No 5 (2016)

Articles
SOIL POLLUTION FROM TOXINS OF THE VOLGA RIVER SHORELAND IN THE AREA OF CHEBOKSARY HYDROPOWER STATION
Ivanov S.A., Dmitrieva O.F., Kulmakova N.I., Dimitriev Y.O.
Abstract
Strategic aim is: 1) to identify soil pollution from toxins of the Volga river shoreland in the cities of Cheboksary, Novocheboksarsk, Mariinsky Posad, located just beside of the Cheboksary hydropower station; 2) to compare soil pollution with maximum allowable concentration (MAC). Content of inorganic toxins in the soil was defined by the method of atomic absorption analysis, the content of benzpyrene - by high performance liquid chromatography, formaldehyde - by photometric method, benzene - be gas chromatography. Content of lead, mercury, benzpyrene and formaldehyde in the soil exceeded MAC level of the Volga right bank in Cheboksary city. Benzpyrene had the most significant excess of MAC, 2.3 times higher than acceptable level. Lead content was 41.1 % higher, formaldehyde - 30 % higher. MAC excess of lead, benzopyrene and formaldehyde in the soil of Novocheboksarsk area was registered. Lead MAC level was 27.1 % higher on the right bank and 3% on the left, benzopyrene, 39.4% and 28.6 %, formaldehyde - 12.5% and 5.4 %. Mercury content in the soil on both banks was equal to maximum concentration limit. There excess of MAC limit of lead, benzopyrene and formaldehyde in the soil was identified in the area of Mariinsky Posad on both banks of the Volga river. Lead œntent in the soil of the right bank was higher - 24.7 %, benzopyrene - 41.4 %, formaldehyde - by 4.1 %. Toxins content in the soil of the left bank exceeded maximum concentration limit by 8.1 %, 41, 2 % and 2.8 %, respectively. One might assume that Cheboksary hydropower station increases soil pollution of Cheboksary shoreland. Special activities are to be carried out in order to reduce anthropic impact on soil in the area of hydropower station.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(5):3-8
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LOW-INTENSITY RADIOACTIVE ANOMALIES IN ARKHANGELSK CITY
Kriauchiunas V.V., Iglovsky S.A., Shakhova E.V., Liubas A.A., Kuznetsova I.A.
Abstract
The goal of the research is to find out the main low-intensity radioactive anomalies as the main probable source of human light irradiation in Arkhangelsk city; give an objective estimation of radiation risks and potential health damage of the local population. Avtogamma-spectrometric method, using a mobile radiation monitoring system RS-700 was firstly used in the city. It allows to measure both natural and artificial radionuclides in real time geo-referenced. Ground gamma survey method with geological prospecting scintillation radiometer SRP-88H has been used for specification of obtained results. Soil sampling has been selected in each city block with further definition of radionuclides specific activity in the gamma spectrometer counting sample "Progress". A unique set of data on the radioactive level and the specific activity of 137Cs, 40K, 232Th, 226Ra in the soil have been collected as a part of the radio-ecological study. Nine local low-intensity anomalies have been revealed and their genesis has been set. The comparative comprehensive assessment of low doses ionizing radiation on human health has been done. Possible ways of further medical and environmental research in the field of oncological diseases and radioactivity study in the city of Arkhangelsk have been planned.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(5):9-16
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GENE POLYMORPHISMS, MERCURY CONCENTRATION, AND CYTOGENETIC DAMAGE IN THE INHABITANTS OF THE MERCURY ORE MININING AND RECYCLING AREA
Ilyinskikh N.N., Ilyinskikh E.N., Ilyinskikh I.N., Gvozdareva O.V.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between the frequency of cytogenetically damaged lymphocytes, glutathione- S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphisms, and mercury concentrations in the peripheral blood of mercury industry workers as well as an non-exposed local population (control group) of Aktash village, the Republic of Altay. The venous blood samples were obtained from 184 workers and 156 controls for chromosome assay, mercury blood concentration analysis, and the GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphism assessment by a polymerase chain reaction approach. Statistical analyses were carried out using Student's t-test, one-way ANOVA, or linear multiple regression. We demonstrated a significant increase in the frequency of lymphocytes with aneuploidy and polyploidy in the workers as compared with the controls (p < 0.001). The highest levels of aneuploidal and polyploidal lymphocytes were determined in the subgroup of workers with double null GSTM1(0)/GSTT1(0) genotype (p<0.01 or p < 0.05). The study revealed significant relationship between the levels of hypoploidal and polyploidal lymphocytes according to GSTM1 or GSTT1 genotypes and mercury concentrations (p<0.001). In addition, we found no difference in the levels of chromatid and chromosome aberrations according to GSTM1 or GSTT1 genotypes (p > 0.05).
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(5):17-23
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HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED PRODUCTION OF ROLLED-ROOFING MATERIAL
Kirjushin V.A., Ozol M.N.
