No 6 (2015)

Articles
FEATURES OF MEDICAL ASSISTANCE TO VICTIMS WITH COMBINED TRAUMAS CAUSED BY ROAD ACCIDENTS IN SAINT-PETERSBURG
Tulupov N.N., Besaev G.M., Sinenchenko G.I.
Abstract
Specialized medical care to victims of road accidents in St. Petersburg is delivered at 6 level I and 3 level II trauma centers. Annually, each of 6 level I trauma centers gives treatment to about 600 patients, each of 3 level II trauma centers - 10 times less, other hospitals - to about 300 patients. Mortality rate after severe mechanical trauma at the level I trauma centers is about 15%, at the level II trauma centers - about 20% and at other hospitals (not specialized in severe traumas) - 37%. The importance of improvement of the trauma centers financing, the need to deliver patients by mobile resuscitation teams, and other problems have been discussed. The article has shown that St. Petersburg has a better system of medical care of road accident victims than other regions of Russia. The main principles of this system are as follows: early delivery of patients to trauma centers; the need to respect the rules of the "golden hour"; performance of full resuscitation both at the pre-hospital (on the spot and during delivery) and the hospital stage of treatment; the need of examination and treatment of patients regardless of illness severity; opening of anti-shock surgical trauma centers at multi-specialty hospitals providing round-the-clock laboratory, radiation, and endoscopic studies; use of doctors of all specialties; early evaluation of types and severity of injuries according to developed algorithms by using non-invasive, minimally invasive and invasive methods.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(6):3-8
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SYMPATHOADRENAL AND HYPOPHYSIAL-ADRENAL ACTIVITY IN LAW ENFORCEMENT STAFF DEPENDING ON PROFESSIONAL LOAD
Koubassov R.V., Barachevsky Y.E., Ivanov A.M., Koubassova E.D.
Abstract
For the purpose of detection of a dependence of activity of sympathoadrenal and hypophysial-adrenocortical parts of endocrine control on professional load of police staff enforcing law on the territories of the Russian Federation with a complicated situation, there have been studied adrenaline, noradrenalin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol concentrations in their bodies. It has been established that professional stress and risk levels influenced the studied parameters. General organizational-medical concepts have been proposed for provision of body resistance to extreme factors in emergency situations and for a decrease of pathological states progress risk.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(6):9-14
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EXTERNAL RESPIRATION FEATURES IN PRETEEN SCHOOLCHILDREN WITH SCOLIOSIS - RESIDENTS OF EUROPEAN NORTH
Abramova M.A., Chernozemov V.G., Popova O.N., Tichonova E.V., Gudkov A.B.
Abstract
There has been conducted a spirographic study of 197 preteen schoolchildren living in the European North conditions. The work's goal was to determine features of functional state of the external respiration system in scoliosis of initial degrees. The study group included 111 children with scoliosis of initial degrees (I - II degrees), and the comparison group included 86 children without scoliosis. At the beginning and the end of the academic year by means of the computer portable spirometer MIR-spirobank, there were determined the values of the vital lung capacity (VLC), forced VLC (FVLC), forced expiratory volume during the first second FVLC (FEV 1), the average volume rate at the level 25-75% FVLC (AVR 25-75) and the peak volume rate (PVR). It has been established that in contrast to the children without scoliosis the children with scoliosis of I - II degrees had a lower annual increase of the values VLC, FVLC, FEV 1, AVR 25-75, PVR, the features of the preteen schoolchildren, what can in future affect their physical development, anatomical and functional progress of many body organs and systems.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(6):15-19
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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN AGED 9-11 YEARS - NATIVES OF MIDDLE OB AREA
Litovchenko O.G., Ishbulatova M.S.
Abstract
The Physical Development (PD) of children - the major indicator reflecting influence endo- and exogenous factors on health of children's population. Dynamic monitoring over PD of children allows to estimate the phenomena occurring in society and environment. Results of research of physical development of 200 children of primary school age (9-11 years old) - natives of the Middle Ob area depending on a sex and age are presented. It is established that in all age groups prevail children with the average level of PD and normal body weight, but regional features are available, however: it is more school students with excess of body weight, than with its deficiency, both among boys and girls; the total sizes of a body changed within all-biological regularities, characteristic for this piece of ontogenesis, in 9 and 10 years difference on body length of boys and girls were absent, and "growth jump" was observed further, and from 11 years old girls started being ahead of boys on this indicator.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(6):20-23
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CONDITION OF ENDOGENOUS ETHANOL / ACETALDEHYDE SYSTEM AND ITS ROLE IN RESISTANCE TO ALCOHOLIZATION IN POPULATIONS OF NORTHERN PEOPLES
Kolosova O.N., Kershengolts B.M.
