No 5 (2018)

Articles
IMPROVEMENT OF MEDICAL ASSISTANCE TO VICTIMS OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS
Melnikova O.A., Kirshina O.V.
Abstract
The problem of road traffic injuries is one of the prioritized social, medical and technological problems all over the world. The timeliness of medical care provision is of great social and economic importance. In recent years, more attention is paid to the development and improvement of drug provision, which is essential in saving lives of victims in road accidents (road accidents). The aim of our study is the development of new approaches to needs identification and creation of balanced drugs list for provision emergency medical care to victims of road traffic accidents. Methods. A visualization framework, allowing to solve the task, is the development of an intellect card "Drug Provision of Victims in Road Traffic Accidents" which makes it possible to systematize and summarize the large content of research related to planning and identification of needs. As s result, the efficiency of financial resources disbursing increases, the time for the drugs systematization and the medical standards analysis reduces. The results. The intellect card consisting of four stages: the problem study of medical assistance organization to the victims of road traffic accidents, analysis of drugs efficient use in providing medical assistance, efficient choice of drugs, method development of requirement estimation in drugs and financial resources was created. Conclusions. The results of the intellect card creation pointed necessity and relevance of new drugs list formation, regulated drug provision to the victims of road traffic accidents. Organizational steps and work criteria with the standards of rendering emergency medical care, requirement estimation in necessary medications were proposed.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(5):4-8
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SCIENTIFIC FORECASTING OF TOXICITY AND EVALUATION OF HAZARD POTENTIAL OF ALUMINUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES FOR HUMAN HEALTH
Zaitseva N.V., Zemlyanova A.A., Stepankov M.S., Ignatova A.M.
Abstract
Aim: scientific forecasting toxicity and evaluation potential hazard of the biological action of aluminum oxide nanoparticles for human health. Methods: forecasting toxicity and assessment of potential hazards was carried out according to the results of forecasting-analytical modeling complexes of indicators characterizing physico-chemical, molecular biological, biochemical, cytological and ecological properties with calculation coefficients of hazard (D) and incompleteness of data evaluation (U) of nanoscale aluminum. Own research on the establishment of size and shape of nanomaterial were performed using dynamic laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area were determined by the method of Brunauer, Emmet and Taylor. Results: aluminum oxide nanoparticles have a size of 30-40 nm, specific surface area 113 m2/g insoluble in water, superhydrophobic, have an effective positive charge. They are have the ability to generate reactive oxygen, damage DNA, disrupt protein expression, depolarize cell membrane, cause morphological changes and cell death, disturb the mitochondrial metabolism, impact on proteomic and metabolic profiles, inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine interleikin-1, ß, tumor necrosis factor and cluster of differentiation 86, 80 and 40. Besides, the material under investigation has such long-term effects of aaction: carcinogenicity and immunotoxicity. Conclusions: based on the results of forecasting modeling, established: aluminum oxide nanoparticles have a high degree of potential hazard for human health (coefficient D = 2,202 that is included in the range 1,780-2,449 and correspond to a high degree of potential hazard). The results indicate necessity for toxicological studies and preparation toxicological-hygienic characteristics of aluminum oxide nanoparticles at various routes of intake for development of effective preventive measures of negative impact on workers and consumers in contact with nanoproducts.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(5):9-15
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BIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS IN HAIR OF CHILDREN IN THE ARCTIC ZONE OF RUSSIA
Zhurba O.M., Efimova N.V., Merinov A.V., Alekseyenko A.N.
Abstract
Aim of investigation. To study the content of heavy metals: zinc, iron, copper, lead, arsenic, manganese, chromium, cadmium and mercury in hair samples of children permanently residing on the territory of the Arctic zone of Russia. Methods. In the process of research, a method of atomic absorption spectrometry with flame and electrothermal atomization, the cold vapor method was used. In the transverse study, 48 children aged 7 to 17 years were involved. Hair sampling was performed from the occipital part of the head. Hair represents an ideal object of research and is one of the informative tissue structures of a person. The obtained results were compared with the reference values established for residents of the Volga and Ural federal districts of the Russian Federation. Results. Exceed-ances of the recommended values for copper, iron, manganese and zinc in 100.0 %, 66.7 %, 25.0 % and 22.2 % samples respectively in the children of Salekhard at the age of 7-11; and iron, copper, chromium, zinc and manganese in 70.0 %, 50.0 %, 44.4 %, 40.0 % and 20.0 % of samples respectively for the children of Salekhard at the age of 13-16 years. The children of the village of Yar-Sale, two age groups have exceeded the recommended levels for iron, chromium, copper and zinc, the percentage of such samples for children aged 7 to 11 years was 100.0 %, 85.7 %, 57.1 % and 7.1 % respectively, and for children from 13 to 17 years- 100.0 %, 86.7 %, 13.3 % and 13.3 % respectively. Conclusion. The conducted studies on the study of heavy metals in hair of both age groups of children in in settlement Yar-Sale and city Salekhard found exceedances of recommended values for zinc, copper, iron, chromium (except for the age group of children of 7-11 years of Salekhard) and manganese (for children living in Salekhard).
