangelsk region children (76.4 %ооо) was 9 times higher than among adults (8.2 %ооо). The highest incidence of ascariasis among children was registered in Kotlas (277.9 %ооо) and Krasnoborsk (256.8 %ооо).
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(4):3-10
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INFLUENCE OF CITY NOISE ON DEVELOPMENT OF IMMEDIATE-ONSET ALLERGY
Lycheva O.A., Galiev R.S.
Abstract
Peculiarities of development of immediate-onset allergy in conditions of city noise with mean intensity of 90dB have been studied in a group of experimental animals - sexually mature guinea-pigs. It has been shown that hypersusceptibility to city noise contributed to much stronger allergy in the experimental group of the animals compared to the control group. The dynamics was defined by shifts in the immune system and factors of body nonspecific protection. It has been revealed that city noise led to T- and B- lymphocytes content reduction in peripheral blood as well as to neutrophils’ inactivation. That is, city noise caused secondary immunodeficiency that increased allergy aggravation.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(4):11-15
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CONCEPTUAL APPROACH TO ASSESSMENT OF EXPERTS’ FUNCTIONAL STATUS IN THEIR PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY
Maslov N.B., Bloschinsky I.A., Galushkina E.A., Rogovanov D.Y.
Abstract
Based on systematic analysis of published data and our own data, there has been worked out and introduced a concept of neurophysiological processes that developed during fatigue, over-fatigue of experts in their professional activities. The concept serves as an objective base for dynamic assessment and prediction of the experts’ functional status and health. It has been shown and proved that transition from fatigue to over-fatigue reduced protective inhibition, the effect of "disinhibition" developed, and as a consequence, speed and mobility of nervous processes increased. Volatility and differentiation inhibition increased. With further intensification of over-fatigue, the earlier formed neurophysiological changes were strengthened. Later they were joined by an equalizing phase, and then by a paradoxical phase as initial manifestations of protective inhibition. Asthenic-neurotic states were clinically diagnosed.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(4):16-24
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HORMONAL STATUS AND DISORDER OF SEXUAL FUNCTION IN MALES WITH VIBRATION - INDUCED DISEASE AFTER EXPOSURE TO LOCAL VIBRATION
Katamanova E.V., Bichev S.S., Rukavishnikov V.S., Lizarev A.V.
Abstract
The hormonal and clinical-sexological examinations of 79 married males aged 29-55 years with the diagnosis of the vibration - induced disease from the exposure to local vibration has been performed. During the examinations, disorders of the hormonal status as one of the causes of the sexual disorder as well as the alterations in sexual constitution have been revealed. Dependence of the working period duration on the hormone levels, dependence of the degree of the vibration-induced disease expression on the testosterone level in blood as well as dependence of the level of thyreoid hormones on sexual constitution have been established.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(4):25-28
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INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON WORKING CAPACITY AND MEDICAL AID APPEALABILITY OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN OMSK
Akimova I.S., Gudinova Z.V., Blinova Е.G., Gegechkori I.V., Petuhova А.Е., Shcherba Е.V.
Abstract
Influence of weather conditions on working capacity and medical aid appealability of primary school children has been studied. The study was carried out as an experiment in natural conditions of a secondary school during 2008-2009. For the same period, medical aid appealability of the children was studied. The data of children’s sensitivity to weather factors (wind velocity, air temperature, atmospheric pressure and other) have been given. There have been proposed preventive measures for reduction of children’s meteosensitivity.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(4):29-33
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SEASONAL INDICES OF AIRWAYS PATENCY IN PRETEEN CHILDREN - EUROPEAN NORTH RESIDENTS
Zavyalova A.A., Shcherbina F.A., Smolina V.S.
Abstract
During a year, a spirographic study of one and the same group of healthy children (35 girls and 25 boys at the preteen age - residents of the European North) was conducted. It has been found that the bronchial patency at the level of large and medium-sized bronchi reached its maximum values among the children aged 11-14 years in a transition period from a warm to cold season (in autumn).
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(4):34-38
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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND PHYSICAL FITNESS OF STUDENTS IN CITY WITH BAD ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Artemenkov A.A.
