Vol 27, No 5 (2020)

Cover Page



Yahyaev M.A., Salikhov S.K., Kurbanova Z.V., Abusueva B.A., Luganova S.G.


The aim was to studyassociations between the Lead content in the environment (soil, water sources, food) and the incidence of hypertensionamong residents of the KiziLyurt district, Dagestan. Methods. An ecological study.Data on the incidence of hypertension were obtained from the documentation at KiziLyurt Central District Hospital. Assessment of Lead concentrations in the soils was performed by a mobiLe laboratory for environmentaL monitoring of the Dagestan State University. Lead concentrations were estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry at MGA-915MD, based on the extraction of an eLement from soiL sampLes and the subsequent determination of mass concentration. The Lead content in water and food sampLes was determined by the AAS method in the eLectrothermaL atomization mode on a contrAA 700 spectrometer (AnaLytik Jena AG, Germany). The data were presented as meansand standard deviations. Distribution of numeric data was assessed using Shapiro-WiLk test. Associations between Lead concentrations and the incidence of hypertension were studies using Pearson's correction coefficients. One-Way ANOVA test was used to identify differences between settLements in terms of Lead content in soiLs, water, and food products. Results. A strong positive correction was found between the concentrations of Lead in environmentaL objects (soiL, water, food) and theincidence of hypertension (r varied between 0.97 and 0.99). Conclusions. The higher Lead concentrations in the environment are associated with the higher incidence of hypertension. Lead in soiLs can be considered as an important factor for the deveLopment of essentiaL hypertension
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;27(5):4-10
pages 4-10 views


Kriauciunas V.V., Kuznetsova I.A., Kotova E.I., Iglovsky S.A., Mironenko K.A., Sukhanov S.G.


The Onega District is among the first ten municipalities of the Arkhangelsk Region with the highest incidence of neoplasms warranting radiological studies. The aim of this research was to study content and distribution of natural and technogenic radionuclides in the urban soils of the Onega municipality and to identify the main low-intensity radioactive anomalies as well as to provide an objective assessment of radiation risks to health of the local population. Methods: A total of 99 soil samples were taken in several parts of the town. Specific activity of radionuclides was assessed using a gamma spectrometer. Standard soil-morphological, soil-geochemical, radiometric, mathematical-statistical and cartographic methods were applied. Results. Color contrast of the soils in different areas indicates the preservation of their relationship with the parent soil. The values of the effective specific activity of natural radionuclides in soil samples ranged from 28 to 99 Bq/kg. Low-intensity radioactive anomalies were revealed for the first time in town. It was determined that the composition of the town's soils ensures that the effective specific activity of natural radionuclides is not exceeded for materials of classes I and II used in construction. Conclusions. The revealed low-intensity radioactive anomalies can be associated with the influx of radionuclides into the soil as a part of coal combustion products in the local heating stations taking into account the active use of coal combustion products by the local population. It is necessary to assess the long-term effect of low-intensity radioactive anomalies on the population. Further research should concentrate on associations between the epidemiological patterns of diseases and radioactivity in Onega.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;27(5):11-20
pages 11-20 views


Rybakov D.S., Belashev B.Z.


The aim of the present study is to assess the associations between weather factors, atmospheric air pollution and the number of emergency medical calls (EMC) and population mortality Petrozavodsk, Northwest Russia. Methods. Linear correlations between the monthly values of external factors, the number of EMC for people with cardiovascular diseases and the total mortality werestudied. Graphs of the long-term associations betweenmortality rates and pollutant emissions from stationary sources were constructed. Results. Longterm average annual temperature of atmospheric air increased from +3.1 °C (1994-2001) to +3.8 °C (2002-2017) and the frequency of northwestern wind (FNWWD) increased by an average of 29.5 % during the same periods. This wind direction is associated with health-related problems in the city related to the spread of emissions from stationary contamination sources. A strong statistical relationship between the annual amount of emissions and mortality coefficients (total and from diseases of the circulatory system) for the period 2002-2017 was observed. A temperature (seasonal) factor is statistically significantly (from p < 0.001 to p = 0.034) associated with frequency of EMC for essential hypertension, angina pectoris (2015-2017) and chronic coronary heart disease (2016, 2017). A positive correlation between FNWWD and the number of EMC for people with acute myocardial infarction (p = 0.015) and stroke (p = 0.011) for a three-year period (2015-2017) was revealed. Conclusions. The results of the study indicate the need to take into account the influence of weather conditions and air pollution on the frequency of emergency medical calls and the patterns of mortality in urban settings.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;27(5):21-30
pages 21-30 views


