No 9 (2021)

Articles

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN BLOOD CONCENTRATIONS OF CYTOTOXIC CD8+ CELLS AND LYMPHOCYTE APOPTOSIS IN HEALTHY HUMANS

Stavinskaya O.A., Dobrodeeva L.K., Patrakeeva V.P.

Abstract

Introduction: Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes play an important role in a specific immune response via a lytic effect in relation to abnormal cells. The number of these cells greatly increases sin pathological states. In addition, an increased cytotoxic activity is a characteristic of the immune response of people living in the Far NorthTherefore, it is important to understand what function cytotoxic T-lymphocytes predominantly perform in healthy people in the North - cytolytic or suppressor? Aim: To assess associations between CD8+ concentration and immune response and apoptotic deaths of the lymphocytes in healthy individuals. Methods: Ninety-three healthy adult residents of the Russian North comprised the sample. Apoptotic lymphocyte death was studied by flow cytometry. FITC-annexine-V and propidium iodide labelled cells were detected. Concentrations of cytokines and apoptosis mediators were assessed by a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay. Neutrophiles, monocytes and phagocytic activity of neutrophils were studied in blood smears stained by Romanowsky's - Giemsa. The level of phenotypic activity of lymphocytes was assessed by double peroxidase labeling using monoclonal antibodies. The data were presented using means, standard deviations, medians, the 1st and the 3rd quartiles. All study participants were divided into two groups: with normal- (0.2-0,4 х109 kl/l) and elevated (more 0,6 х109 kl/l) blood cytotoxic lymphocyte levels. The groups were similar in terms of by age- and gender distribution. Continuous variables were analyzed using Mann-Whitney tests. Results: In individuals with an increased level of cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocytes in peripheral venous blood had greater concentrations of leukocytes (7.4 ± 0.49 х109 cells/l vs. 5.5 ± 0.23 х109, p = 0.003), lymphocytes (2.8 ± 0.17 х109 cells/l vs.1.8 ± 0.07 х109 cells/t p = 0.005), and mature neutrophils (4.1 ± 0.19 х109 cells/l vs. 3.4 ± 0.49 х109 cells/l, p = 0.013). No associations between the level of apoptosis of lymphocytes (AnV+/PI-) and concentrations of sFasL, TRAIL, TNFa, and cytochrome C were observed. Conclusions: Lymphocytes CD8+ in healthy residents of the Russian North perform mainly cytotoxic function, which is not related to apoptotic cellular death.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(9):4-10
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EXPERT EVALUATION OF MEDICAL CARE IN MASS RESPIRATORY AND ORAL INFECTIONS

Barinov E.K., Muzykin M.I., Iordanishvili A.K., Sukhareva M.A.

Abstract

Introduction: An increase in the number of citizens' appeals with claims to the courts regarding inadequate medical care warrants more research on this topic in Russia. Aim: To provide expert assessment of unfavorable outcomes in mass respiratory and oral infections and to develop an algorithm for forensic medical examinations. Methods: We used the data on 120 complex forensic medical examinations related to cases of inappropriate provision of medical care to people with acute respiratory diseases, acute bronchitis, acute pneumonia and acute infectious diseases of the oral mucosa (gingivostomatitis). We studied the errors and defects in the provision of medical care resulting in unfavorable outcomes. Results: We found that the recommended standards for diagnostics and treatment of the studied diseases were fulfilled in only 20.5 % and 23.9 % of cases, respectively, in infectious diseases of the respiratory system. The same time in 100 % of cases of the studied oral infections the standards were not fulfilled. Moreover, we present in details the reasons for the failure to fulfil the standards. Conclusions: We revealed the factors associated with violations of therapeutic, diagnostic and preventive routines and proposed an algorithm for conducting forensic medical examinations in cases of acute respiratory and oral infections.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(9):11-19
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Diertary Intake of Micronutrients in Non-Indigenous Womens in the Cities of Khanty-Mansiysk and Salekhard

Bikbulatova L.N., Korchin V.I., Korchina T.Y.