Abstract
Cherepovets State University, Cherepovets, Russia In the article, physical development and physical fitness of students in the large industrial city of Cherepovets, the North-West region, with bad ecological characteristics have been studied. There have been obtained data on dynamics of weight and height characteristics of young men and girls aged 18-21 y. o., there have been worked out standards of the students’ physical development. It has been found that their height and body mass were changing with age generally in alignment. Deviations in physical development did not exceed 7.0 %. The level of physical fitness of the girls at the age of 18-20 y. o. was lower than the average level, and the young men’s physical fitness was at the average level. After the attainment of the age of 21 y. o., the young men and girls showed the observable lower level of physical fitness. The best results in physical development of both genders were detected mainly in the spring time. According to the Rufe test, the young men at the age of 18 y. о. showed the average and high working ability, and the young men aged 21, showed the average working ability. The girls’ working ability was estimated as good one.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(4):39-44
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PERCEPTION OF GROUP AND ORIENTATION TO INTERACTION OF STUDENTS OF MEDICAL HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION AT INITIAL TRAINING STAGE
Zashikhina V.V., Goldobina Т.А., Tsyganok Т.V., Pashchenko V.P., Lebedev А.V., Yushmanova L.S.
Abstract
Types of orientation to interaction and kinds of perception of a group in second-year students of a medical higher educational institution have been studied. It has been established that the type of perception of the group was mostly affected by the education level, the kind of orientation to interaction was affected by education success. Among the students, there prevailed the pragmatic type of perception of the group; at the Faculty of Dentistry, most students had dominating individualistic motivations. The collectivistic type of perception of the group was characteristic of the low-successful students. Orientation to a task prevailed in the students with medical and non-medical vocational secondary education.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(4):45-51
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APPLICATION OF ATC/DDD-SYSTEM FOR CORRECTION AND CONTROL OF ANTIBIOTICS USE IN TREATMENT OF PROSTHETIC JOINTS INFECTION
Bozhkova S.A., Razorenov V.L., Borisov A.M.
Abstract
We have studied antibiotics use for treatment of prosthetic joints infection before and after implementation of the recommendations for antibiotic therapy. The recommendations are based on an analysis of the structure and drug resistance of 938 strains isolated from 618 patients with periprosthetic infection who were treated at the Department of Purulent Surgery from 2007 till 2009. The Department’s complete antibiotics use data in the period from 2007 till 2010 were processed according to the ATC/DDD system and expressed in defined daily doses (DDD) per 100 bed-days. In 2010 after introduction into practice of the recommendations, it has been shown that the total antibiotics use was reduced and the spectrum of antibiotics with antistaphylococcal activity was widened. Besides, the DDD-analysis of antibiotics use together with microbiological monitoring of the leading infection agents allows to make an expert examination of medicine use effectiveness and can be used for optimization and control of antibiotic therapy.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(4):52-57
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STUDY OF QUALITY OF LIFE OF PATIENTS WITH PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS
Aniskina E.A., Makarova I.I., Strakhov K.A., Al-Daud S.D.
Abstract
The pulmonary disease reduces all parameters of quality of life. Using a questionnaire of WHO Q0L-100, there has been performed a study of parameters of quality of life in patients with fibro-cavernous and focal forms of pulmonary tuberculosis. Mean values of different areas of quality of life in patients with fibro-cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis were 2-3 times (p ≤ 0,01) lower than those in patients with focal tuberculosis. The patients in both groups suffered morally mostly. It has been revealed that tuberculous patients with a favorable clinical prognosis had a moderate decrease in the level of well-being and satisfaction with conditions of life. The analysis of the values of the exponent falsity according to the questionnaire by V. G. Norakidze (1975) has detected that all respondents answered the proposed questions quite truthfully, as values on the scale of falsity did not exceed 6 points. The results of the study of the parameters of the tuberculous patients’ quality of life can be used for targeted psycho-social rehabilitation with regard to the form of the disease.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(4):58-62
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Pyataya Vserossiyskaya s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem shkola-konferentsiya po fiziologii krovoobrashcheniya
Sherstennikova A.K.
Abstract
С 31 января по 3 февраля2012 года в Москве на факультетефундаментальной медициныМосковского государственногоуниверситета имениМ. В. Ломоносова проходила ПятаяВсероссийская с международнымучастием школа-конференцияпо физиологии кровообращения.Заседания проходили в новомМедицинском центре МГУ.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2012;(4):63-64
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