Abstract
The article presents the results of workplaces certification on the Joint-Stock Company "Diversified manufacturing company "KRZ" according to working conditions. The company deals with computer-aided production of rolled- roofing materials. Content of chemical substances and aerosols of fibrogenic action in the air of working zones, as well as industrial noise levels, artificial light, microclimate, workflow severity and intensity in the shops of rolled-roofing and waterproofing materials and paper and paperboard production of the enterprise have been estimated. According to the results of hygienic investigation most of working environment was harmful (class 3 1-2 degrees). Workers of major technical professions such as operators of dipping units, turbomixers operators, bitumen unwatering operators, papermaking sorters, cardboard machine (CBM) operators, CBM couchers, CBM machinists, CBM drying operators were exposed to a complex of environment factors, the most unfavorable of which are chemical, microclimate and severity of labor process. Our recommendations for improving working conditions are to introduce technological measures: mechanization of beating-engines and thickeners cleaning, talcose emulsification, modernization of winding and wet-tissue packaging machines. Space-planning decision is isolation of automated production lines for rolled roofing material. The plan for sanitary-hygienic measures includes hoods installation on the dry end of the production line, use of the hydrodedusting system, equipment of local artificial lighting according to the workplace sanitary standards, organization of work and rest schedule with double shift work and two weekends. As mandatory respiratory protective equipment - respirators SHB-1 "Lepestok™-5" are recommended; organs of vision protective equipment - goggles; skin - hand protection water-repellant cream, hand cleansing paste, silicone hand cream; work clothing - bitumen protection cotton suit with coated fabric laps; canvas gloves.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(5):24-29
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POSTURAL-MOTOR CONTROL CHARACTERISTICS IN OLDER FEMALE FALLERS
Dyomin A.V., Moroz T.P., Gribanov A.V., Torshin V.I.
Abstract
The paper presents data on the characteristics of a postural-motor control (PMC) in female fallers 65-74 years old (twice or more fallers during a year). Evaluation of PMC parameters was carried out using computer posturographic (stabilometric) complex «Balance Master». «Sit to stand» test analysis showed a rate decrease in the average rise index (p = 0,009) and a rate increase in the average speed of the gravity center (GC) oscillation (p = 0,003) in older women with F. Comparative evaluation of the test «Walk Across» found a decline in the average step length (p = 0,042) and the average speed of walking (p = 0,029) in the surveyed female fallers. Characteristics of the test «Tandem Walk» showed a rate decrease in the average final GC oscillation (p <0,001), which indicates the changes in neurophysiological mechanisms that provide precise movements in female fallers aged 65-74 years old. There was a significant change in all the rates of the test «Step/Quick Turn» in the surveyed female fallers, indicating a reduction of adaptation capabilities and functions of neurophysiological mechanisms of complex-motor acts during the development of this syndrome. Rates of turnaround time, and features of GC management when turning in the test «Step/Quick Turn» were the most informative indices in characterizing older female fallers, therefore, they are the most important indicators of screening for risk assessment. Based on the data of the study it can be concluded that the decrease in the adaptive capacity and efficiency of functioning of neurophysiological mechanisms of PMC in women 65 years and older is one of the most important risk factors for the development of fallers.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(5):30-35
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CARACTERISTICS OF TIME AND FREQUENCY EEG PATTERN IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS LIVING IN THE NORTH IN DIFFERENT AGE PERIODS
Soroko S.I., Rozhkov V.P., Bekshaev S.S.
Abstract
Features of CNS development have been investigated in children and adolescents living under the severe ecological conditions in the North of Russia. The original method for estimating a time structure of the EEG frequency components interrelations was used to study the dynamics of maturation of bioelectrical brain activity pattern and age-related changes of the interplay between the main EEG rhythms. It was found that the statistical structure of the interaction of the frequency components of EEG is undergoing a significant restructuring with age and has certain topography and gender differences. The period from 7 to 18 years of age is marked by decrease the probability of interaction of wave components of the main EEG frequency bands with components of delta and theta bands while simultaneously increasing interaction with the components of beta and alpha2 frequency bands. The dynamics of studied indices EEG manifested in the parietal, temporal and occipital regions of the cerebral cortex to the greatest extent. The largest sex-related differences in the EEG parameters occur in puberty. Functional core of the wave components interaction that maintain the structure of the frequency-temporal EEG pattern is formed to 16-18 years in girls in alpha2-beta1 range, while in boys - in alpha1-alpha2 range. Intensity of age-related rearrangements of the EEG pattern reflects the gradual maturation of electrogenesis in different brain structures and has individual features due to both genetic and environmental factors. Obtained quantitative indicators of formation with age of dynamic relationships between basic EEG rhythms permit to reveal children with disturbed or delayed development of the central nervous system.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(5):36-43
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FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM AND METABOLIC DISORDERS AMONG INDIGENOUS POPULATION OF REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA)
Fedorova V.I., Klimova T.M., Baltakhinova M.E., Fedorov A.I.
Abstract
According to the results of analytical, observational cross-sectional research on a random sample of the indigenous population of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) the association between the level of cardiovascular function and metabolic parameters was studied. It was found that 14 % of the participants bore the marks of "poor adaptation", 10 % - "failure of adjustment mechanisms." In senior age groups, the number of persons with dysaptation signs increased to 48 %. We found that the failure of adjustment mechanisms was manifested itself as negative changes in the metabolic profile and as increase of frequency of metabolic disorders and their combinations. Functional changes index based on the indicators of circulatory system, age, height and body mass shows good indices of sensitivity and specificity, and allows identifying 83 % of persons with multiple metabolic disorders correctly. The facts suggest the possibility of screening technology optimization in identifying risk factors of inveterate non-communicable diseases in limited health care resources. A holistic approach to the human body as a universal biosystem, knowledge deepening of its parameters under various external influences can help to optimize the methods of distress prevention.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(5):44-49
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PROPENSITY SCORE MATCHING AS A MODERN STATISTICAL METHOD FOR BIAS CONTROL IN OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES WITH BINARY OUTCOME
Grjibovski A.M., Ivanov S.V., Gorbatova M.A., Dyussupov A.A.
Abstract
This article presents propensity score matching (PSM) - modern statistical method to control for confounding, which threatens the validity of associations in observational studies. The efficiency of PSM has been demonstrated in several international studies. The increasing use of PSM by the research community is reflected by steady growth of the number of publications with this method in the PubMed database over time. This article presents the theoretical basis of PSM and its practical application using Stata software. In the practical part of the article, detailed step by step algorithms of various PSM methods are presented allowing researchers to conduct statistical analysis of their own data and interpret results.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2016;(5):50-64
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