No 4 (2021)

Articles

LIPID METABOLISM AND METABOLIC DISORDERS IN THE YAKUT POPULATION: A LITERATURE REVIEW

Sivtseva T.M., Klimova T.M., Ammosova E.P., Zakharova R.N., Osakovsky V.L.

Abstract

Extreme climatic conditions of the North with low temperatures and the traditional diet are responsible for development of a specific mechanisms of lipid metabolism among the indigenous peoples of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. The evolutionary patterns of lipid metabolism fixed in the genome in the form of polymorphic genetic markers are important for the development of regional healthcare programs for prevention of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to analyze the characteristic features of lipid metabolism and metabolic disorders in the Yakut population. A systematic review of the results of studies of lipid profile parameters and key candidate genes involved in lipid metabolism among the indigenous inhabitants of Yakutia over the past 10 years was performed. The available evidence suggests that in indigenous inhabitants of Yakutia, the indicators of lipid metabolism are not a matter for concern. Participants of the most studies have a high concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low concentrations of triglycerides and low plasma atherogenic index, which are associated with physiological adaptation to environmental conditions. However, changes in dietary patterns including increased consumption of carbohydrates and lifestyle changes including reduced physical activity and abandonment of traditional activities have led to the spread of metabolic disorders in recent decades. Prevalence estimates for the metabolic syndrome in the indigenous inhabitants of Yakutia aged 20 years or older vary from 4.9 % in men to 49.4 % in women in the Arctic regions. We also discuss the mechanisms of lipid metabolism and the role of LepR, LPL, CETP, IL6, PON1 genes in the development of metabolic disorders in the Yakut population.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(4):4-14
pages 4-14 views

Human-Nature Interactions Through the Lens of Global Pandemics: a Review

Budiman I., Kusumaratna R.K.

Abstract

The frequency of pandemics occurrence has increased, from every 200 years in period before the 18th century, to occurring every 10 to 50 years in the last century. The illegal and unsustainable wildlife trade, the devastation of forests and other wild places, and rapid human mobility were the driving forces behind the increasing number of diseases leaping from wildlife to humans. This article analyzes present human-nature interactions during COVID-19 and projecting future interactions after the pandemic, based on review on academic literature and reports from international development organizations. We found that global pandemic such as COVID-19 is altering human-nature interactions in three major global ecological issues: wildlife, urban emission, and land use. For wildlife, COVID-19 affects human perception towards wildlife consumption and trade, as well as animal conservation. For land use, COVID-19 makes countries reduced efforts for forest monitoring and conservation. For urban emission, lockdown/mobility limitation and physical or social distancing policies are proven to some extent resulted in better human-nature interactions that reduce environmental problems. Reduced emission occurred from decreased industrial activities and mobilities. But this positive impact on environment may end once COVID-19 ends and human activities return to previous pattern. Therefore, structural change is required to prepare a resilient sustainable development by continuing existing positive human behavior during COVID-19 as a new normal of human-nature relationships. It is proven to reduce emission and if it is continued, it can have long term impacts on climate change mitigation.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(4):15-24
pages 15-24 views

ORAL HEALTH OF THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF VAIGACH ISLAND, ARCTIC RUSSIA

Vorobyeva N.A., Kunavina K.A., Golubovich A.V., Vorobyeva A.I.

