Vol 29, No 6 (2022)

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Lead concentration in human hair in Russia: a systematic review

Chanchaeva E.А., Grjibovski A.M., Sukhova M.G.


BACKGROUND: Extensive measures to reduce lead concentrations in the biosphere are implemented in many countries, therefore, the world community predicts a decrease in the quantitative content of lead in the environment. The concentration of lead in human hair is considered as an indicator of environmental pollution, therefore, systematized information on this indicator in the subjects of the Russian Federation is necessary to assess the effectiveness of environmental measures.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a systematic review following PRISMA guidelines. We performed a systematic search and qualitative synthesis of scientific literature on hair concentrations of lead across Russia between 2011 and 2021. PubMed and eLIBRARY.RU were the main sources of scientific information in English and Russian, respectively. Initial search returned 1748 matches. Thirty-seven papers remained for qualitative synthesis after screening and eligibility analysis.

RESULTS: During the study period, the results of studies on 27 subjects of the Russian Federation were published, which is one third of all subjects of the federation. No heterogeneity was observed in sample preparation while methods of laboratory analysis varied between the settings and included inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry and inversion voltammetry. The sample sizes ranged from 5 to 5908 individuals. The average lead concentrations varied between 0.01 and 6.54 mg/kg. The greatest concentrations of lead were reported in the Orenburg (6.54 mg/kg) and Chita Regions (4.35 mg/kg).

CONCLUSION: Two-thirds of all subjects of the Russian Federation for the period 2011–2021 are not covered by the study, so there are no data on the concentration of lead in the hair of the population of these regions. Further data collection should be performed using representative and sufficient sample samples while presentation of the results should contain detailed information on methods of data collection and analysis to ensure reproducibility and comparability of the findings.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(6):371-389
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Element content in human hair of residents from Simferopol city

Evstafeva E.V., Bogdanova A.M., Tymchenko S.L., Baranovskaya N.V., Yusupov D.V., Evstafeva I.A., Makarova A.S.


BACKGROUND: Environmental pollution is increasingly becoming a problem and will continue to be a serious risk for human health. Therefore, it is important to monitor the element status of the population.

AIM: To determine the elements in residents’ hairs of Simferopol city, Republic of Crimea.

MATERIAL ANS METHODS: Twenty-eight elements were determined using the instrumental neutron activation method. The mercury content was estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry in 80 hair samples of healthy 17–20-year-old Simferopol residents (34 males and 46 females). The concentration coefficients were calculated, and the geochemical rows were plotted based on comparison with the published data from other regions..

RESULTS: The median values of the hair element content were found to be within the reference ranges for 25 out of 29 chemical elements. Excess Br and Ba were found in most residents, which could be due to the geochemical conditions. Significant sex differences in the content of Na, Ca, and Sb could be associated with differences in diet, lifestyle, and other gender-associated factors. Comparison of the geochemical elemental rows for Simferopol residents with other territories of Crimea and Krasnodar suggests a greater intake of Co, Na, Fe, and As in urban residents (Crimea) compared to Krasnodar, and in comparison with other territories of a peninsula — Hg, Ag, and Zn.

CONCLUSION: Although most of the elements were within reference ranges in Simferopol residents, the anthropogenic load has increased recently, along with our previously established physiological effects of toxic metals, demonstrating the need for further biomonitoring studies.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(6):391-402
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Trends of the health and demographic indicators in the arctic regions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) over 20 year (2000–2020)

Burtseva T.E., Klimova T.M., Gogolev N.M., Sleptsova S.S., Afanaseva L.N., Sinelnikova E.V., Chasnyk V.G., Slobodchikova M.P.


BACKGROUND: The implementation of the major federal projects in the Arctic region of the Russian Federation claims particular attention to the indicators of the quality of life and the state of population health in these regions. Health and demographic indicators can be one of the available tools for public health monitoring.

AIM: To analyze the main trends of the health and demographic processes in the arctic regions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) over 20 year (2000–2020).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data of the Territorial Body of the Federal State Statistics Service in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), YARMIATS for 2000–2020 were analyzed. An approximate 95% confidence interval was calculated over 20 years (2000–2019), the average population growth rate was estimated by a chain method for time series (data for 2020 year are presented separately due to the deformation of the pattern of demographic indicators due to the epidemic SARS-CoV-2). A linear regression analysis of IBM SPSS Statistics 26 was performed to assess the birth and mortality rate trends.

RESULTS: From 2000–2020, the population of the Arctic region of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) decreased by 22% due to migration and high mortality rates. Deaths by external causes occupy approximately 20% of the structure of the all-cause mortality rate. Dynamically, the decrease in the number of infant mortalities was noticed due to the effective routing of pregnant women and improvement of the maternity service in the region.

CONCLUSION: The analysis of the medical and demographic indicators showed positive and negative trends in the Arctic regions’ public health of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The system of the healthcare organization in the regions is to be improved. Also, these regions, which possess all the features of the healthcare systems with low-density population territories, can become a model for the regional and federal projects approbated in the field of Arctic medicine.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(6):403-413
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Carbonil stress parameters and DNA oxidative modification in Russian and Buryat women with age-related menopause

Semenova N.V., Brichagina A.S., Nikitina O.A., Madaeva I.M., Kolesnikov S.I., Kolesnikova L.I.


BACKGROUND: Menopause is a risk factor for oxidative stress. Previous study results indicate the lipid peroxidation ethnospecificity, suggesting differences in the metabolism of different ethnic groups of women, associated with the oxidation of not only lipids but proteins and DNA.

AIM: To determine advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and DNA oxidative modification levels in the blood of Russian and Buryat peri- and postmenopausal women.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 86 women of two ethnic groups — Russians (n=52) and Buryats (n=34) — aged 45 to 60 years with peri- and postmenopausal status, which participated as volunteers. The basis for the exclusion in this study was the use of hormone replacement therapy, antioxidant drugs, diseases of endocrine origin, exacerbation of chronic diseases, premature early menopause, and surgical menopause. The concentration of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (ng/ml) and AGEs (ng/ml) was determined in blood serum by enzyme immunoassay. The content of AOPP (nmol/l) was determined in blood plasma using the photometric method.

RESULTS: An increase of AOPP levels in postmenopause as compared to perimenopause was found in women of both ethnic groups (36.90 [27.09; 42.72] and 19.80 [17.03; 23.78] in the Russian ethnic group (p <0.001) and 31.16 [29.45; 33.99] and 26.30 [23.44; 30.91] in the Buryat ethnic group (p=0.020). Regardless of the menopausal phase, the AGEs levels in Buryat women were higher than the Russian ethnic group: (5015.0 [4584.49; 5486.96] and 3685.87 [3376.11; 4318.0] in perimenopause (p=0.002) and 4970 [4710; 5660] and 4274.59 [3440.67; 4813.05] in postmenopause (p=0.040)) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (1.58 [0.66; 4.36] and 0.82 [0.42; 1.09] in perimenopause (p=0.032) and 1.52 [1.06; 4.21] and 0.85 [0.49; 1.34] in postmenopause (p=0.018)). Differences in the AOPP level were revealed only in the perimenopause toward a higher level in Buryat women.

CONCLUSION: Protein oxidation depends on the menopausal phase and is more pronounced in postmenopausal women. The carbonyl stress parameters and DNA destruction levels are higher in Buryat women than Russian ethnic group.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(6):415-423
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Hygienic approaches to the assessment of occupational morbidity in the Republic of Bashkortostan in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic

Kazak A.А., Shaykhlislamova E.R., Yamaliev A.R., Valeeva E.T., Sandakova I.V., Galimova R.R., Suleymanova I.F.