Davidovich N.V., Solovieva N.V., Bashilova E.N., Bazhukova T.A.


The problem of irrational use of antibacterial drugs and the rapidly growing antibiotic resistance can be viewed as an endoecological disaster and a threat to modern society. According to the forecasts of the World Health Organization and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the mortality rate due to infectious diseases by 2050 will constitute 10 million people a year and will join neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases as the leading causes of death. On the other hand, the development of antibiotic resistance is a part of the evolution of bacteria and their adaptation to new living conditions. Since the discovery of penicillinno antimicrobial drug has escaped the appearance of bacterial resistance. From the moment a new antibiotic is discovered until the first strains of microorganisms become resistant to it, 1-2 years pass, indicating a high variability and plasticity of the bacterial genetic apparatus. This literature review summarizes the evidence on the main evolutionary and pathogenetic aspects of the emergence of bacterial resistance ways to reduce the problem of antibiotic resistance. The mechanisms of action of both lethal and subinhibitory concentrations of antibacterial drugs on the bacterial population, aspects of selection of bacteria with an increased number of mutations, as well as methods for increasing the number of mutations of microorganisms due to the direct mutagenic effect of antibiotics, including oxidative damage, nucleotide pool imbalance and general reactions to stress are described. However, the most important mechanism for the evolution and adaptation of bacteria, including escape from the immune response, as well as the distribution of genes that increase virulence and resistance to antibiotics, is to obtain foreign DNA sequences from other organisms through horizontal gene transfer. Thus, the knowledge of the mechanisms of resistance can help prevent the misuse of antibiotics and become a critical step in understanding the ecology and evolution of bacteria and their symbiotic relationships with a human organism.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;27(5):31-36
pages 31-36 views


Kontsevaya A.V., Agishina T.A., Gambaryan M.G., Duplyakov D.V., Drapkina O.M.


Aim: to study the impact of anti-smoking measures within the Federal Law N 15-FL on the number of hospitalization of patients with acute cardiovascular conditions in the Samara and Arkhangelsk Regions and the Chuvash Republic. Methods: Monthly hospitalization rates for acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina were analyzed usinginterrupted time series by means of the STATA 15.0 software package, which includes the ITS module in three regions of the Russian Federation from 01.01.2012 to 31.12.2017, and by gender (men and women) and age (0-59 years and 60 years and older). Results. Reduction in hospital incidence after each stage of the anti-tobacco policy was obwerved in two of the three regions. In the Samara Region we observed a reductionby 16.3 % in 2013 and by 18.4 % in 2014 for unstable angina and by 10.6 % in 2013 and by 10.5 % in 2014 for acute myocardial infarction, respectively. In the Arkhangelsk Region the number of hospitalizations decreased by 14.3 % in 2013 and by 14.4 % in 2014 for unstable angina, and by 7.5 % in 2013 and by 7.7 % in 2014 for acute myocardial infarction. No significant decrease was observed in the Chuvash Republic. Gender stratification revealed a decrease in the hospital incidence of acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina in women in the Samara and Arkhangelsk Regions, and in men - only in the Samara region. The percentage of reduction in unstable angina was higher than in the acute myocardial infarction. An analysis of age groups in the Samara Region showed a decrease in the number of hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina in both age groups, and in the Arkhangelsk Region only in people over 60 years of age. Conclusions: anti-tobacco legislation introduced in Russia in 2013 and 2014 is likely to have contributed to a decrease in the number of hospitalizations for acute cardiovascular diseases, but the effect varied across genders and age-groups.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;27(5):37-44
pages 37-44 views


Agarkov N.M., Poshibailova A.V., Ivanov V.A.