Abstract

Introduction: Environmental, social and cultural factors are the main determinants of human health including oral health. However, the evidence on oral health among indigenous people of Arctic Russia is very scarce. Aim: To assess dental health among indigenous residents of the Arctic island of Vaigach. Methods: All 14 children and 24 adults of the Nenets ethnic group permanently living on Vaigach island (Arctic Russia) were examined. The prevalence and experience of dental caries was measured using the sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth in permanent and primary dentition (DMFT, dft, dft + DMFT). Oral hygiene was assessed by Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHIS). Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was studied by y Оral Health Imрact Рrоfile-14 (OHIP-14). The data are presented as medians with the first- and the third quartiles (Q1; Q3). Results: A moderate prevalence and low experience of caries was revealed among children of the indigenous ethnic group (dft = 1,5 (0,0; 4,5), dft + DMFT = 2,5 (1,0; 4,0)). All 100 % of adults had caries with DMFT of 15,0 (8,0; 25,5). As many as 42 % had a healthy periodontium, 33 % had gingivitis 25 % had periodontitis. At the same time, the level of hygiene was good and with low intensity of gingival inflammation (median OHIS = 1,0 (0,3; 1,0). Periodontal attachment loss of 0-3 mm and 4-5 mm was observed in 75,0 % and 4.2 % of participants, respectively. The level of dental care was insufficient 13,4 (0,0; 61,3) %. The median total OHIP-14 score was 6,5 (2,0; 12,0) suggesting a good level of OHRQoL. Conclusion: Our results warrant development of activities aimed at promotion of oral health and OHRQoL and prevention of caries and other oral diseases of the indigenous people in Arctic Russia.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(4):25-29
pages 25-29 views

AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN BLOOD CONCENTRATIONS OF GLUCOSE, PROINSULIN AND INSULIN AMONG RESIDENTS OF THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC

Bichkaeva F.A., Kovalenko T.B., Bichkaev A.A., Shengof B.A., Tretyakova T.V.

Abstract

Introduction: Extreme natural and climatic conditions of the Arctic have led to development of a special type of glucose metabolism and its regulating links, although the evidence on age-related changes in these mechanisms among Arctic residents is still scarce. Aim: To study age-related changes in blood concentrations of glucose, proinsulin and insulin in residents of Russian circumpolar territories. Methods: In total 1 058 healthy individuals of both genders aged 16-74 years took part in a multicenter cross-sectional study. Of them, 629 permanently lived in the Arctic region while 429 were residents of the Subarctic areas. By age the participants were classified as 16-21, 22-35, 36-45, 46-60 and 61-74 years old. Concentrations of proinsulin and insulin were determined by the enzyme immunoassay methods while glucose level was assessed by spectrophotometric analysis. Between group differences in numeric characteristics were analyzed using Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction. Associations between variables were studied by non-parametric correlation analysis. Results. Blood glucose concentration increased with age. Among the 16-21-year-olds, higher concentrations of glucose was observed among Subarctic residents. Regional differences reduced in parallel with age. In the Arctic region, an increase in blood glucose in comparison with the youngest group began from 22-35 years while in the Subarctic region. The proportion of people with high glucose levels in age-groups 46-60 and 61-74 years was greater among the Arctic residents compared with their Subarctic counterparts (22.5% and 33.3 % vs. 14.7% and 27.9 %). This was combined with greater proportions of people in the AR with increased proinsulin levels (37.5% and 33.3 % vs. 24.7% and 28.8%) and decreased levels of insulin (57.5% and 53.8 % vs. 74.0 and 36.8 %). Conclusion: A gradual decrease in glucose utilization with age seems to be associated with a decrease in the intensity of proinsulin processing into insulin suggesting early depletion of the functional and receptor activity of pancreatic p-cells. The changes were more pronounced among the residents of the Arctic areas compared to their Subarctic counterparts.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(4):30-39
pages 30-39 views

SECULAR TRENDS IN THE PREVALENCE OF DISEASES AMONG THE RESIDENTS OF THE TERRITORIES OF THE ALTAI REGION ADJACENT TO THE AREAS OF FALLING OF SEPARATING PARTS OF LAUNCH VEHICLES

Kolyado I.B., Plugin S.V., Shoikhet Y.N., Bakhareva I.V.

