Vol 28, No 11 (2021)



Pinaev S.K., Chizhov A.Y., Pinaeva O.G.


Critical periods of adaptation occur when ecologically determined critical periods, caused by a high intensity of environmental factors, and critical stages of ontogenesis, predetermining a low level of resistance to these factors, coincide. We present a qualitative synthesis of the literature on human disadaptation caused by selected environmental factors through the mechanism of environmentally related oxidative stress (EROS) linked to epigenesis, mutagenesis, and oncogenesis. As an indicator of deleterious effects of exposure to environmental factors during critical periods we considered leukemia, lymphoms, tumors of the central nervous system, embryonic tumors and soft tissue sarcomas among children. We present a method for calculating the critical stages of ontogenesis and their sensitivity to smoke and solar activity time series analysis on the associations between environmental factors and the incidence of neoplasms with estimation of time lag between the exposures and the outcomes. Moreover, we propose a set of measures to reduce the negative impact of the environmental factors during critical periods of human ontogenesis.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(11):4-11
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Sarf E.A., Dergacheva M.V., Zharkikh L.A., Bel'skaya L.V.


Introduction: An effective way to improve the quality of public health is to search for early, pre-pathological changes in the body under the influence of many technogenic factors, which will make it possible to make predictions of the pre-nosological state for the future. Aim: To assess the impact of the environment on the biochemical parameters of saliva in adolescents living in areas with different levels of environmental stress. Methods: The study involved 90 adolescents aged 14 to 16 years (39 boys, 51 girls), living in six administrative districts of Omsk with different levels of environmental pollution. Saliva samples were collected in the morning on an empty stomach, and the biochemical composition was determined using 22 parameters. Intergroup differences were assessed by a nonparametric criterion and principal component analysis (PCA). Results: None of the parameters measured in saliva can be used to characterize the area of residence. PCA showed that that the maximum contribution was made by electrolyte components, protein, and triene conjugates (TC). At the same time, the regions with the maximum differences in the studied biochemical parameters of saliva are geographically distant from each other. So, in ecologically unfavorable areas in saliva the TC level is the highest 0.954 (0.677; 1.019) c. u. and the chloride content is the lowest 8.4 (5.9; 10.6) mmol/L. The opposite trend is observed for ecologically safe areas: the TC level decreases 0.864 (0.792; 1.018) c. u., the chloride content increases 16.1 (9.7; 18.6) mmol/L. A combination of indicators of saliva was revealed, which allows characterizing the state of the body in an integral form. Conclusions: The use of PCA of biochemical parameters of saliva allows monitoring of the ecological situation in the areas of residence supporting the evidence from environmental monitoring in the study area.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(11):12-19
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Kutseva E.V., Filatova O.V., Voronina I.Y., Brynzova S.E.


Introduction: Eating disorders among Russian students remains an insufficiently studied research area. Aim: To study eating behavior of students and associated factors in a city of Barnaul in Western Siberia. Methods: Altogether, 1 000 students took part in a nutritional status survey. The Dutch Eating Behavior (EB) Questionnaire (DEBQ) was applied. Associations between eating behaviors and gender, education, wealth level, awareness of nutritional issues, marital status, subjective health status assessment, and EB disorders has been studied using Pearson's chi-squared tests. Results: Cluster analysis revealed 4 stereotypes of eating behavior (SEB): rational (SEB 1), predominantly carbohydrate (SEB2), hypercaloric (SEB3), and hypocaloric (SEB4). SEB4 (57.7 %) was the most common, SEB2 (31.8 %) was the second most common. Only 8.7 % of the students had SEB1 while only 1.7 % of the students had SEB3. A higher percentage of individuals with the restrictive EB disorders was revealed in the fourth cluster (SEB4). The probability of adhering to a hypocaloric dietary stereotype in individuals with the restrictive EB disorders was twice as high (Risk = 2.083, x2 = 152.05, df = 1, р< 0.001) as in the other groups. Conclusions: Diet of the students in Barnaul (Western Siberia) is poor in meat, milk, and dairy products. Most of the students had a carbohydrate diet model. Two thirds of the students adhered to a hypocaloric dietary stereotype. The factors associated with the formation of a nutrition stereotype include gender, economic conditions, marital status, self-perceived health and eating disorders.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(11):20-27
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Eskov V.M., Pyatin V.F., Galkin V.A., Chempalova L.S.


Introduction: Long-duration physical activity in winter is associated with significant demands for neurovegetative system. Aim: To explore the changes in the parameters of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurovegetative systems in men during a winter marathon. Methods: Parameters of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems of the group were estimated in 15 men after the winter marathon (50 km) using an automated computer-based system. Pairwise comparisons matrices of the parameter of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems before and after the marathon were performed. There were found the k numbers of pair samples that had a common general population. Results: Four matrices of pairwise comparisons were constructed and shown the increasing of the proportion of stochastic from k1 = 11 to k2= 13 for the sympathetic autonomic nervous system. Conclusions: An equidirectional dynamic of stochastic's proportion changes before and after the marathon is observed. For the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, the drop of chaos is observed, but we still can make a conclusion on the statistical instability of the samples.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(11):28-32
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Ermolitskaya M.Z., Kiku P.F., Abakumov A.I.


Aims: To study associations between the incidence of diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and socio-hygienic factors in the Primorsy region in the Russian Far East. Methods: Statistical analysis of the data was carried using 14 indicators for the period from 1991 to 2017 years. Associations between the studied socio-hygienic factors and the outcomes were identified using correlation analysis. To reduce the dimensionality in the data, principal component analysis was used, which made it possible to isolate two components that explained 86,82% of the total variance in the original data. The first component characterized the socio-economic, demographic and environmental conditions of human life while the second component contained indicators related to medical-social factors. All data were analyzed using R. Results: Strong inverse associations between the incidence of the studied diseases and the first component. Correlations between the second component and the outcomes was moderate inverse. Based on the selected components, a regression model has been developed to morbidity using the values of significant predictors. An increase in morbidity is accompanied by an increase in population income and a decrease in the population with a decrease in emissions into the atmosphere. At the same time, the incidence positively associated with the number of doctors and negative with the provision of hospital beds. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the incidence of diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs is associated with a group of factors that characterize the quality of life of the population.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(11):33-41
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Batyrova G.A., Tlegenova Z.S., Umarova G.A., Kononets V.I., Umarov Y.A., Kudabayeva K.I., Aitmaganbet P.Z., Amanzholkyzy A.


Introduction: Western Kazakhstan is a heavily industrialized part of the country with developed oil- and gas industry, mining, nonfer-rous- and ferrous metallurgy. The region is also a boron-chromium geochemical province. Climate change contributes to shifts in the microelement balance of the biosphere leading to changes in the microelement status of the population affecting its health and well-being. Aim: To study the microelement status of adult population in industrialized areas of Aktobe and West Kazakhstan regions. Methods: Hair concentrations of Al, As, B, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Si, Sn, V, Zn were assessed in218 men and 391 women with the average age of 44 years living in Aktobe and West-Kazakhstan regions. Hair samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The presence of an elemental imbalance was established by comparing it with the Russian reference values. Results: Concentrations of trace elements (P2.5; P97.5) Mg/gin men were: Al (1,77; 31,18); As (0,016; 0,126); В (0,812; 7,51); Ве (0,000; 0,003); Cd (0,004; 0,239); Co (0,003; 0,166); Cr (0,175; 1,60); Cu (7,67; 17,36); Fe (9,46; 138,16); Hg (0,029; 1,20); I (0,123; 18,79); Li (0,016; 0,607); Mn (0,193; 7,47); Ni (0,062; 1,23); Pb (0,080; 5,49); Se (0,301; 0,797); Si (7,82; 64,68); Sn (0,013; 0,393), V (0,006; 0,111); Zn (88,25; 363,02).Corresponding values for women were: Al (0,855; 10,42); As (0,002; 0,070); В (0,241; 2,85); Ве (0,000; 0,002); Cd (0,001; 0,113); Co (0,002; 0,644); Cr (0,121; 1,52); Cu (4,97; 25,31); Fe (9,00; 61,81); Hg (0,025; 0,764); I (0,120; 4,80); Li (0,004; 0,173); Mn (0,125; 16,90); Ni (0,046; 1,09); Pb (0,032; 1,05); Se (0,183; 0,768); Si (6,20; 52,28); Sn (0,010; 1,73); V (0,006; 0,092); Zn (79,41; 639,07). The most significant differences were found in the content of toxic and potentially toxic elements with an excess in men of Al by 72.8 %, As by 59 %, Be by 98 %, Cd by 63 %, Pb by 62.3 %, and essential and conditionally - essential: Li by 41 %, Mn by 30.4 %, V by 67 %. Conclusions: In total, 99.5 % and 93.9 % of the adults from the industrialized areas of Western Kazakhstan have V and Se deficiency while 79.8 % have an excess of Li and 65.1 % had an imbalance in Zn.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(11):42-49
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Zaitseva N.V., Zemlyanova M.A., Stepankov M.S., Ignatova A.M.


Introduction: Copper (II) oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used in various spheres of economic activity, which provides an increase in the global production of this nanomaterial and products containing it. The wide distribution of CuO NPs increases the risk of their pollution of environmental objects, which in turn can lead to exposure of the population warranting research on physical and toxic parameters of CuO NPs. Aim: Scientific forecasting of toxicity and evaluation of potential hazard of the biological action of CuO NPs for human health. Methods: Forecasting toxicity and assessment of potential hazard was carried out according to the results of forecasting-analytical modeling complexes of indicators characterizing physico-chemical, molecular biological, cytological, physiological and ecological properties with calculation coefficients of hazard (D) and incompleteness of data evaluation (U) of nanoscale CoO. Particle size was establishment by the method of scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area - by the method of Brunauer, Emmet and Teller, shape and surface character - by the method of image analysis using the universal software ImageJ-FiJi. Results: CuO NPs have an average size of 45,86 nm, angular shape, rough surface with a specific area of 17,70 m2/g. Solubility, charge, adsorption capacity and resistance to aggregation of CuO NPs depend on the pH of the medium. Nanoparticles of the studied material have the ability to generate reactive oxygen species, destroy cell membrane, disrupt functions of cellular ultrastructures, cause disruption of proteomic profile and damage of proteins, DNA fragmentation, which leads to cell death. CuO NPs have the ability to causing pathomorphological changes of tissues of liver, kidney, gastric and lungs. Have such long-term effects of action: genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, carcinogenicity. CuO NPs are used in many areas of economic activity, due to which the volume of production of this nanomaterial increases, which can contribute to the exposure of the human population throughout the country. Based on the results of forecasting modeling the coefficient of potential hazard (D) CuO NPs was 2.163; the coefficient of incompleteness of the assessment (U) - 0.03, which confirms the reliability of the assessment. Conclusions: CuO NPs are highly likely to represent a significant risk for human health. The results warrant more toxicological studies and further research on the effect of CuO NPs depending on the route of intake with the further going aim to develop effective preventive measures for the exposed.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(11):50-57
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Impact of Covid-19 on the Activities of Mediumand Small-Size Medical Enterprises in Kazakhstan

Kapanova G.Z., Kosherbayeva L.K., Kalmakhanov S.B., Akhtaeva N., Dauliyeva G.


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a rethinking of the processes in medical organizations. Managers and medical staff faced new challenges that needed immediate response. Aims: To study the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economic conditions of private medium- (<250 employees) and small-size (<100 employees) enterprises (MSEH) and to assess psychological consequences of COVID-19. Methods: In total, 45 managers (14 %) and 279 medical employees (86 %) of the 25 MSEH took part in a mixed-methods study. Qualitative interviews were conducted with MSEH managers in the city of Almaty and Almaty region. Economic issues and working conditions of the personnel in MSEH during the time pandemic as well as the psychological impact of COVID-19 were studied using a questionnaire. Results: During the pandemic period the respondents' salaries increased, but medical organizations are faced with a decrease in profits (P = 0.003) and substantial shortage of nurses (P = 0.001). All medical organizations developed a preparedness plan in collaboration with the emergency / pandemic outbreak team P < 0.001, with different scenarios P = 0.009, and roles and responsibilities P = 0.007. Anxiety and depression symptoms were greater among the managers compared to the medical staff. Conclusions: Healthcare professionals and managers of MHES in Kazakhstan face similar challenges as medical workers in other countries during the pandemic. Collaboration and teamwork can strengthen and improve the organization's outbreak preparedness. In addition, medical personnel and particularly the managers of MESH need psychological support.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;28(11):58-64
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