No 5 (2021)

Articles
EPIGENETIC MARKERS OF THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICULATE MATTER WITH DIFFERENT AERODYNAMIC DIAMETERS ON HUMAN HEALTH: A REVIEW
Titova A.G., Zanyatkin I.A., Volkova A.G., Nechaev D.N., Trusov G.A.
Abstract
In this review article we provide an overview of epigenetic markers associated with the effects of particulate matter with different aerodynamic diameters, namely, PM0,1, PM, PM10 and PM2,5-10. The developed list of more than 150 epigenetic signatures of environmental pollutants on different human health conditions may contribute to the development of novel methodological approaches to early detection of diseases in individuals exposed to particulate matter. In addition, this work can become a prerequisite for the development of fundamentally new air purification systems.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(5):4-12
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SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN CEREBRAL ENERGY EXCHANGE IN URBAN ARCTIC RESIDENTS
Gribanov A.V., Anikina N.Y., Kottsova O.N., Vilova T.V.
Abstract
Background: Daylight is an important ecological factor influencing human physiology particularly in high latitudes. Aims: To seasonal variations in cerebral energy exchange among young healthy adults living in an urban Arctic setting. Methods: A cohort of 49 healthy volunteers aged 30-34 years permanently living in Arkhangelsk was followed over a year. All measurements were taken in autumn (October), winter (December), spring (March), and summer (June). Cerebral energy exchange was studied using the 5-channel diagnostic complex "Neuro-KM". The analysis of DC potential indicators was carried out by mapping monopolar values of constant potential and calculating their gradients. No gender differences were found; therefore all calculations were performed in the full sample. Differences in the average values of the measurements across the seasons were analyzed using Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction to control Type I error. Results: The most optimal distribution of DC potentials in in the studied individuals was observed in October. Significant decrease in the intensity of cerebral energy exchange in the cerebral cortex was registered in March and June. At the same time, we registered an increase in DP potentials in the frontal and occipital structures of the cerebral cortex, but a decrease in DC potential in the temporal areas in the period in the same period. Conclusions: We observed significant seasonal variations in neuroenergy metabolism among young healthy volunteers in Arkhangelsk which is highly likely linked to changes in the number daylight hours. The least favorable changes in DC potential were registered in spring and summer months. For better understandings seasonal variations and their mechanisms larger studied including other age-groups are warranted in different Arctic settings.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(5):13-19
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MORBIDITY AND CAUSES OF MORTALITY AMONG PRETERM AND TERM NEWBORNS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Sokolovskaya T.A., Stupak V.S., Menshikova L.I., Postoev V.A.
Abstract
Aim: To assess temporal trends in morbidity and mortality among preterm and term newborns in the Russian Federation. Methods: Morbidity and mortality of newborns with birthweight of 1 000 grams or more were calculated using data from all state statistical observation forms in 2016-2018 in the Russian Federation. Data were analyzed in total and separately for term and preterm babies. Ninety-five confidence intervals (CI) for neonatal morbidity and mortality were calculated. Temporal trends were assessed. Comparisons between groups were performed using Pearson's chi-square test. Results: A significant decrease in both morbidity and mortality of newborns was observed for the most of causes. However, we found an increase in the incidence of respiratory disorders (45,5 %; 95 % CI: 45,2 % - 45,8 % in 2016 vs. 52,2 %; 95 % CI: 51,9 % - 52,6 % in 2018; p < 0,001); respiratory distress (24,5 %; 95 % CI: 24,3 % - 24,8 % vs. 29,3 %; 95% CI: 29,1 % - 29,6 %; p < 0,001); hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (10,1 %; 95 % CI: 10,0 % - 10,3 % vs. 11,1 %; 95 % CI: 10,9 % - 11,3 %; p < 0,001) and congenital anomalies (29,6 %; 95 % CI: 29,4 % - 29,9 % vs. 32,9 %; 95 % CI: 32,6 % - 33,2 %; p < 0,001) over the study period. Mortality from infectious diseases specific to the perinatal period increased from 0,073 %; 95 % CI: 0,061 % - 0,087 % in 2016 to 0,082 %; 95 % CI: 0,068 % - 0,098 % in 2018 including bacterial sepsis (from 0,029 %; 95 % CI: 0,022 % - 0,037 % to 0,039 %; 95 % CI: 0,030 % - 0,051 %). Mortality from intraventricular hemorrhage increased from 0,008 %; 95 % CI: 0,0046 % - 0,0131 % to 0,01 %; 95 % CI: 0,006 % - 0,016 % in term neonates. Mortality due to neonatal aspiration pneumonia increased among preterm infants (from 0,02 %; 95 % CI: 0,02 % - 0,07 % to 0,03 %; 95 % CI: 0,007 % - 0,096 %) as well as other diseases (with 0,19 %; 95 % CI: 0,11 % - 0,29 % to 0,21 %; 95 % CI: 0,13 % - 0,33 %). Conclusion: Despite significant favorable trends in morbidity and mortality of both term and preterm newborns in the Russian Federation we found an increase in incidence of preventable diseases and causes of death warranting improvements in medical care in this age-group.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(5):20-28
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PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES OF OBESITY IN INDUSTRIAL WORKERS IN ARCTIC RUSSIA
Syurin S.A., Gorbanev S.A.
Abstract
Background: Obesity has been consistently reported as a global epidemic representing a significant medical and social problem in many countries. However, the number of studies on this topic from Arctic Russia is still relatively scarce. Aim: To assess the prevalence and correlates of obesity among industrial workers in an Arctic Russian setting. Methods: Altogether, 2 474 workers of a mining and metallurgical enterprise in the Murmansk region participated in a cross-sectional study. The list of studied characteristics complied with the requirements of the Order of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia dated 04/12/2011, No. 302n, as amended on 05/18/2020. In addition, we studied intensity and frequency of leisure time physical activity. Student's unpaired t-tests and chi-squared tests were used for analyses of numeric and categorical variables, respectively. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were also calculated. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 17.6 % and it was ranked the third most common health problems after myopia and low back pain. Age, female gender, severity of work and number of working years and low leisure time physical activity were associated with obesity. The prevalence of musculoskeletal (PR = 1.11; CI 1.04-1.19) and circulatory (PR = 1.62; CI 1.41-1.86) diseases, disorders of endocrine system, nutrition and metabolism (PR = 2.01; CI 1.48-2.74), including arterial hypertension (PR = 2.11; CI 1.72-2.59) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (PR = 3.14; CI 1.28-7.68) were greater than among non-obese individuals. Obese employees had on average more diseases than their non-obese counterparts (3.41 ± 0.12 vs.2.80 ± 0.06, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Nearly every fifth employee in the study population is obese and have more somatic diseases than non-obese individuals. Our findings warrant development of population-based or occupational programs to prevent obesity and reduce the number of associated problems among industrial workers in Arctic Russia.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(5):28-35
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ALGINATE-CONTAINING BIOGEL FROM BROWN ALGAE AS A POTENTIAL HEALTH PREVENTION AGENT FOR TEST LABORATORY EMLOYEES
Vazhenina A.A., Trankovskaya L.V., Plekhova N.G., Zinov’ev S.V., Perelomova O.V., Aminina N.M.
Abstract
Aim: To assess the effectiveness of alginate-containing biogel as a health prevention agent for employees of test laboratories with chemical and biological occupational hazards. Methods: An experimental non-controlled study. The sample consisted of 43 healthy non-smoking volunteers aged 24-75 years who were examined before and after taking 30 gram of the food supplement «Laminal (biogel from algae)» during 4 weeks. Cells in smears of buccal epithelium stained with alizarin red C, used fluorescence microscopy were studied. We assessed cells differentiation degrees, cytochemical coefficients and quantified structural features of the nuclei and cytoplasm. Results: We observed stabilization of the cellular elements of buccal epithelium after the use of Laminal with no cytotoxic effects. The number of pathological epithelial cells significantly decreased (p < 0.001). The number of cells with signs of keratinization also decreased over the study period (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The studied food supplement "Laminal (seaweed biogel)" has a potential to mitigate occupational hazards on the oral epithelium among laboratory workers.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(5):36-43
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BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION IN 2006-2018 IN THE SAKHA (YAKUTIA) REPUBLIC: A FORENSIC AUTOPSY STUDY
Bessonova O.G., Savvina N.V., Grjibovski A.M.
Abstract
Introduction: Excessive alcohol consumption has been recognized as a threat to the national security of the Russian Federation. Challenges in studying volume and pattern of alcohol consumption, registration and identification of cases of alcohol-associated deaths are among the reasons for insufficient data for prevention of alcohol-associated deaths. Decision-makers should be aware of alcohol-attributable mortality in their federal subjects to develop region-specific prevention programs. Aim: To study temporal trends in blood (urine, muscle) alcohol concentration using the data from forensic autopsy protocols from 2007-2018 in the Sakha (Yakuta) Republic, North-Eastern Russia. Methods: Data on blood (urine, muscle) alcohol concentration (BAC) were obtained for all autopsied individuals in 2007-2018 in the Sakha Republic using medical documentation from the Republican Forensic Bureau. Temporal trends in average concentrations were assessed using Jonkheer-Terpstra tests. Ordinal variables were studied with ordinal regression models. Poisson models were applied for the analysis of time trends for binomial outcomes. Results: The proportion of individuals with BAC between 3.0 and 5.0 % and more than 5.0 %) decreased 25.3 % to 18.0 % (p < 0.0001). Decreasing trends of average BAC in both men and women were observed. The proportion of deceased with BAC > 0.3 % decreased on average by 34.8 % being more pronounced among the women. Conclusions: Our finding suggest a gradual decrease in average blood alcohol concentrations as well as in the proportion of deceased with high and lethal BAC in autopsied individuals in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic over the study period. More pronounced decrease was observed among the women. Our findings should be generalized and interpreted with due caution taking into account the limitations of the forensic autopsy study design.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(5):44-52
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INTELLIGENT DATA ANALYSIS IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH: CONVOLUTIONAL ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS
Narkevich A.N., Vinogradov K.A., Paraskevopulo K.M., Mamedov T.H.
Abstract
Convolutional neural networks are one of the modern tools that allow medical research to analyze and recognize not just a set of data about the objects under study or patients, but to use an image as the object under study. Due to the significant role of visual diagnostic methods in the provision of medical care, the use of intelligent recognition of the results of these methods becomes essential. At the moment, convolutional neural networks become widespread in research on the quality of diagnostics in various fields of medicine. However, complex mathematical apparatus behind convolutional neural networks function, and the tools for their construction limit implementation of these models into medical research and practice. This paper provides a gentle introduction to the methodology and application possibilities of convolutional neural networks in medical research. In this paper the reader will find methodological foundations behind convolutional neural networks, a description of a data set for building such models, an example of construction of a convolutional neural network model for classification of dermatoscopic images using TensorFlow and Keras libraries in Python as well as recommendations on how to present the results of building convolutional neural networks.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021;(5):53-64
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