Vol 30, No 2 (2023)

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Full Issue


COVID-19 vaccination readiness among Russian-speaking residents in Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan in 2020–2022: a scoping review

Radionov D.S., Sorokin M.Y., Karavaeva T.A., Lutova N.B.


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on the mental health and overall well-being of people worldwide. Vaccination is a crucial component in preventing the spread of COVID-19. However, despite the high risks associated with COVID-19, there is widespread disapproval and hostility towards vaccination and restrictive measures aimed at stopping the infection process. The spread of misinformation about vaccines, which has a long history as far back as the 18th and 19th centuries, increases distrust of immunization. This distrust is based on different beliefs about the origins of health and disease accepted in society. Vaccine skepticism is considered a global threat to public health and the achievement of population immunity against infections. Therefore, collection of data on attitudes towards vaccination within the largest possible number of social subgroups is warranted.

AIM: To perform a systematic search and qualitative synthesis of scientific information on COVID-19 vaccination readiness among Russian-speaking residents in Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan as well as associated factors.

METHODS: A scoping review was conducted to examine scientific articles published in Russian from January 1, 2020, to February 28, 2022, that reported on the attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination among Russian-speaking residents of Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. In total, there were more than 12,000 respondents in the selected papers that described the factors influencing the preparedness for COVID-19 immunization. The proportions of respondents who agreed, disagreed, and doubted the implementation of vaccination were recorded and used to calculate median values without taking into account the weights of each individual study.

RESULTS: Compared to many other countries, the Russian-speaking residents in Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan has demonstrated a reluctance to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, with 30% expressing unwillingness and only 47% indicating readiness for vaccination.

CONCLUSION: The use of theoretical models for describing health-related behavior is warranted to improve the quality and information content of Russian biomedical and socio-psychological research. This approach can aid in the development of effective interventions and preventive strategies for vaccine-preventable diseases.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2023;30(2):83-99
pages 83-99 views


Justification of the need for the system of medical support for high school students with enhanced mental abilities

Setko A.G., Zhdanova O.M.


INTRODUCTION: To fully realize the intellectual potential of high school students with enhanced abilities, it is crucial to create conditions that promote and preserve their physical and mental health.

METHODS: To scientifically support the system of assisting students with enhanced mental abilities in the face of risk factors within the educational environment, a one-stage study was conducted at a multidisciplinary lyceum for gifted adolescents. The study focused on identifying risk factors associated with the organization and intensity of the educational process and daily routine of students in grades 9–11. To further support the use of biofeedback in the school medical system, students were taught the diaphragmatic breathing technique. The effectiveness of this technique was evaluated through a comparative analysis of the functional state of the central nervous- and cardiovascular systems, as well as the psycho-emotional status of students before and after two weeks of functional biofeedback training.

RESULTS: We found that students were at risk for health problems due to poorly organized educational activities, high intensity of studies and neglect of health-promoting habits such as adequate sleep and walking. However, it has also been found that academic demands can enhance mental performance, albeit at the cost of increased stress on the body's regulatory systems. Therefore, it is crucial to establish a support system for students that addresses these concerns. One promising intervention is diaphragmatic breathing training, which has been shown to reduce anxiety and improve mental performance and adaptability in students.

CONCLUSION: Our findings have enabled the scientific substantiation and development of a comprehensive system to support students with enhanced abilities throughout their educational path. This system involves assessment of the psychophysiological state of students, identifying those at risk and those in good health, and organizing a range of corrective, health-promoting, and health-protecting measures. These measures are designed to enhance compensatory capabilities and psychophysiological reserves, as well as to strengthen students' health during the learning process.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2023;30(2):101-115
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Blood concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-pro-BNP) and the regulation of hemodynamic reactions in healthy adult Arctic residents

Dobrodeeva L.K., Samodova S.V., Balashova S.N., Pashinskaya K.O.


BACKGROUND: In previous studies, we have observed that the levels of Nt-pro-BNP in healthy individuals are lower than among patients with coronary heart disease and hypertension. Additionally, Nt-pro-BNP concentration increases with age. Interestingly, Arctic residents have higher levels of Nt-pro-BNP compared to those living in other northern territories.

AIM: To study the role of Nt-pro-BNP in the regulation of hemodynamic reactions in adults residing in the Arctic.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 111 healthy adults (66 women and 45 men) aged 46–55 years living and working on Svalbard, and in the Murmansk region comprised the study group. The comparison group included 118 healthy adults of the same age from the Arkhangelsk region (59 women and 59 men). Peripheral venous blood samples were taken. Hemogram and concentrations of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD10+, CD16+, CD19+, CD23+, CD25+, CD71+ lymphocytes were studied by an indirect immunoperoxidase reaction and a flow cytometry. Blood concentrations of Nt-pro-BNP, endothelin-1, total NO, endogenous NO2, nitrate NO3, cortisol, norepinephrine, epinephrine were assessed using enzyme immunoassay. Data were presented as means and standard errors of the mean (M±m). Depending on the distribution, unpaired t-tests or Mann–Whitney U-tests were used for all comparisons.

RESULTS: Blood concentration of Nt-pro-BNP was higher in the Arctic residents compared with those living in Arkhangelsk. Elevated concentrations of Nt-pro-BNP in the Arctic residents were associated with higher levels of norepinephrine and cortisol and lower concentrations of epinephrine and endothelin-1. Moreover, we observed a re-distribution of lymphocytes and monocytes from the circulating to the marginal pool. These features of the hemodynamic reaction were more pronounced among the Arctic residents and among women in all settings.