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(5):16-21
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MITOCHONDRIAL WAY OF INITIATION OF APOPTOSIS OF LYMPHOCYTES AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF SUPPRESSION OF PROLIFERATION OF T-CELLS AT LIMFOPENIA AT ALMOST HEALTHY INHABITANTS OF THE ARCTIC
Stavinskaya O.A., Dobrodeeva L.K.
Abstract
Purpose - to study apoptosis indicators (programmed death) of blood lymphocytes at a limfopenia at almost healthy aged people from 20 to 60 years, living and working in the Arkhangelsk region of the Russian Federation. Methods. Apoptosis of lymphocytes was estimated by method of a flow laser cytofluorimetry. Definition of concentration of cytokins and mediators of apoptosis to blood was carried out by method of the solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In dabs of blood stain across Romanovsky's - Giemsa studied a limfocytogramma. The maintenance of phenotypes of lymphocytes was determined by method of a double peroxidase tag with use of monoclonal antibodies. Research type retrospective, selections casual, one-stage. Population - inhabitants of the North of the European territory of Russia. Borders of normal distribution of quantitative indices defined by means of Shapiro - Wilk test statistics. Reliability of distinctions between groups was estimated by means of parametrical t-criterion of Student's and Uilkokson's test. The research was conducted with respect for the main standards of biomedical ethics. Results. For realization of a goal two groups of the examined persons have been allocated: with normal (2,5-4,0 х 109 c/l, n = 44) and lowered (<1,5 х 109 c/l, n = 32) the level of lymphocytes in blood. Groups were almost equivalent on age and a sex. Reliability of distinctions between groups was estimated by means of parametrical t-criterion of Student's and Uilkokson's test. It is established that the lack of maintenance of lymphocytes of blood of almost healthy inhabitants of the Arctic is associated with an inhibition of processes of proliferation in system of lymphocytes with decrease in quantity of CD10+ and the IL-2 level. At the examined people concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokins, cytotoxic cells and a transferrin grow. Conclusions. Level of activity of apoptosis of lymphocytes against the background of a limfopenia doesn't change, but prevalence of a mitochondrial way of his initiation is registered that is interconnected with insufficiency of power providing a cell.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(5):22-27
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CHRONOPHYSIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE NORMAL ELECTROLYTE COMPOSITION OF HUMAN SALIVA
Bel'skaya L.V., Sarf E.A., Kosenok V.K., Massard Z.
Abstract
A high rate of change in the composition of saliva can be used to monitor biorhythms (seasonal and circadian). Research objective -the study of the dynamics of the near-24-hour mineral composition of saliva in men and women. Methods. The study involved 40 people (20 men, 20 women, age 23.1 ± 0.9 years). Saliva samples were collected every 3 hours during the day. The mineral composition of saliva was defined by the capillary electrophoresis technique. The cross-group differences were evaluated using the non-parametric criterion. Results. It is shown that the sodium concentration reaches its maximum values at night (9.67 mM), and then monotonously decreases to 12-15 p.m. (5.72 mM). For potassium concentration, the maximum is observed around 12 p.m. (10.71 mM), remains at a stably high level until 21 p.m., after which it decreases until 6:00 a.m. in the morning (8.78 mM). For the Na/K ratio, one maximum is observed, corresponding to 3 a.m. in the night (Na/K = 1.257), and one minimum at 12-13 p.m. (Na/K = 0.666; р = 0.0082). Conclusion. Thus, the diurnal dynamics of the parameters studied is characterized by pronounced periodicity. The revealed regularities are caused by a change in the rate of saliva secretion during the day, and by the action of hormones.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(5):28-32
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FEATURES OF PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE EXTERNAL BREATH REACTION TO LOCAL COLD INFLUENCE IN YOUNG ABLE-BODIED PERSONS
Shangina A.A., Popova O.N., Tikhonova E.V., Kolmogorov S.V., Gudkov A.B.