Abstract
There have been given results of a study of state of an endogenous ethanol, acetaldehyde system and metabolizing enzymes in the aboriginals of the North-East of Eurasia in different seasons of the year (winter, summer) depending on psychoemotional stress and adaptation state. It has been shown that the reason of decreased endogenous ethanol content in human blood in winter was synthesis of alcohol degidrogenase isoforms with lower affinity to substrata and its lower concentration. Higher content of studied metabolites in human blood in the conditions of the North in comparison with Central Russia, especially during the summer period has been revealed. A decrease in concentration of endogenous ethanol in blood by 4-5 times has been detected in psychophysiological stressing. A phonetic-biochemical model of differentiation of human populations by groups of phenotypes in connection with occurrence of the active genes coding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADG 2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDG 1) isoforms has been proposed. The fenetiko-biochemical model of differentiation of human populations between groups of phenotypes in connection with occurrence of active genes coding has been proposed. Ethnogenetic features of the populations of the peoples of the North responsible for features of tolerance to alcohol and the tendency of decreasing immunity to alcohol in young generations have been revealed.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(6):24-32
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ECOLOGY OF MENTAL EPIDEMICS
Sidorov P.I.
Abstract
Mental epidemics is a new phenomenon of integrative mentality medicine and singular progression. Mental epidemics are contagious polymodal and multiform mental disorders and conditions. The ground of mentality epidemiology is constituted by normative and permanent anomia and permissiveness of singular and crisis reality. There have been separated mechanisms of mental epidemics: deformation of conscience and identity, resonance and induction, anonymity and uncontrollability, generalization and expanded reproduction. There has been proposed a working classification of mental epidemics: dependent and induced, somatoform and psychosomatic, schizophrenia-related and schizoaffective disorders. There have been grounded the principles of a new paradigm of public health and public conscience adaptive protection from mental epidemics based on the synergetic biopsychosociospiritual methodology of mentality medicine as a new psychiatric paradigm of integrative medicine.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(6):33-49
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CORRELATION OF SF-36 SUB-SCALES AND INDICES OF STRESS-COPING BEHAVIOR IN STUDENTS OF NORTHERN MEDICAL INSTITUTION
Shalamova E.Y., Safonova V.R.
Abstract
We have analyzed relationships between stress-coping behavior styles and subjective well-being of the first year students of the Medical Faculty of the Khanty-Mansiysk State Medical Academy, 57 girls and 22 boys. We did a statistical analysis with Statistica 8.0 for Windows in view of sign normal distribution. The boys had better results according to the sub-scales Physical Functionality (PF), Vitality (VT) and Mental Health (MH). The girls used the sub-style Diversion more often. For the girls, there was a bigger number of statistically significant correlations between the sub-scales of the SF-36 questionnaire and the stress-coping behavior. According to the scales of physical components, there have been found significant correlations in the girls according to the sub-scale General Health (GH), and in the boys - according to the sub-scale Physical Role Functioning (RP). The use of the emotionally focused stress-coping styles in both groups was combined with a decrease in the values of the individual sub-scales of the SF-36 questionnaire. On the contrary, the choice of the problem-oriented and avoidance-oriented coping styles and its sub-styles was combined with their increase.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(6):50-56
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LEECH THERAPY IN TREATMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
Konyrtaeva N.N., Grjibovski A.M., Kausova G.K., Zhernov V.A., Kalmataeva Z.A.
Abstract
The aim of this review was to summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of Leech therapy in treatment of cardiovascuLar diseases. This assessment is based on the analysis of results of clinical trials conducted in 2000-2015 and published in peer-reviewed literature indexed in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, E-library.ru and E-library.kz databases. The paper presents a review of the current controlled and uncontrolled studies ensured evidence-based information about the effectiveness of leech therapy in the treatment and prevention of complications of coronary heart disease, hypertension, chronic heart failure and stroke. In discussion, we demonstrate the rationale for leech therapy from the evidence-based point of view. We conclude that the current evidence is considered sufficient for using leech therapy as a complementary method in treatment of cardiovascular diseases and prevention of their complications as a part of the conventional therapy. According to the official recommendations on the use of leech therapy in healthcare issued by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation from 2002, the list of indications for leech therapy include coronary heart disease, early stages of heart failure, cardiosclerosis, cardialgias, dyscirculatory encelopathy and arterial hypertension. However, leech therapy should not be used as a substitute for standard treatment schemes of the abovementioned conditions.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(6):57-64
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