Vol 29, No 1 (2022)

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Full Issue


Preventive counselling of the population on smoking cessation and weight loss according to data from the "Know your heart" study

Kashutina M.I., Kontsevaya A.V., Kudryavtsev A.V., Maljutina S.K., Drapkina O.M.


AIM: To determine the coverage of smoking or/and overweight residents of Russian cities with preventive counseling (PC) on smoking cessation and weight loss and identify the associations of obtaining these types of PC with demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral characteristics.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted based on data from the “Know Your Heart” study (Arkhangelsk and Novosibirsk, 2015–2018, n=3234). The coverage of individual groups of the PC population was compared using the Pearson χ2 test. The factors associated with the receipt of PC were identified by using binary logistic regression. The quality of the obtained predictive models was assessed by analyzing the ROC curves.

RESULTS: Less than half of the participants with increased BMI received PC for weight loss. Sixty-six percent of smokers were counseled to quit smoking. Factors such as gender, age, self-reported health, and number of visits to medical specialists within 12 months were significant for obtaining PC. Socioeconomic characteristics, dispanserization, and the presence of other RF did not show statistically significant differences.

CONCLUSIONS: PC is an effective element of preventive medical care. The activity of the health care system in counseling the population from risk groups, especially on the normalization of body weight, needs to be increased. Particular attention should be paid to contingents of persons for whom the coverage was significantly lower.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(1):5-18
pages 5-18 views

Age-related aspects of myopia incidence in the European North of Russia

Zelentsov R.N., Unguryanu T.N., Poskotinova L. .


INTRODUCTION: Identification of sensitive age periods connected with a significant increase in newly diagnosed myopia, especially of medium and high degrees, is important to clarify the timing of medical examination and prevention of complications of myopia, taking into account age and gender in the European North of Russia.

AIM: To analyze the primary incidence of myopia in the age-sex structure of the population of the Arkhangelsk region, with the degree of myopia taken into account, to identify age groups that are potentially in need of medical examination and prognosis of the course of myopia.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis of the primary incidence of myopia of the population in the Arkhangelsk region for 2009–2019 was conducted. The source of information was the medical records of patients receiving outpatient medical care (standardized form No. 025/у) in 14,288 patients and information on the number of diseases registered among patients living in the service area of a medical organization (standardized form No. 12).

RESULTS: The largest proportion of cases of newly diagnosed myopia among the child population in the Arkhangelsk region falls in the age range of 7–14 years. The prevalence of new cases of mild and moderate myopia was revealed in the age group of 10–14 years in girls (56.4% and 61.0%, respectively) and in boys (53.5% and 54.0%, respectively), with a high degree in the age group of 15–17 years old (51.5% for girls and 51.9% for boys). The largest proportion of people that were newly diagnosed with myopia as adults includes those at the age of 18–29 years, both in women (35%) and in men (59.9%). At the age of more than 60, myopia was detected in women two times more often (9.7%) than in men (4.6%).

CONCLUSION. Increased attention to the detection and prevention of myopia among the population of the Arkhangelsk region should be paid among children in the age groups of 10–14 and 15–17 years old, in men in the age group of 18–29 years old, and in women in the age group of 60 years old and older, where an increase in the proportion of people with newly diagnosed myopia is significant. Such age periods, with gender taken into account, can be considered sensitive to the manifestation of myopia.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(1):19-26
pages 19-26 views

Сoncentration of sex hormones and dopamine in different groups of women in the Arctic depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

Tipisova E.V., Potutkin D.S., Elfimova A.E.


INTRODUCTION: The transition of the indigenous population of the North from a nomadic to a sedentary lifestyle leads to a change in a number of regulatory mechanisms, which can affect the reproductive health of the female population.

AIM: To study the state of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad system and the level of dopamine in women in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, taking into account the phase of the menstrual cycle and the fact that the women belong to different groups of the population during the period of rapid transition of aborigines from nomadic to settled life.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: This article is an observational, cross-sectional, uncontrolled study that examines the differences in sex hormone concentrations and dopamine levels between groups of nomadic and sedentary aborigines and the local Caucasian population in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. A total of 157 women aged 23 to 51 years were examined. The concentrations of the main sex hormones, the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), antisperm antibodies, and dopamine were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Statistical processing was performed using Statistica 10.0. Nonparametric methods of analysis were used because the majority of the obtained samples did not have a normal distribution (as assessed by the Shapiro–Wilk test). The threshold value of the significance level (p) was equal to 0.05. The significance of differences between groups was assessed using the Mann–Whitney U-test.

RESULTS: The differences between the groups were very similar in different phases. The follicle-stimulating hormone in the local Caucasian population was 1.5 to 2 times higher, and prolactin and antisperm antibodies were 1.5 to 2 times lower than in the aboriginal population groups, when 43% to 50% of individuals with dopamine values below normal were detected. Total and free testosterone were also lower in sedentary natives compared with other groups, and SHBG was higher (42–64% of cases above normal).

CONCLUSION: The features of the state of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad system, depending on the lifestyle, can contribute to the implementation of diagnostic and preventive measures while maintaining reproductive health in different groups of the Arctic population.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(1):27-35
pages 27-35 views

Self-assessment of health status and its relationship with psychological and sociocultural values in elderly residents of Petrozavodsk

Khyanikyajnen I.V., Burkin M.M., Molchanova E.V., Kruchek M.M.


AIM: To analyze the relationship between the subjective assessment of their health status by elderly citizens of Petrozavodsk and the indicators of their personal and sociocultural values.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Psychological characteristics, leisure activity, and subjective assessment of the health of 411 elderly people were studied through medical and sociological questioning. These people consisted of residents of the city of Petrozavodsk (men: 32.6% [n=134]; women: 67.4% [n=277]). The average age of the respondents was 64.43±6.57 years.

RESULTS: Elderly citizens have predominantly internal personal characteristics: responsibility (48.42%), diligence (41.36%), and accuracy (35,04% of respondents). Responsibility (p=0.021) and accuracy (p=0.017) significantly dominate in women, and courage (p=0.001), purposefulness (p=0.002), and efficiency in business (p=0.043) dominate in men. The prioritized ways of organizing their free time are passive forms: communicating with friends and relatives (24.09%), watching TV (20.68%), and reading (17.76% of respondents). Gender specificity is determined only in the following positions: visiting exhibitions and theater and concert performances (p=0.044), reading (p=0.008), and communication (p=0.041), with a predominance of women. A satisfactory subjective assessment of the health status of older Petrozavodsk residents is in direct proportion to their sociocultural values and is not associated with their psychological values.

CONCLUSIONS: Among the elderly of Petrozavodsk, a satisfactory subjective assessment of the state of health has a healthy significantly positive correlation with sociocultural values in the absence of a statistically significant relationship with their psychological characteristics. Responsibility, diligence, and accuracy are the leading psychological characteristics of the elderly residents of Petrozavodsk. At the same time, responsibility and accuracy prevail in women, but courage, determination, and efficiency in business prevail in men. The most frequent activities older people engage in during their free time are live communication, watching TV shows, and reading. Gender specificity can be traced only in the positions of “visiting exhibition and theater and concert productions,” “reading,” and “live communication.” These preferences prevail in women. The revealed trends of personal properties and sociocultural characteristics are associated with the health status of elderly people. These trends may be in demand for the construction of population strategies for medical, psychological, pedagogical, and social rehabilitation among this age cohort of the population. These strategies aim to prevent diseases and improve the quality of life within the framework of the concept of successful aging.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(1):37-46
pages 37-46 views

Health risk assessment of the population of the Republic of Buryatia associated with increased nitrate and nitrite intake

Bogdanova O.G., Efimova N.V., Bagaeva E.E.


AIM: To conduct a hygienic assessment of the health risk levels associated with drinking water with high nitrate and nitrite contents in the rural territories of the Republic of Buryatia.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The content of nitrates and nitrites in drinking water in comparison with the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) was assessed in the period of 2010–2019. With the use of the risk assessment methodology, non-carcinogenic risk (HQ) for adult and child populations of priority territories is calculated.

RESULTS: In the territory of the Republic of Buryatia, two priority territories were identified according to the largest content of nitrates in the drinking water of a centralized cold water supply system: Mukhorshibirsky and Tarbagatai districts. The maximum nitrate concentrations reached 4.52 and 4.11 MPC, respectively, which are 1.71 and 1.45 times higher than in the previous five-year period, respectively. A similar situation was observed in the non-centralized water supply system in these areas, with 4.98 MPC in the Mukhorshibirsky district (1.88 times higher) and 3.41 MPC in Tarbagatai (2.53 times higher).

CONCLUSIONS: The unacceptable level of non-carcinogenic risk due to nitrate contamination of drinking water at the level of the average centile trend (Me) is established for the adult and child population provided with centralized water supply in the Tarbagatai region. The HQ exceeds the acceptable level for children consuming decentralized drinking water in the Mukhorshibirsky district. The risk levels for children and adults due to oral intake of nitrites with drinking water of centralized and non-centralized water supply were not dangerous (HQ <1).

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(1):47-59
pages 47-59 views

Mental traumatization prevention of internal affairs bodies employees in biological and social emergency situation

Ichitovkina E.G., Solovyov A.G., Zhernov S.V., Gontar V.N.


INTRODUCTION: The performance of police officers in official activities during biological and social emergencies adversely affects their emotional state, reduces individual psychological resources, and can cause mental health deterioration. The police officers’ mental trauma formation is influenced by social, service, and personal factors. Therefore, for timely detection of negative deviations in mental health state, a measures set is needed to organize the medical, personnel, and psychological services offered by the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs to finalize the regulatory and scientific and methodological base to ensure their activities.

AIM: To substantiate the improvement of directions in mental trauma prevention among police officers in emergency biological and social situations.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Federal regulatory legal acts were analyzed, such as Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation, MIA orders for the period from 2012 to 2020, modern medical and social approaches, and recommendations on psychological and pedagogical support when working with police officers in emergencies.

RESULTS: Mental trauma prevention among police officers is represented by the permanent differentiated accounting specifics and their division into certain groups according to the involvement in the disease. The following groups were formed: those who have fallen ill with COVID-19 and are being treated in outpatient and inpatient conditions; and those released from official duties because of contact with the sick and continue to perform outdoor service in crowded places. A mechanism for police officers’ mental health state system monitoring using departmental electronic and digital resources for large-scale remote psychodiagnostic examination has been developed.

CONCLUSION: To increase the effectiveness of mental trauma prevention for police officers during biological and social emergencies, a measures set is needed for permanent registration and division into groups according to the degree of involvement in the disease, along with coordinated MIA medical, personnel, and psychological services interaction consistent with the specialists’ function differentiation and the regulatory framework to ensure the refinement of their activities.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(1):61-68
pages 61-68 views

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