Abstract

Introduction: Healthy nutrition is an important determinant of physical and mental wellbeing. A significant amount of evidence has been accumulated on the effect of nutrition on health promotion, disease prevention, resiliance to unfavorable climatic factors, longevity and life quality. Insufficient intake of micronutrients is often combined with an excess intake of macronutrients, particularly fats and simple carbohydrates increasling the risk of developing chronic diseases. Nutrition of women is of particular importantce not only for the present, but also for future generations. Aim: To assess dietary intake of vitamins A, C, E, D and trace elements, such asFe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn and Se in women of fertile age in Khanty-Mansiysk and Salekhard, North-Eastern Siberia. Methods: A cross-sectional study. A total of 137 non-indigenous women aged 18-44 years living in Khanty-Mansiysk (n = 75) and Salekhard (n = 62) participated in a cross-sectional dietary survey. A 3-day diet was assessed by a questionnaire and the ASPON-nutrition software. Dietary intake of the abovementioned vitamins and nutrients were compared with the naitonal recommended daily amounts (RDA). Results: No statistically significant differences in the intake of vitamines and nutrients were observed between the two settings. Women from the Northen city of Salekhard had insufficient intake of Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn (70-89 % RDA) and Se in partlicular (49 % RDA). They also consumed insufficient amounts ofvitamins E (82-87 % RDA), C (62-73 % RDA) D ( 54-55 % RDA). We also oserved excess intake of vitamin A (111-115 % RDA). Conclusion: A substantial proportion of fertile-age women in North-Eastern Siberia have insufficient intake of vitamines C, E and D as well as Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn and Se warranting development of public health programms including activities to promote dietary supplements and food fortification to improve nutrition of residents in general and women in particular in North-Eastern Siberia.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(9):20-26
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ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS IN DIET AND THEIR ROLE IN IMPROVING PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE OF SKI RACERS

Lyudinina A.Y., Garnov I.O., Bojko R.R.

Abstract

Introduction: Associations between nutrition and physical performance among elite sportsmen have been extensively studied, although not all nutrients have been covered by these studies. For example, there is still lack of information on the levels of consumption of essential fatty acids (FAs) and their influence on the physical performance among high-performing ski racers. Aim: To study associations between consumption of essential fatty acids and indicators of physical performance Russian ski-racers. Methods: Thirty seven male members of the Komu republic team the Russian national team in cross-country ski aged 17- 33 years took part in this study. To assess physical performance, athletes underwent a test VO2 max, on the Oxycon-Pro ergospirometric system in the "breath-by-breath" mode. Indicators of oxygen consumption (VO2), oxygen utilization ratio, VO2 max, heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), anaerobic threshold (AnT), Watt/pulse were estimated. Consumption of different classes of FAs was assessed using the on-line service "Fatty acids in food items". Results: High variability in the consumption of difference classes of Fas was observed. Most ski racers reporten and higher consumption of n-6 linoleic acid and saturated fats compared to the recommended values. At the same time, consumption of n-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids was lower than recommended. Singificant correlations were observed between essential а-linolenic acid cnosumption and VO2 max and watt/pulse AnT in the studied sample. Conclusion: Our results suggest an association between the indicator of the efficiency of autonomic support for muscle work -the watt/pulse AnT and insufficient consumption of а-linolenic acid. The results of the study can be applied to optimize the diet and increase the functional reserves and physical performance in athletes.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(9):27-33
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DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION IN THE PRIMORSKY TERRITORY

Rasskazova V.N., Kiku P.F., Sakharova O.B., Volkova M.V., Tuchina M.E., Tregubenko A.Y.

Abstract

Introduction: Russian national demographic policy aims at increasing life expectancy, reducing mortality, increasing birth rate, and regulating internal and external migration to protect and promote health of the population. Aim: To analyze the demographic situation in the Primorsky Territory in the Russian Far East. Methods: A descriptive study. Secondary data from the Medical Information and Analytical Center of the Ministry of Health of the Primorsky Territory for 2009-2019, State report on the state of health of the population in the Primorsky Territory for 2017-2019; data of the Territorial Body of the Federal State Statistics Service for the Primorsky Territory (Primorskstatupravlenie) "Primorsky Statistical Yearbook" for 2017-2019 and data from the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation "Healthcare in Russia in 20112019". Absolute and relative values, indicators of a time serie were calculated. Results: The overall population decreased by 2.3 % from 2013 to 2019. The proportion of rural population decreased to 22.6 % while the proportion of the urban residents increased to 77.4 %. The total number of women exceeds the number of men by 4.4 %. The proportion of the population under the working age was 17.9 %, while the corresponding proportion of the people over the working age was 25.1 %. The proportion of the population aged 0-14 years increased by 0.14 % while the share of the working age population decreased by 1.38 %. The population turnover ratio was 23.2 %, and the share of natural decrease was 17.0 %. The birth rate has been decreasing every year and it was 9.6 per 1 000 in 2019. The overall mortality rate was 13.6 per 1 000exceeding the national average by 10.6 %. Infant mortality rate was 6.4 per 1 000 in 2019, which is 30 % higher than the national data. Conditions of perinatal period was the main cause of death in infancy Conclusion: Our assessment indicates that the process of depopulation in the Primorsky Territory continues warranting development and implementation of regional measures to improve the demographic situation.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(9):34-42
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CONCENTRATIONS OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES INTRACELLULAR METABOLIC REGULATORS IN RESIDENTS OF THE EUROPEAN NORTH OF RUSSIA

Zubatkina O.V., Dobrodeeva L.K., Samodova A.V., Kruglov S.D.

Abstract

Introduction: Metabolic processes controlled by cellular signaling mechanisms influence differentiation, proliferation, functional activity, and phenotypic stability of T cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a positive regulator of glycolysis. HIF-1 can be activated by an oxygen-independent pathway through the transcriptional activator STAT3. Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) regulates the activity of the mitochondrial processes. Aim: To determine the change in the content of metabolic regulators (HIF-1a, SIRT3) and the level of differentiation antigens of peripheral blood lymphocytes in practically healthy northerners. Methods: The sample consisted of 16 female and 12 male healthy volunteer residents of the Arkhangelsk region aged 23-60 years. The following parameters were measured: the total number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, the amount of CD4+, CD8+, CD10+, CD71+ cells by an indirect immunoperoxidase method, the content of HIF-1a and SIRT3 in lymphocyte lysate by an enzyme immunoassay. Cluster analysis of the data using "K means" method was performed to identify groups which are significantly different for all included parameters. Results: The ratio HIF-1a/SIRT3 in the group of individuals with the higher total number of lymphocytes and CD4+, CD8+, CD10+, CD71+ subtypes was 4,5 times as high as in the other groups. These findings suggest the predominance of glycolysis in cellular metabolism. Conclusion: The change in the ratio of mitochondrial metabolism and the levels of signaling molecules regulating the glycolysis pathways is important for the development of T cells. The study of signaling mechanisms allows to analyze in detail the T cell link of immunity, to search for targets and to carry out molecular-targeted effects aimed at levelling immune disorders through the correction of metabolism
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(9):43-47
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PERIPHERAL BLOOD T-CELL POPULATION (CD4+) IN MEN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC AND IN THE SEMIARID CLIMATIC ZONES

Kabbani M.S., Shchegoleva L.S., Filippova O.E., Shashkova E.Y., Rajeh N.

Abstract

Introduction: Climatic factors are important determinants of human health acting through different mechanisms including the immune system. Long-term exposure to extreme climatic conditions may result in immune response disturbances manifested by secondary immunodeficiency. Aim: To assess the concentration of T-helpers in the peripheral blood (CD4+) of men living in the extreme climatic conditions of the North and the South. Methods: Altogether, 32 men aged from 20 to 60 years from Arkhangelsk (Arctic Russia) and 30 men of the same age from Aleppo (Syria) comprised the sample. The analysis of immune parameters of lymphoid subpopulations of peripheral blood CD3+ (mature lymphoid cells), CD4+ (T-helper cells) was performed by indirect immunoperoxidase reaction using monoclonal antibodies. Results: A deficiency of mature T-lymphocytes (CD3+) was revealed in 93-100 % of the study participants regardless of age and region of residence (0,27-0,62 -109 cells/l). A reduced content of T-helpers (CD4+) was found in 52,9 % and 46,7 % of men in Arkhangelsk at the age of 20-39 and 40-60 years (0,34-0,43 -109 cells/l), respectively. The deficiency of T-helpers in Aleppo men aged 20-39 and 40-60 was found in 40,0 % and 6,7 % of cases. Conclusion: Severe T-cell immunodeficiency was twice as common in young men in the Arctic compared to the residents of semiarid climatic zone of the same age group. Low T-helper activity was 6,7 times more prevalent among the northerners than among the Syrians in the of the older age group.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(9):48-54
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GENDER VARIATIONS IN ELF-PRESERVING BEHAVIOR DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC AMONG THE STUDENTS IN SARATOV

Blinova T.V., Vyalshina A.A., Nozhkina I.A.

Abstract

Introduction: The role of human behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic is of paramount importance to control the epidemic. However, this issue has been little studied in Russia, particularly among the students. Aim: To study gender aspects of the attitude of students to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as their self-preserving behavior patterns. Methods: A pilot questionnaire survey in a simple random sample of 216 students aged 17-25 years (36.1 % men) living in Saratov was performed in November 2020. was Categorical variabes were compared using Pearson's cho-squared test. All statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 17.0 software. Results: The value of health was greater among the women than among the men. Women were more likely to report adhering to preventive measures. The proportion of women regularly using antiseptics was 57.4 % vs. 42.1% in men. The proportion of those who were not cautious about their behavior during the pandemic was 10.3 % among the men compared to only 2.2 % among the women. As many as 16.7 % of the men and 8.7 % of the women (p = 0.08) were so-called COVID-19 skeptics, who considered the risks to be exaggerated and denied the pandemic reporting that it was a phenomenon propagated by the media. Statisitically significant gender differences were observed for fears regarding potential shortage of medicines and personal protective equipment (p = 0.01), as well as in the proportion of those who were not afraid of anything (p = 0,01). Significant gender differences were also observed for the regular use of antiseptics, reflecting the readiness to take anti-epidemic measures (p = 0.01). Concluzion: Models of self-preserving behavior of students during the COVID-19 pandemic and gender differences in social fears as well aspeculiarities of the subjective attitude towards anti-epidemic measures should be taken into account when developing measures to protect the population during the pandemic.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(9):55-63
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Uvazhaemye avtory!

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Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(9):64-64
pages 64-64 views

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