No 10 (2018)

Articles
JUDICIAL PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL RIGHTS IN THE ARCTIC ZONE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF ARKHANGELSK REGION)
Vilova T.V., Vilova M.G., Permilovskiy M.S.
Abstract
The article deals with the conditions of effective judicial protection of human rights in the context of environmental security in the Arctic. The article analyzes the judicial practice of human rights protection in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and the classification of court cases in this area. The main approaches used by the courts to protect the right to a favorable environment as a central constitutional environmental right have been defined. It has been established that in cases when the direct infringer of the specified right could not be identified, the court imposed an obligation to eliminate the consequences of the violation to the local authorities. For objective reasons, local authorities cannot simultaneously execute a large number of judicial acts, which negatively affects both the judicial protection of the right to a favorable environment and the guarantee of environmental safety in the Arctic. The study concludes that in order to achieve the objectives of environmental safety in the Arctic, courts should use an approach based on the priority protection of the right to a favorable environment and on the unconditional obligation of public entities to ensure the implementation of this right, as well as a mechanism for mutual responsibility of public entities of different levels for the implementation of court decisions.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(10):4-8
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IMPACT ANALYSIS OF CLIMATE AND TECHNOGENEOUS PRESSING ON RESIDENTS OF NORTHERN URBAN LAND
Karpin V.A., Gudkov A.B., Shuvalova O.I.
Abstract
The aim of the work was to reveal the peculiarities of the complex influence of extreme climatic and harmful technology related factors on the state of chronic diseases of internal organs in the urbanized North on the example of Surgut city. Methods. A clinical analysis of the long-term appealability of 8 680 patients concerning chronic diseases recurrences was carried out simultaneously in two aspects - temporal (seasonal analysis) and spatial (territorial analysis). The state of the urban atmosphere was estimated by climatic parameters (air temperature, atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen weight, severity of weather) and the level of concentration of the most important chemical pollutants. In the course of the regional analysis of the residential area status the average annual emissions of the most significant harmful technology related factors (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon oxide, vanadium oxide, benzapyrene) were studied. Results. The impact of the combination of negative climatic conditions and harmful industrial pollutants of the atmospheric air was stated. Their part in development of recrudescence progression of nosological entity turned out to be the most essential - cardiac angina: "atmospheric pressure + sulphur dioxide"; heart attack: "carbolic acid + nitrogen dioxide"; high blood pressure: "atmospheric pressure + carbolic acid + formaline"; chronic obstructive bronchitis: "cold + severity of weather + nitrogen dioxide + carbon oxide"; bronchial allergy: "cold + severity of weather + atmospheric pressure + formaline + nitric oxide + carbolic acid + nitrogen dioxide"; peptic ulcer: "nitrogen dioxide + carbolic acid + formaline + carbon oxide"; chronic pyelonephritis: "severity of weather + carbolic acid + formaline + nitrogen dioxide". Conclusions. The impact study of various extreme environmental factors of the northern urban areas on the health of the newcomers was the most complete when using a systemic approach that included simultaneously two main aspects: a temporal, that is, a seasonal study of the complex effect of climate and ecological pressing on the organism, and a spatial - differential analysis of the negative impact of technology related load of contaminated residential areas.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(10):9-14
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ADAPTATION MECHANISMS OF 14-YEAR ADOLESCENTS LIVING IN HIGH AND MIDDLE LATITUDES OF THE EUROPEAN PART OF RUSSIA TO TECHNOGENIC POLLUTION OF SETTLEMENT ZONES (LITERATURE REVIEW)
Kuznetsova D.A., Sizova E.N., Cirkin V.I.
