No 9 (2016)

Articles
AGGRAVATION OF CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY IN DRINKING WATER OF BIROBIDZHAN IN PROCESS OF ION-EXCHANGE DEFERRIZATION
Polyakov V.Y., Revutskaya I.L., Surits O.V.
Abstract
Problems of drinking water quality in Birobidzhan are considered. The topical issue is its deferrization. It has been noted that drinking water in Birobidzhan is characterized by the naturally caused low content of biogenic elements such as calcium and magnesium. The objectives of the current work are: 1. to investigate the influence of an ion-exchange deferrization of drinking water in Birobidzhan on Ca2+, Mg2+ concentration and the total hardness of water index, 2. to analyse physiological adequacy of this water. Photometric and titrimetric methods have been used to settle alimony of the total iron, calcium, magnesium and the total hardness of water index drinking water tests. It has been testified that the total iron concentration in two groups of tests is higher than maximum marginal value and is 0.51±0.04 mg/dm3 and 1.92±0.14 mg/dm3. Water purification by means of household filters and its deferrization by cation exchange resin KU-2-8chS and cation exchange resin Purolite C100E resulted in reduction of the total iron concentration with value lower than maximum allowable concentration. However, calcium and magnesium concentrations considerably decreased after deferrization as well, from initial C(Ca2+) = 16.31±1.79 mg/dm3 and C(Mg2+) = 4.67±0.70 mg/dm3, to C(Ca2+) = 3.19±0.48 mg/dm3 and C(Mg2+) = 1.21±0.30 mg/dm3. The total hardness decreased from 0.84±0.08 mg-equivalent/dm3 to 0.13±0.01 mg-equivalent/dm3. The study showed physiological inadequacy of such low harness drinking water.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(9):3-9
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ASSOCIATION OF POLYMORPHIC LOCI HSP1A GENES WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHRONIC MERCURY INTOXICATION
Chernyak Y.I.
Abstract
The present study investigated the association between polymorphic variants of HSP1A genes (HSP70 gene family) and chronic mercury intoxication (CMI) development in 87 workers of caustic soda production plant, who have been chronically exposed to mercury vapor. The polymorphic loci HSPA1B (+1267A/G и +2074G/C) and HSP1AL (+2437T/C) were studied. Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP and logistic regression analysis was used for three genetic models for the investigation of the required associations. We found that frequency of genotype GG HSPA1B (+1267A/G) in group of patients with CMI (n = 45) was higher (p = 0.003) compared with the group of workers without the disease (n = 42). Recessive genetic model found a strong association of the homozygous GG genotype for rare allele with the development of CMI (OR = 13.26, p = 0.001). The obtained associations indicate that the HSPA1 could be important in mechanisms of CMI development and progression and help to develop the criteria for assessing individual's susceptibility to its development.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(9):10-14
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HEMODYNAMICS STATE IN «MOTHER-PLACENTA-FETUS» SYSTEM OF PREGNANT SMOKERS
Gryzunova E.M., Sovershaeva S.L., Soloviev A.G., Kazakevich E.V., Chumakova G.N., Kotlov A.P., Kiseleva L.G., Kharkova O.A.
Abstract
Smoking is one of the risk factors in the disturbance development in the "mother-placenta-fetus" system which serves as one of the major preventable factors of pregnancy unsuccessful outcome for both mother and fetus. In order to identify characteristics of hemodynamic status of "mother-placenta-fetus" system in smoking pregnant women the analysis of physiological indicators of Doppler ultrasound had been done by means of the of uteroplacental, fetoplacental and fetal blood flow assessment. The study included 120 pregnant women of Northern Medical Clinical Center named after N. A. Semashko of Russian Federal Medical and Biological Agency at 30-34 weeks' gestation period (group of smokers - 80 people and non-smokers - 40 people); 85.0% of pregnant smokers have a slight degree of nicotine dependence, 5.0% - a moderate, and 10.0% - strong according to Fagerstrem's test; smoking history was 10,6 ± 3,9 years. Changes in the feto-placental blood flow predominate in the group of the pregnant smoking women. It is indicated by the systolic-diastolic ratio and resistance index, reflecting the kind of "brain protection effect of the fetus" and occurred in Doppler signs of increased blood flow in the middle cerebral fetal artery, against decrease of blood flow in the umbilical artery. The necessity is justified to spend additional Doppler study of utero-placental, feto-placental and fetal blood flow to identify compensatory changes in placenta blood vessels, umbilical cord and forecasting the development of hypoxia in the fetus of vascular origin, during the third ultrasound screening of smoking pregnant women.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(9):15-20
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PECULIARITIES OF MORPHOFUNCTIONAL PROFILES AND INTERSYSTEM RELATIONS OBSERVED IN YOUNG MALE NORTH-BORN RESIDENTS WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF VEGETATIVE REGULATION
Averyanova I.V., Maksimov A.L.
Abstract
320 European young males born in the northeast of Russia took park in the study. All the examinees were divided into three groups depending on original type of vegetative regulation to study physical development, hemodynamic, gas analysis, external respiration functioning, and heart rate variability indices. The examined subjects of the three groups proved to have their autoregulation mechanisms stressed. The stress was more pronounced in the individuals with sympathicotonic regulation in the heart rate. Our study revealed that, type of vegetative regulation not only ascertains difference in heart rate variability parameters, but also relates to morphofunctional indices. Besides, depending upon their type of vegetative regulation, the young male subjects have their specific morphofunctional profile which structure is determined by a number of statistically informative indices integrated into a certain series of factors. Of note that, structures of morphofunctional portraits enable to assess dynamics of adaptation change developments among north-born young males. The changes in the matrix structure towards vagotonic specific area testify to higher adaptabilities that the examined subjects have acquired.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(9):21-29
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CURRENT ASPECTS OF FUNCTIONAL HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY STUDYING (LITERATURE REVIEW)
Ignatova J.P., Makarova I.I., Zenina O.J., Aksenova A.V.
Abstract
According to the classical and modern concepts the organization of functional hemispheric asymmetry is an interesting issue for different specialists. This article reviews current data on fixed and dynamic properties of the cerebral hemispheres functional specialization. The article covers the issues of functional insufficiency of hemispheric interrelations associated with some diseases, gives comparative analysis of parameters of social and psychological adaptation of individuals with one-hemisphere dominance, and presents features of lateralization of brain function in healthy males and females and those with pathology. The authors emphasize the leading role of the corpus collosum in hemispheric interrelations, reveal the features of hemispheric asymmetry of right-handed and left-handed individuals based on interaction of the cortex and the brain regulatory systems during quiet wake, dynamism and falling asleep. The article also focuses on the features of brain function lateralization of some athletes and hemispheric interrelations in different phases of desynchronosis and during organism ageing in normal and stressful ecological conditions. The authors address the issue of the relationship of pregnancy and the brain lateralization, as well as the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres with the asymmetry of the autonomic nervous system.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(9):30-39
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BRAIN ENERGY STATE IN ELDERLY WOMEN LIVING IN THE NORTH
Deputat I.S., Gribanov A.V., Nekhoroshkova A.N., Startseva L.F., Bolshevidceva I.L.
Abstract
The article presents the results of a study of brain energy metabolism in elderly women living in the North. The assessment was carried out by registering brain constant potential. The level of constant potential was analyzed using a 12-channel hardware and software diagnostic complex "Neyroenergometr-coms" in the unipolar leads. Obtained characteristics of constant potential distribution were compared with the average reference information of the respective age period, built in the complex software. The study revealed changes in the level of constant potential distribution in all parts of the brain in elderly women living in the North, compared with reference values. It is stated in rising of constant potential consolidate figures, all leads absolute values which can be estimated as ecologic adaptation to the northern conditions. Rising of brain constant potential level in elderly women-northerners in comparison with reference values is implemented by means of its growth in all spheres that shows brain functional stress and loss of space capacity. We also found the principle of conservation of the dome-shaped distribution of brain constant potential in the elderly northerners, with a tendency to deformation; relative decrease of the hemispheric differences and high interindividual variability of constant potential data; regional leveling that can be connected to decrease of cortex specialty in aging process
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(9):40-45
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EPIDEMIOLOGIC RISK ASSESSMENT OF CHILDREN’S MORBIDITY FROM ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE
Prusakova A.V., Prusakov V.M.
Abstract
The purpose of the work is a comparative characteristic of indicators efficiency of relative epidemiological risk of primary and general incidence in estimating medico-ecological situation and mass non-communicable diseases of the population. To achieve the goals and tasks a retrospective study of the child's incidence in the years 2000-2012 was carried out in the 33 administrative territories of the Irkutsk region based on the statistical reporting (Form №12). The relative risk of primary and general morbidity of all diseases and of 11 separate classes was calculated using regional background incidence rates obtained by the statistics. The intensity degree of medico-ecological situation on the territory was determined by the varied criteria on the basis of sigma - deviations, waviness and tendencies of dynamics development of incidence relative risks in time were revealed by a smoothed method of sliding simple average values for 3 years and according to polynomial approximation of the 5th order. The research was carried out in 5 cities with the developed industry and 5 nonindustrial areas. The analysis of the average, increased and high risk rates of the general and primary diseases incidence of separate classes in children during the considered period on the territory of the industrial cities and nonindustrial areas has shown that we gain a better understanding about a degree of medico-ecological situation intensity in the studied territories when sharing risk indicators of the general and primary incidence. Undulating risk dynamics of general and primary morbidity in the period under review differ depending on the area, the class of illnesses and morbidity. This reflects the particular cyclical fluctuations of states with respect to low and high resistance to the pathogenic factor effects. Joint use of the risk indicators of primary and general child's morbidity is necessary to carry out while analyzing data of social and hygiene monitoring to assess the intensity degree of medical and ecological situation and mass (with higher and high risk levels) non-communicable morbidity.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(9):46-56
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ECOLOGICAL STUDIES IN MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH
Kholmatova K.K., Grjibovski A.M.
Abstract
In this article we present the main methodological principles of planning and performing ecological (correlation) studies as well as the principles of statistical analysis of data obtained in ecological studies. The theoretical background of this study design, its main advantages and disadvantages are presented. We also describe research questions that can be studied using ecological study design. Step by step instructions for statistical data analysis using free online calculators are presented. Correlation coefficients and their interpretation are described using example from real studies. Examples of ecological studies from the literature including examples from the Arkhangelsk region are presented.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(9):57-64
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