BACKGROUND: In the tense economic and epidemiological conditions that have developed in the country, Rospotrebnadzor bodies and Occupational pathology centers in the Republic of Bashkortostan consider monitoring and analysis of the state of the production environment, indicators of occupational morbidity to be significant areas of their activities.

AIM: To study the state of working conditions and occupational morbidity in the Republic of Bashkortostan during the COVID-19 pandemic.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis of the main hygienic parameters of harmful factors of the production environment, indicators of occupational morbidity at industrial and agricultural enterprises of the Republic of Bashkortostan for 2020–2021 was carried out.

RESULTS: According to the data of the Rospotrebnadzor department for the Republic of Bashkortostan, the number of objects with the status of extremely high and high risk at enterprises of the manufacturing, agricultural sectors and the construction industry is significantly higher than the national average. The largest number of registered jobs in the same industries do not meet the hygienic standards in terms of qualitative and quantitative characteristics. The most harmful production factors affecting the formation of the working environment at almost all industrial and agricultural facilities of the republic are factors of the physical nature and the labor process and, as a consequence, the development of occupational diseases in workers. During 2020–2021, 122 occupational diseases and poisoning cases were registered in the republic. For the first time in the practice of hygienists and occupational pathologists of the republic, the biological factor significantly impacted on the qualitative and quantitative components of occupational morbidity.

CONCLUSION: Against the background of the ongoing pandemic of new coronavirus infection, there is a deterioration in working conditions and occupational health of workers, which requires the development of effective mechanisms that provide for the responsibility of interested government agencies and employers for the attitude to the working environment and the health of workers.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(6):425-436
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Features of cognitive mental processes and neurodynamic properties of the central nervous system in firefighters depending on polymorphisms of the regulators’ genes of the brain monoamine system

Kriyt V.E., Sannikov M.V., Gudkov A.B., Sladkova Y.N., Nikanov A.N., Pyatibrat A.O.


BACKGROUND: Firefighters' performance of their occupational duties is associated with significant psycho-emotional stress, as well as the complex influence of harmful and dangerous factors that are a source of risk to their health and life. One of the most important modern tasks of vocational training of employees in the EMERCOM of Russia is the problem of assessing psychophysiological reserves. Currently, traditional methods of psychological and psychophysiological testing do not allow a full assessment of psychophysiological reserves because the degree of adaptation to extreme loads is determined by hereditary traits.

AIM: To study the features of cognitive mental processes and neurodynamic properties of the central nervous system in firefighters that depend on the polymorphisms of the regulators genes of the monoamine system of the brain.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methodologically, 453 people were examined, of which 234 were the main group (firefighters), and 219 were the control group. Assessment was conducted using the following methods: "Correction test with Landolt rings", "Münsterberg test", "Schulte tables", "Reaction to a moving object", "Simple visual-motor reaction", and KR-3-85 test batteries. Genotyping was performed using five candidate genes of 5-HTTLPR or 5HTT, 5HT2A, COMT, DRD1, and DRD2/ANKK1.

RESULTS: The results of indicators of attention, neurodynamic properties of the central nervous system, and cognitive mental processes, depending on the nature of the occupational tasks performed and employment duration, indicates the strain of the functional systems of the body during long-term work (more than five years) in the main study group (firefighters). Firefighters carrying 5HTT L/L, 5HT2A C/C, COMT Val/Val, and DRD2/ANKK1 Glu/Glu genotypes have significantly higher rates than those of 5HTT S/S, 5HT2A Т/Т genotypes, COMT Met/Met, and DRD2/ANKK1 Lis/Lis, and at the same time lower indicators compared to individuals with similar genotypes from the control group.

CONCLUSION: The data obtained indicate the feasibility of practical application of studies of the 5HTT, 5HT2A, and DRD2/ANKK1 genes. Changes in the level of attention and neurodynamic properties of the central nervous system depending on the polymorphic variants of the DRD1 gene were not observed. The indicators of cognitive mental processes in the control and main groups differed depending on the polymorphic variants of the COMT gene.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(6):437-456
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