Abstract

Introduction: Health of the residents of the territories adjacent to the space launches have been shown to be inferior to the national average. However, the data from the Altai region are scarce. Aim: To assess health status of the residents of the territories of the Altai region adjacent to the areas of falling of separating parts of launch vehicles Methods: All residents of the affected territories were examined by medical teams in 1999 (n = 1 929), 2005 (n = 1 213), 2010 (n = 1 016) and 2015 (n = 843). Overall prevalence rates class-specific rates per 1000 population were calculated. Secular trends were analyzed and comparisons with the reference population were performed. Results: The overall prevalence decreased from 4 400,5 - 4 406,5 % in 1999 to 3 932,7 - 3 941,5 % in 2015 (p < 0.001) with no clear trend. In 1999, the main contributors to the overall burden of diseases were diseases of the endocrine system (1 072,2 - 1 075,0 %), diseases of the circulatory system (526,9 - 572,1 %), diseases of the eye and its appendages (390,8 - 435,6 %), and diseases of the respiratory system - 318,0 - 361,2 %. In 2015, the most prevalent illnesses were diseases of the circulatory system (743,4 - 801,0 %), diseases of the respiratory system (668,3 - 731,5 %), diseases of the endocrine system (636,6 - 701,4 %), and diseases of the eye and its appendages (452,0 - 520,8 %). Residents of the study group had greater overall prevalence of diseases (3 932,7 - 3,941,5 %) than the reference (2 539,3 - 2,539,5 %), p < 0.001. The same was observed for the most classes of diseases. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of diseases among the residents of the territories adjacent to the areas of falling of separating parts of launch vehicles significantly decreased from 2015 to 1999 with no obvious linear trend. Women had poorer health than men. The overall prevalence of diseases and the prevalence of the most classes of diseases in the study group is significantly higher than in the reference population.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(4):40-46
pages 40-46 views

SECULAR TRENDS IN ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS IN EASTERN SIBERIAN RURAL BURYAT ADOLESCENTS FROM 2003 TO 2018

Rychkova L.V., Astakhova T.A., Klimkina Y.N., Dolgikh O.A., Pogodina A.V.

Abstract

Introduction: Monitoring of physical development in children and adolescents is an important public health routine. Recent decades have been characterized by a substantial increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents, although little evidence from Eastern Siberia is available in international literature. Aim: To study anthropometric characteristics of rural Buryat adolescents in Eastern Siberia over a 15-years period using WH0-2007 reference population to ensure international comparability of the data. Methods: Altogether, 344 Buryat adolescents aged 14-17 years took part in cross-sectional studies in 2003, 2008, 2011 and 2018 in Bayandai, Irkutsk region, Eastern Siberia. Height and weight were measured. The Anthro Plus software was used to calculate Height-for-Age and BMI-for-age Z-scores. The prevalence of stunting, underweight, overweight and obesity was calculated. Numeric data were analyzed using unpaired t-tests while categorical variables were compared using chi-squared tests. Results: The prevalence of stunting increased from 5.1 % in 2003 to 13.5 % in 2018. The girls were the most affected. The overall prevalence of overweight increased from 7.7 % in 2003 to 17.7 % in 2018. While no associations between overweight and gender were observed, only 2.0 % of girls were overweight compared to 9.1 % of boys (p < 0.001). Conclusion. An increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity is in line with the global trend, although an increase in stunting among girls warrants further research. Urgent public health measures are warranted to reduce the prevalence of stunting and to prevent development of obesity in Buryat adolescents.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(4):47-54
pages 47-54 views

INTELLIGENT DATA ANALYSIS IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH: ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

Narkevich A.N., Vinogradov K.A., Paraskevopulo K.M., Grjibovski A.M.

Abstract

Substantial amounts of biomedical data are being accumulated every year. Large datasets are accumulated in specialized repositories, electronic document management systems, medical information systems, and other repositories. Classical statistical analysis does not always provide opportunities for analysis of these large datasets; therefore, intelligent data analysis (IDA) is becoming more popular in biomedical research. This paper is an introduction to artificial neural networks - one of the most popular methods of IDA. An artificial neural network is an attempt to build a mathematical analog of the brain and mathematically simulate the transmission of a nerve impulse between neurons. We present an example of the application of artificial neural networks in medical research using SPSS and Statistica software packages. The article describes a medical research question, an example of a dataset and a guide on construction and training of an artificial neural network as well as interpretation of the results.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(4):55-64
pages 55-64 views

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