Abstract
Intention. Aim? The effect of local cooling of the hand and foot skin on the functioning of pulmonary gas exchange in 30 young men and 30 girls aged 18-24 has been studied. Methods. At the initial stage of the study, an analysis of exhaled air was carried out with the ergospirometry system Oxycon Pro. The next stage consisted of carrying out a cold effect on the hand skin. The examinee put down a hand for 1 minute in a vessel with water with temperature successively was 24 °С, 15 °C and 8 °C. Right after local hypothermia repeated analysis of the exhaled air composition was carried out. The recovery interval between the tests was 25-30 minutes. The analysis of exhaled air was carried out during cooling of the foot in the same sequence. Results. A statistically significant increase in the ventilation equivalent for carbon dioxide (VECO2) by 5.4 % after cooling with a temperature of 8 °С and a ventilation equivalent for oxygen (VEO2) by 7.6 %, 7.6 %, and 6.4 % with cooling at 24 °С, 15 °С and 8 °С, respectively, were observed in girls while cooling the hand skin. There were also increase in the value of the respiratory coefficient (RC) at 24 °С by 3.9 % and at 8 °С by 2.6 %. A significant increase in RC by 7.8 % was also performed in young men while the local hypothermia of the hand at the temperature of 24 °С. An increase in VEO2 by 8.8 % in girls was observed in result of local cooling of the foot at the temperature of 24 °С. Influence of temperatures of 15 °С and 8 °С led to a significant increase in the indicator of VECO2 by 4.8 % and 7.6 %, and also by 8.4 % and 8.0 %, respectively. In addition, the cold influence on the foot skin in young men caused a significant decrease in the liberation rate of carbon dioxide (LRCO2) by 18.8 % while cooling at 24 °С, and at 8 °С by 17.1%. Conclusion. The reaction of pulmonary gas exchange to local cooling in girls is more pronounced than in young men and depends on the area of cooling and the temperature of exposure. The most significant changes are observed when the foot is locally cooled by the temperature of the water, causing a slight and strong body strain.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(5):33-38
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NEUROEPIGENETICS IN METHODOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGICAL PLATFORM OF MENTAL MEDICINE
Sidorov P.I.
Abstract
The aim of the article is the conceptual and methodological generalization and systematization of new studies on neuroepigenetics for the development of the technological platform of mental medicine (MM). MM is one of the newest examples of reformatting yesterday's nosocentric boundaries and early pre-nosological forecasting of tomorrow's possible mental ailments. The substantiation for the functional lateralization of mentality (mental asymmetry) as one of the tools of neuroepigenetic coding of identity and behavior is proposed. MM harmoniously combines in its technological platform genetic and epigenetic molecular mechanisms, socio-psychological and clinical-psychopathological, spiritual-moral and religious-integrated tools. This allows MM to practically implement yesterday's "neuroepigenetic fantasies" about editing and formatting the design of the network cascade of genetic and epigenetic identity: molecular - cellular - tissue - organ - organism - personal - social - population. The degree and the vector of dispersion of genomic and epigenomic identity reflect possible resources of evolutionary variability embodied in the registers of mental immunity (MI) and manifested by the mental resilience. MI is a neural network multisystem and multimodal identity interface in its interaction with the internal and external environment. The identified basic functional characteristics of MI are modeled by epigenetic switches or labels, and are embodied in behavioral phenomenology or pathoplastics and pathokinetics of mental disorders. The epidemic increase in the prevalence of mental and psychosomatic disorders is suggested to be called the pandemic of mental immune deficiency (PMID) by the name of the earliest and nonspecific syndrome of mental immune deficiency accumulating initial manifestations of MI dysfunctions transgenerationally. The global predictors of PMID are many of the challenges of the modern world: from the psychic traumatization of childhood to cumulative existential stress. In MM sanogenetic therapy as adaptive modulation of MI triggers cascade self-renewal of personality, clinically manifested by its therapeutic drift (diagnoses-syndromes-symptoms-states). The well-known expression of Nobel Laureate Peter Medawar: "Genetics proposes and epigenetics disposes" should be supplemented with a practically significant mission of MM, which embodies the design models of quality and style, the way and meaning of life in adaptive neuroengineering and self-management of consciousness and health.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(5):39-46
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FALLING ASLEEP PROCESS IN HUMAN LISTENING TO DIFFERENT TYPES OF MONOTONOUS SOUND: A PILOT STUDY
Shumov D.E., Sveshnikov D.S., Torshin V.I., Dorokhov V.B.