Abstract
The review of literature data on adolescents' adaptation to a high level of technogenic pollution, taking into account the geographic latitude of the residence was made. For this purpose, we compared physical development indices, physical health level, as well as the state of the oxygen transport system and the immune system of adolescents living since birth in the middle latitudes or in the European North in conditions of high or low levels of technogenic pollution. The results of the authors' own research were presented. The surveyed 14-year-olds (girls and boys) were divided into four groups, living in four settlements (Sedyu, Yaransk, Ukhta and Kirov) since birth and meeting the specified conditions. It was stated that adaptation mechanisms of 14-year-olds to the high level of technogenic pollution of residential areas were strengthening of erythropoiesis and immune surveillance, and payment for adaptation was a change in physical development rates, a decrease in physical health level and decrease in the monocyte content. It was shown that the mechanism of adaptation of 14-year-olds for residence in the European North in conditions of low level of technogenic pollution consisted in immune surveillance strengthening, and the payment for adaptation was the reduction of red blood cells.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(10):15-23
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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS LIVING ON THE TERRITORY OF KHANTY-MANSI AUTONOMOUS OKRUG - UGRA
Nifontova O.L., Konkova K.S.
Abstract
Comprehensive anthropometrical examination of 225 schoolchildren of municipal educational institutions of the Surgut district was conducted. The aim of the work was assessment of physical development of high school students constantly living on the territory of Khanty-Mansi autonomous Okrug (KhMAO) - Ugra. Methods. The key anthropometrical indicators: body length and weight, chest circumference were registered according to standard research techniques. Body mass indices, proportionality index and somatotype were calculated to assess children's physical development. Results were analyzed by means of the standard methods of mathematical statistics. All the surveyed were divided into following groups: representatives of indigenous ethnic groups of the North (Khanty) who came for the educational period to boarding schools; metises of the first generation who had one of parents the Khanty's representative; descendants of the alien population. Each group was additionally divided by gender. Results. It was stated that the key anthropometrical indicators in metises had in-between position among experimental groups. Values of body length in metises were closer to those in descendants of the alien population, and body weight and chest circumference - to the indicators of representatives of indigenous ethnic groups of the North. According to body density indices, proportionality of body development and orientation of growth processes metises were more similar to the Khanty's school children. Conclusions. Possibly, adaptation of the alien population of KhMAO - Yugra to climatic factors happened through miscegenation with predominant inheritance of anthropometrical signs of indigenous ethnic groups of the North.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(10):24-31
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VARIABILITY OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAM ELEMENTS IN 6-7 YEARS CHILDREN UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE EUROPEAN NORTH
Russkikh N.G., Irzhak L.I.
Abstract
The Aim: to determine the duration of the ECG intervals of PP, PT, PQ, QT and TP segment in two groups of children of both sexes aged 6-7 years in control and under the influence of an active orthostatic test (AOP n = 20) and test- Martine-Kushelevsky (PM n = 15). Methods. We studied the duration of ECG intervals in the II standard lead before and after the application of orthostatic test and test- Martine-Kushelevsky. Indices after statistical analysis were presented by M ± SD and cardiointervalogramm. Results. During orthostatic test the heart rate increased by 24 %, the duration of the PP interval was down by15 % ( from 0.71 ± 0.1 s in the control to 0.60 ± 0.1 s ) PT - by 4 % (from 0.47 ± 0.03 s to 0.45 ± 0.03 s), QT - by 9 % (from 0.34 ± 0.02 s to 0.31 ± 0.01 s), segment of the TP - from 0.24 ± 0.1 s to 0.15 ± 0.1 s (38 %), and the duration of the PQ interval increased insignificantly by 8% (from 0.13 ± 0.01 s to 0.14 ± 0.01 s). During test- Martine-Kushelevsky, the heart rate increased by 21 %, the remaining indices changed by 17 % (from 0.64 ± 0.1 s to 0.53 ± 0.04 s), 5 % (from 0.44 ± 0.03 s to 0.42 ± 0.03 s), 3 % (0.31 ± 0.01 s to 0.28 ± 0.004 s) and 50 % (from 0.20 ± 0.1 s to 0.10 ± 0.03 s) respectively. The PQ interval remained unchanged. Correlations between the heart rate before and after the samples rs = 0.67 (AOP) and rs = 0.36 (PM), between РР rs = 0.69 (AOP) and rs = 0.26 (PM), between РТ rs = 0.93 (AOP) and rs = 0.74 (PM), between РQ rs = 0.78 (AOP) and rs = 0.67 (PM), between QT rs = 0.83 (AOP) and rs = 0.65 (PM) and between TP rs = 0.56 (AOP) and rs = 0.37 (PM). Conclusions. As a result of the action of two functional tests on the cardiovascular system of children aged 6-7 years, the heart rate increased and the duration of the ECG intervals was shortened. The variability of the indicators was less than in the control. The most significantly changed the parameters of the TP segment.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(10):32-38
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CARDIOINTERVALS PARAMETERS OF HUMAN BODY IN RESPONSE TO HYPOTHERMIA
Eskov V.M., Bashkatova Y.V., Beloshchenko D.V., Ilyashenko L.K.
Abstract
The study of the functional state of the human body, living in the North of Russia is of particular interest within the framework of theory of chaos-self-organization. The aim of the study was to find out peculiarities of heart rate variability to local hypothermia. Methods. The stochastic approach was used - calculation of statistical functions of distribution f(x) successively obtained by R-R intervals samples in one subject and group of subjects; matrices of paired comparison of R-R intervals samples were built and k number (pair number of statistical coincidence) derived from these matrices were compared. Results. The paper showed R-R intervals chaotic dynamics both in one person and in a group of persons (during multiply measurement of R-R intervals parameters) in a state of rest before and after local cooling. The statistical instability of successively obtained samples of R-R intervals upon reregistration both in one person and in a group of persons has been proved. It has been shown that a group of different persons was more statistically stable (k > 19) than one person in terms of 15 recordings of R-R intervals in permanent homeostasis (k< 12). f(x) functions without any impact on the person could demonstrate coincidences (for pairs of R-R intervals) not more than 10% of the total number of samples while calculating matrices of paired comparison samples obtained in an unchanged organism state of one subject. Conclusions. Matrices calculation of samples of paired comparison has shown that a hand cooling (as a stress effect) led to k number increase in matrices of comparison of R-R intervals. It was demonstrated that different subjects could be more statistically similar than one and the same subject in terms of n = 15 recordings of R-R intervals registration. Human body is not an object of a modern stochastic and a chaos theory. Tests repetitions are necessary as well as k calculations in matrices of samples of paired comparison of homeostasis parameters.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(10):39-45
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THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION TO CHRONIC BRAIN ISCHEMIA IN CITIZENS OF EUROPEAN NORTH
Antonen E.G., Burkin M.M., Hyanikyajnen I.V.
Abstract
The aim - to show the role of system psyhodiagnostics for multivariate complex study of the influence of psychological and social factors on the occurrence and during of chronic brain ischemia using the biopsychosocial approach. In particular, the mechanisms of psychological adaptation (psychological protection and coping) in persons of the organized population of Petrozavodsk with early stage of chronic brain ischemia (n = 280, average age (53.9 ± 8.1) years, gender index 1:1) have been studied. The control group included healthy individuals (n = 32, average age (52.4 ± 6.5) years, gender index 1:1, p > 0.05). Methods. The following methods were used: the method «Index of life style» by R. Plutchik et al. in the modification of L. I. Wasserman; the standardized test of R. Lazarus in the modification of L.I. Wasserman. Results. It was found out that increase in the total stress index of psychological defense mechanisms in patients with early stage of chronic brain ischemia living in the European North, was typical mainly due to «denial» (63.2 ± 3.7) ‰ , «compensation» (58.9 ± 4.0) ‰ and «projection» (57.4 ± 3.9) ‰. The leading strategies of coping with stress behavior were search for social support (68.89 ± 19.45) % and acceptance of responsibility (69.64 ± 18.63) %. Conclusions. Patients with chronic brain ischemia are characterized by mosaicism of adaptive and maladaptive personality traits of protective behaviour.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(10):46-51
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BURDENED ALCOHOL ANAMNESIS AS A RISK FACTOR ASSOCIATED WITH THE VIOLATION OF THE PENITENTIARY ORDER BY PRISONERS-RECIDIVISTS
Mordovsky E.A., Soloviev A.G., Sannikov A.L., Spasennikov B.A.
Abstract
Men with a burdened alcohol anamnesis, convicted for repeated crimes, commit unlawful acts in penal institutions under the influence of frustration. Aim of this study is to give an assessment to the burdened alcohol anamnesis as a factor associated with commission by convicted of crime repetition wrongful acts connected with a willful behavior misconduct while serving a sentence in penal institutions. Methods: we performed a sociological survey (the author's questionnaire was used) in a strict regime correctional colony (penal institution) in a group of 433 men - prisoners who have committed high intentional crimes in virulent crimes repetition. Results: We found every second convicted person (43.4 %) regularly consumed alcohol (3-4 times a week) before committing a repeated crime, every second convicted person (40.6 %) was drunk at the moment of committing a repeated crime; every eighth convicted person (15.2 %) had signs of harmful alcohol consumption / alcohol dependence according to the Alcohol use disorders identification test's (AUDIT) results. Every third convicted person (35.6 %) intentionally violated the order of serving punishment in penal institutions (attack on other prisoners, escort, etc.). Every additional point in the AUDIT was associated with an increased probability of order violation by a convicted person in 1.061 times (p < 0,001). Conclusions: Alcohol consumption is a factor associated with a repeated crime comission. Burdened alcohol anamnesis predisposes convicted for repeated crime to commit wrongful acts in penal institutions.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(10):52-57
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PHYSIOTHERAPEUTIC CORRECTION OF ANTIOXIDANT INDICATORS OF HOMEOSTATIC STATUS IN PATIENTS WITH DISCOGENIC PATHOLOGY
Kulikova N.G., Deryagina L.E., Bezrukova O.V.
Abstract
Aim: study of the results of lymphatic drainage and detoxification properties of a therapeutic complex in the form of galvanopharmacological technique with 1 % terrilytin and 0.5 % aspirin, therapeutic exercise and skull traction tongs in patients with discogenic lesions of the cervical spine for achieving analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, restoration of impaired functions and compensatory-adaptive reactions. Methods: the levels of lipid peroxidation were investigated, MRI was conducted on the "Gyroscan T5-NT" scanner (Philips), ultrasonic dopplerography of extracranial vessels was made using "Sonoline Antares" system (Siemens), REO of cervical vessels using "Megas" system (Italy) was conducted before/after application of the following methods: therapeutic exercises, neck massage, ascending lymphatic galvano-pharmacological technique with 0.5 % aspirin and 1 % terrylitin liquid in 10 ml of distilled water in a course of 7-10 procedures. Results: 35 % of patients were found to have the first degree of osteochondrosis; 37 % of patients had the second and 28 % of patients had the third degree. After a course of therapeutic complex with ascending lymphatic galvano-pharmacological therapy a significant increase in the level of SOD (from 7.86 ± 0.41 to 9.69 ± 0.45 units/ml; p = 0.0003); a reduction in the levels of MDA (from 2.51 ± 0.18 to 2.01 ± 0.11 nmol/l; p = 0.05) and diene conjugates (from 1.31 ± 0.15 to 0.89 ± 0.11 mlxmg; p = 0.0009) were stated. The therapeutic complex with ascending lymphatic galvano-pharmacological technique effectively eliminated pain syndrome, improved the levels of lipid predoxidation and neck/head vascular performance in 75.6 ± 4.3 % of patients. Conclusions: ascending galvano-pharmacological technique with the use of developed therapeutic complex in patients with discogenic lesions of the cervical spine promotes an effective lymphatic detoxification, an improvement of humoral transport, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, restoration of impaired functions of the muscular and ligamentous apparatus and the formation of compensatory-adaptive reactions.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(10):58-64
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