Asthma is a common and severe pathology in children with a potential for life-threatening complications. The development of asthma in childhood is determined by a complex interplay between various aetiological factors. Air pollution is one of the most important environmental factors contributing to the development of asthma in children. This review summarizes the available evidence on the impact of air pollution on the prevalence of asthma among children in different countries. The increase in the prevalence of asthma in childhood correlates with the concentrations of particulate matter <10 microns, nitrogen oxide, sulfur oxide and carbon monoxide in the air. The results of this review are of practical importance for development of public health measures for monitoring and prevention of asthma among children.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;27(5):45-49
pages 45-49 views


Evstafeva E.V., Lapchenko V.A., Macarova A.S., Abibullaeva N.K., Evstafeva I.A.


Heat waves and increasing tropospheric ozone concentration accompanying global warming are recognized as risk factors for public health. The aim of the study was to assess the associations between atmospheric air temperature, ozone concentration as risk factors for life-threatening cardiovascular conditions in Southern Russia. Methods. An ecological study was performed. The number of ambulance calls (the monthly average for 2017 and daily for January, April, July and October) for acute cerebrovascular conditions, hypertensive crises, and acute myocardial infarction were analyzed. Data on mean daily air temperature was obtained from the weather reports (https://rp5. ru). The ozone concentration was determined by the optical method using an automatic gas analyzer at the environmental monitoring station in the Karadagsky State Nature Reserve. Spearman nonparametric correlation analysis was applied to study associations between the outcomes and the selected environmental conditions. Results. During 2017, the average daily concentration of ozone in the surface layer of the atmosphere exceeded the norm by 50-150 %s. The largest number of significant correlations between all recorded cardiovascular life-threatening conditions and air temperature and ozone concentration was detected in July (0,38 < rs < 0,79; all p-values < 0,05). In other seasons of the year, this correlation was somewhat weaker (0,43 < rs < 0,47; all p-values < 0,05). Associations between hypertensive crises and myocardial infarction and average daily temperature were found in January. An association between myocardial infarction and the surface ozone concentration was observed in October. Conclusion. The maximum number of emergency conditions occurring in the summer months may be associated with the synergistic effects of of high levels of ozone and air temperature.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;27(5):50-56
pages 50-56 views


Mironova A.A., Narkevich A.N., Vinogradov K.A., Kurbanismayilov R.B., Grjibovski A.M.


An increase in life expectancy is one of the main strategic objectives declared by the Russian Federation. Thus, an understanding of how this objective can be achieved with available recourses in the most efficient way is warranted. We propose an automated method for estimating the contribution of cause-specific mortaLity to Life expectancy. To iLLustrate the proposed method, we used the data from primary mortality databases in the Krasnoyarsk region - one of the largest federal subjects of the Russian Federation - and the data on the average population of the of the region from 1999 to 2018 from the Federal state statistics office in Krasnoyarsk, Khakassia Republic and Tyva Republic. A computer program "DeathAnaLytics" has been developed by the authors for automated calculation of the contribution of cause-specific mortality to Life expectancy. The main idea behind is to calculate an integral indicator that takes into account both the contribution of deaths from various causes and the absolute number of these deaths. The paper presents the stages of calculation, interpretation and a practical example. The use of the methodology presented in the article aLLows to identify the causes of death that have the greatest impact contribution to reduction of Life expectancy, which in turn aLLows to identify targets for pubLic heaLth measures that wiLL most effectiveLy increase Life expectancy of the popuLation.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;27(5):57-64
pages 57-64 views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies