No 10 (2020)

Articles
POLYMORPHISM OF AGT, AGT2R1 AND NOS3 GENES AS A RISK FACTOR FOR IMBALANCE IN VASOACTIVE FACTORS
Bebyakova N.A., Pervukhina O.A., Fadeeva N.A., Khromova A.V.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to identify associations between allelic variants of AGT, AGT2R1 and NOS3 genes with production of endo-thelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) in young residents of the Russian North without a history of cardiovascular diseases. Methods. The sample consisted of 286 young adults (116 females and 170 males) born in the Arkhangelsk region. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the AGT, AGT2R1 and NOS3 genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Plasma NO oxide and ET-1 levels were measured. Results. T704C polymorphism in AGT gene was not associated with the studied vasoactive endothelial factors. However, vasoactive factors production in homozygotes with mutant T/T alleles of C521T polymorphism in the same gene is shifted towards vasoconstrictive factors. The level of ET-1 in the group with T/T genotype was higher than in the groups with C/T and C/C genotypes (p = 0.006 and p = 0.04, respectively). Homozygotes with mutant C alleles of AGT2R1 gene had higher concentration of ET-1 as compared to homozygotes with wild-type A alleles (p = 0.012). Young men with 786 C/C of NOS3 gene had higher plasma concentration of ET-1 than individuals with C/T (p = 0.01) and T/T (p = 0.07). ET-1 was higher in the group of girls homozygotes with mutant C alleles, however no statistically significant differences were found. Conclusions. Our results suggest that the risk of imbalance in vasoactive factors in young healthy residents of the Russian North is associated with the increase in ET-1 production level, but not with NO level. The presence of 521 T/T genotype in AGT gene, 1666C/C in AGT2R1 gene and -786C/C in NOS3 gene increases the risk of vasoactive factors imbalance development towards vasoconstriction.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(10):4-9
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AUTONOMIC REGULATION OF HEART RATE IN THE YAKUT STUDENTS WITH DIFFERENT PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL STATUS
Stepanova G.K., Ustinova M.V.
Abstract
The aim was to study autonomic regulation of the heart in the Yakut students with various psychophysiological characteristics. Methods: A comparative analysis of the temporal and spectral parameters of heart rate variability was performed in 46 male Yakut students aged 18-21 years characterized by different levels of extra-introversion, neuroticism and trait anxiety. Results: The Yakut young men showed a high proportion of ambiverts (58.7 %) and a low proportion of students with neuroticism (56.5 %). Altogether, 67.4 % of students had high level of trait anxiety. Among the subjects with a low level of neuroticism, significantly lower values of heart rate and stress index were observed in introverts vs. extroverts. Significant differences in heart rate parameters were found between students with high- and medium- levels anxiety. The former have higher values of Mo, variation range (VR), SDNN, RMSSD than the latter. However, subjects with a very high level of trait anxiety (> 55 points), have significantly lower parameters of VR, SDNN, RMSSD, HF, LF compared with students with high levels of anxiety. Conclusions: The state of heart's regulatory systems of the students varies depending on the individual psychophysiological qualities. The most adapted to the environment are introverts with low neuroticism and introverts with high level of trait anxiety. A risk group includes extraverts with very high trait anxiety. A new limit of trait anxiety level was suggested (>54 points). Higher level of anxiety leads to stress which in turn may lead to breakdown of adaptive mechanisms.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(10):10-16
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SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN WORKING CAPACITY AND SERUM LACTATE CONCENTRATION IN LABORATORY RATS
Zamoshchina T.A., Gostyukhina A.A., Zaitsev K.V., Zhukova O.B., Svetlik M.V., Abdulkina N.G., Prokopova A.V.
Abstract
The available evidence on seasonal changes in work capacity and anaerobic metabolism is very heterogeneous. Animal studies contribute to better understanding of adaptive reactions of the body to various influences and can serve as a basis for the development of physiotherapeutic, pharmacological and other methods to increase adaptive capabilities of the human body to hard working conditions and environmental situations. The aim was to study the characteristics of the five-days working capacity dynamics serum lactate concentration in laboratory rats across seasons. Methods. Eighty male Wistar rats (220-250g) comprised the sample. Measurements were taken in the middle of each season. The working capacity of animals until complete fatigue was assessed in a swimming test at the same time of a day. Results. Working capacity in rats in the swimming test had the highest values in the summer (75.4 s) and in the spring (78 s), while it was the lowest in the autumn (47.8 s). The highest concentrations of lactate we, on the contrary, observed in the in the autumn. Conclusions. Our results suggest that the working capacity in rats is the best in the spring and in the summer, worse in the winter and the worst in the autumn. One may speculate that the genetically determined seasonal pattern of metabolic processes in the skeletal muscle of rats may determines seasonality in their working capacity.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(10):17-22
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UNEXPECTED REPRODUCTIVE EFFECT OF PROLONGED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES IN LABORATORY MICE
Zinicovscaia I., Ivlieva A.L., Petritskaya E.N., Rogatkin D.A.
Abstract
Nanoparticles overcome biological barriers, therefore, their mother-to-offspring transmission through the placental barrier or during lactation may have deleterious effects on development and survival of the offspring. The aim of the study was to assess exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNP) during pregnancy and lactation on cognitive impairments in the offspring in mice. This short report present unexpected findings on the effect of AgNP on fertility. Methods. Mice in the experimental group were received a solution of AgNP at concentration of 25 μg/ml in drinking water from one week before mating until the end of lactation. Mice in the control group drank clean water during the same period. The silver content in mice organs and tissues was assessed by the neutron activation analysis. The experiment to count the offspring was repeated twice. Results. In both experiments an unexpected effect was observed: in the experimental group the birth rate was approximately twice as high as in the control group. In the first experiment, 117 pups were born in the experimental group vs. 62 in the control group. The average number of pups per mouse was 4.68 (95 % CI: 3.875.61) in the experimental group and 2.48 (95 % CI: 1.9-3.18) in the control group, p < 0.001. In the second experiment there were 29 vs. 17 pups, or 5.8 (95 % CI: 3.8-8.33) and 3.4 (95 % CI: 1.98-5.44) pups per mouse, respectively, p = 0.077. In the samples of organs and tissues of the experimental mice and pups, the average silver content was 3.77 ± 2.03 and 4.13 ± 1.52 μg/g (p = 0.369), respectively. In the control group, the silver content in the samples of females and offspring did not exceed the background level of 0.05 ± 0.04 μg/g (p < 0.001). No difference in survival of the offspring was observed. Conclusions: We found a significant reproductive effect of silver nanoparticles in laboratory mice. These findings need replication in other studies. Further research on reproductive effects of silver nanoparticles is warranted.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(10):23-30
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CORPORATE WORKPLACE HEALTH PROMOTION PROGRAMS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Kovalev S.P., Yashina E.R., Ushakov I.B., Turzin P.S., Lukichev K.E., Generalov A.V.
Abstract
Corporate workplace health promotion programs include a broad range of activities supported by the employer and directed at health promotion and disease prevention among the employees resulting in reduction of occupational health risks and forming healthy lifestyles. Corporate health and occupational health are the most common terms related to health in a workplace. Occupational health deals with devising and implementing policy instruments on workers' health, protecting and promoting health at the workplace to ensure long and productive professional career in given occupational conditions. Corporate health is one of the components of the corporative culture, which in addition to reduction of occupational risks and general health protection of the employees supports health promotion, increase in productivity and forming an good image of the employer. A descriptive study summarizing best practices in creating and implementing corporate workplace health promotion programs in the Russian Federation was performed. The effectiveness of these programs in the leading Russian companies is also discussed. This paper was written as a part of the research on state assignment to the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(10):31-37
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CONSTANT POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION IN PATIENTS WITH VIBRATION DISEASE COMBINED WITH METABOLIC DISORDERS
Shevchenko O.I., Lakhman O.L.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess constant potential levels (CP level) in patients with vibration disease (VD) in combination with metabolic disorders. Methods. Measurements were taken in three gorups: Group I (n = 94) - patients with VD, Group II (n = 42) - patients with VD and metabolic syndrome (MS), Group III (n = 31) - patients with VD and Type 2 diabetes (DM2), Group IV (n = 14) - patients with DM2 and V (n = 50) - reference group. Data were analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk, Mann-Whitney tests and discriminant analysis. Results. In groups I-IV, the percentage of individuals with altered neuroenergetic activity was higher than in the experimental group (p = 0.001; 0.003; 0.01; 0.009, respectively). CP level in group I prevailed in the central, in group II - in the left central, right temporal, in group III - in the left central, central, in group IV - in the right frontal, central, and left parietal leads when compared with group V at p < 0.01. CP level decrease in the anterior cortex (frontal, temporal: 16.6 (15-18) mV, 14.7 (12-17) mV, 17.6 (16-20) mV respectively), and its amplification in the posterior (Central, parietal: 20.4 (16-25) mV, 18.2 (14-20) mV, 23.3 (17-28) mV respectively) at p < 0.01 was diagnosed in patients of groups II-IV. As a result of discriminative analysis, two signs were identified in groups I and III: the values of CP level indicators in the left temporal and right central leads. Conclusions. Disorders of neuroenergy exchange in patients with VD in combination with MS and DM2 are manifested by an increase in CP level in the centrotemporal areas, with DM2- in the frontal-central-parietal areas. The signs of neuroenergetic mapping in patients with VD, associated with the fact of DM2 presence as a concomitant pathology are: an increase in the CP level in the right central and its decrease in the left temporal leads.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(10):38-44
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ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG ADULTS IN AREAS WITH DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL RISKS IN THE ARAL SEA REGION, UZBEKISTAN
Yerkudov V.O., Zaslavsky D.V., Pugovkin A.P., Matchanov A.T., Rozumbetov K.U., Dauletov R.K., Esemuratova S.P., Nazhimov I.I., Puzyrev V.G.
Abstract
Aim. In this paper we present anthropometric characteristics of young adults permanently living in three areas with different ecological risks in the Aral Sea region. The main hypothesis is that the exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in early childhood combined with factor associated with Aral Sea disaster (ASD) may have consequences for body composition in adulthood. Methods. A cross-sectional study. Altogether, 33 anthropometric parameters including body mass, length, sizes of extremities, chest, pelvis, and skinfold thickness were measured in 320 volunteers (135 males, 175 females) born in 1990-1995 before implementation of measures for liquidation of the ASD consequences. The participants were divided into three groups by ecological characteristics of the place of residence: 1 - critical, 2 -relatively optimal and 3 - optimal. Numeric data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis tests with Mann-Whitney post-hoc tests with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Categorical data were compared using exact chi-squared tests for binomial distribution. Results. Young men living in critical area had significantly lower values for body mass, arm length, chest circumference, waist circumference, skinfold thickness compared to their counterparts in other groups. Women from the second group had significantly greater average values for all studied characteristics compared with the two other groups. Conclusions. Men from the most ecologically disadvantaged areas had signs of suboptimal bone development. The observed differences in arm length and the size of the major joints in men may by associated with the anti-androgenic effect of OCPs before and during puberty while the opposite pattern revealed in females may be partly explained by estrogenic effect of OCPs. Our findings are in line with the results from the literature on endocrine disruptor chemicals. Environmental monitoring and public health measures are needed to preserve and improve health of the population of the Aral Sea region.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(10):45-54
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MULTIPLE COMPARISONS IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH: THE PROBLEM AND ITS SOLUTIONS
Narkevich A.N., Vinogradov K.A., Grjibovski A.M.
Abstract
One of the most common but rarely discussed problems in Russian biomedical research is a problem of multiple comparisons. When a researcher performs pairwise comparisons of means in several groups the number of tested ststistical hypotheses increases leading to inflation of the alpha-error. In international scientific literature this issue is well-described and several solutions are offered. The aim of this article is to describe the problem of alpha error inflation and present methods for solving the problem of multiple comparisons. The methods suggested in this paper can be applied at the stages of research planning, data analysis and interpretation of the results. Bonferroni, Sidak, Holm-Bonferroni, Holm-Sidak and the Benjamin-Hochberg methods are described in details. We also present user-friendly examples for manual calculations as well as a description of implementation of the suggested solutions using SPSS software.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(10):55-64
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