CONCLUSION: The effect of natriuretic peptide is associated with simultaneous activation of the concurrent activation of norepinephrine and cortisol secretion, which poses a risk of disrupting the body's mechanisms for maintaining a narrow range of osmolarity in the internal environment.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2023;30(2):117-127
pages 117-127 views

Effects of rotating electric fields on liver biopolymers: an experimental study

Vorontsova T.S., Vasileva N.N., Butolin E.G., Ivanov V.G., Isakova L.S.


BACKGROUND: According to the classic works of H. Selye, a variety of factors can impact humans and trigger a complex bodily response known as a stress reaction. This can lead to an imbalance in the body's regulatory physiological systems.

AIM: To investigate the effects of a technogenic rotating electric field (REF) on the levels of carbohydrate-containing liver biopolymers in experimental animals.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 54 rats were used in the experiment. The levels of sialic acids, mucoproteins, fucose, and α-L-fucosidase were measured in the liver homogenate before the study, on the 10th and 20th day of the experiment. To ensure accurate results, the rats were first diagnosed using the open field method to determine their stress resistance levels. Based on the results, the rats were then divided into three groups: stress-resistant, stress-unstable, and ambivalent.

RESULTS: By the 10th day of REF exposure, an increase in all the studied parameters in the liver homogenate in rats was observed indicating catabolic processes. Sialic acids concentration in stress-resistant, unstable and ambivalent rats increased by 14% (p=0.024), 29% (p=0.020) and 26% (p=0.021), respectively. Corresponding elevations of fucose concentration were 24% (p=0.019), 27% (p=0.019), 31% (p=0.019) while the activity of α-L-fucosidase increased by 55% (p=0.024), in 63% (p=0.024) and 55% (p=0.011) in the abovementioned categories of rates. Mucoproteins concentrations increased by 58% (p=0.011) in stress-resistant, 76% (p=0.011) in stress-unstable and 65% (p=0.021) in stress-ambivalent rats. By the 20th day of the experiment, decomposition of carbohydrate-containing biopolymers slowed in all groups. When compared with the 10th day 10, sialic acids concentration decreased in stress resistant, unstable and ambivalent rats by 12% (p=0.041), 17% (p=0.021) and 20% (p=0.011), respectively. Corresponding decrease in of mucoproteins was 26% (p=0.011), 33% (p=0.024), and 32% (p=0.024). Fucose concentration increased by 34% (p=0.024) in stress-resistant, by 22% (p=0.024) in stress-unstable and by 28% (p=0.010) in stress-ambivalent rats. Correspondingly, α-L-fucosidase activity increased by 15% (p=0.021), 46% (p=0.02) and 31% (p=0.011).

CONCLUSION: The study's findings indicate that technogenic REF can alter the levels of carbohydrate-containing biopolymers in animal livers, leading to the activation of catabolic processes. The group of stress-unstable individuals exhibited the most significant catabolic processes. Our results may have implications for occupations exposures to REF.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2023;30(2):129-138
pages 129-138 views

Corrections for geographical differences in photoperiod in time-series analysis

Ragozin O.N., Tatarinzev P.B., Pogonysheva I.A., Gudkov A.B., Shalamova E.Y., Pogonyshev D.A., Beisembaev A.A.


This article presents the results of the development of the corrections for geographical differences and photoperiodism in time-series analyses of physiological and demographic indicators.

the models were created using the results of the studies of biological rhythms obtained using the software developed by the author using wavelet analysis and photoperiodic stability of the chronotype during adaptation to the conditions of the North, shift work in healthy individuals as well as in subjects with somatic or mental pathology. We also assessed long-term demographic rhythms of the population living in different regions of Russia.

For standardization and ranking of interseasonal, inter-regional studies (physiology of movements and shift work) in chronophysiological format, we propose the use of the calculated "photoperiodic latitudinal coefficient". To improve the accuracy of the models, we propose the use of the "signal- noise coefficient" in the interpretation of the results, an assessment of the "degree of polyrhythmicity" and the "rhythm instability index" in the presence of "inserted" or "quantized" rhythms.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2023;30(2):139-149
pages 139-149 views


Analysis of the associations between urban infrastructure and population lifestyle: rationale, study design and methodology

Popovich M.V., Kontsevaya A.V., Oussova E.V., Zinovyeva V.A., Lopatina M.V., Drapkina O.M.


The creation of a socially comfortable urban environment is crucial for reducing health risks among the population. Numerous foreign studies have shown that urban infrastructure such as buildings, transportation, street design, public spaces, and access to resources such as healthy food, recreational areas, and places for physical activity have a significant contribution to the health of urban residents.

In Russia, the evidence on this topic is still scarce. Therefore, it is important to introduce the research methodology of the first Russian study on the associations between urban environment and population lifestyle. The aim of this article is to describe the rationale for the study, the study design, and the methodology of a comprehensive assessment of the municipal infrastructure that affects the health of the population. Additionally, the article will analyze the association between infrastructure and lifestyle to create a unified preventive environment at the municipal level. This will lead to the development of a comprehensive intersectoral health promotion program that takes into account the risk factors for the health of the population in a specific municipality.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2023;30(2):151-161
pages 151-161 views

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