Abstract
Development of non-invasive sleep-aid tools requires paying attention to techniques reducing and stabilizing fall-asleep time. Otherwise, all attempts to affect posterior sleep make no sense. The aim of current study was to compare effectiveness of listening through stereo earphones to three types of monotonous sound as one of those techniques. Namely, the sound engendering so-called "binaural beats" (BB), the sound containing ordinary ("monaural") beats (MB) and the sound containing pure tones without beats (imitation, IM) were applied. Methods. Data collected by polysomnographic record (EEG and eye movements) of falling asleep process of 14 subjects during listening to those three sound types then were analyzed to compare the fall-asleep time corresponding to each type. Results. The fall-asleep time during BB-stimulation was less than during IM in 10 subjects from 14; during MB-stimulation - in 5 subjects from 14. The fall-asleep time in BB-stimulation series was significantly (p < 0.05) less than in IM-series. MB-stimulation series contained no significant differences in fall-asleep time from IM-series. Conclusion. Binaural beat stimulation gives rise to the least fall-asleep time beside the sound containing ordinary (monaural) beats as well as monotonous beatless sound.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(5):47-51
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PREVALENCE OF THE DIFFUSE ENDEMIC GOITER AT THE POPULATION OF BIOCLIMATIC ZONES OF PRIMORSKY TERRITORY
Kondrat'ev K.V., Kiku P.F., Andryukov B.G., Moreva V.G., Sabirova K.M.
Abstract
Aim - to identify patterns of the diffuse endemic goiter incidence in adolescents and adults living in different bioclimatic zones and ecological conditions in Primorsky region. Methods. Methods of descriptive statistics and environmental-hygienic evaluation. To assess the reliability of the difference in the indicators, the Pearson criterion was used. The territory of Primorsky region was classified into bioclimatic zones and zones of ecological situation in previously conducted research. Results. It should be noted that in the continental and coastal bioclimatic zones with a relatively favorable level of ecological situation, the incidence of the investigated nosology was higher (in the range of 1 699.1-2 399.9 per 100 000 adolescent population, 702.7-290.1 per 100 000 of the adult population) than in areas with a relatively satisfactory and tense level of environmental situation (93.6-1 423.2 per 100 000 adolescents, 46.5-668.6 per 100 000 adults). The transitional bioclimatic zone was marked by a high level of morbidity in a critical ecological situation (4 844.7 in adolescents, 617.0 in adults) and a stressed environmental situation (1 736.5 in adolescents, 490.1 in adults). Conclusion. Revealed regularity suggests the existence of group of previously neglected factors, taking part in formation of thyroid pathologies, associated with iodine deficiency in Primorsky region. The impact study on the population will help to develop the full picture of dependence appearance of iodine deficiency disorders from environmental factors in the region
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(5):52-56
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TIME TRENDS OF RECTAL CANCER INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY FROM THE ARKHANGELSK REGIONAL CANCER REGISTRY
Dubovichenko D.M., Valkov M.Y.
Abstract
Aim. Assessment of the rectal cancer (RC) incidence and mortality in the Arkhangelsk region (AR), North-Western Russia according to population-based data of the Arkhangelsk Regional Cancer Registry (ARCR) over the period 2000-2015. Methods. Data on all cases of RC in the AR were extracted from the database of the ARCR. 3 721 cases of the RC were selected. For mortality estimation 2 187 cases of RC were taken over the study period. Age-standardized (ASR) RC rates were calculated. Population number and its age distribution were taken from the Regional Bureau of Statistics, Arkhangelskstat. Time trends were analyzed using segmented regression. Results. Incidence of RC in AR increased from 11.5 to 14.2 per 100 000; 18.6 vs 11.8 among men and women in 2015, respectively. The female RC incidence increased significantly by 4.6 % per year in 2011-2015. The incidence of both urban and rural populations was 11.8 and 18.7 per 100 000 in 2015, respectively. Mortality estimates ranged from 10.0 to 12.2 per 100 000 in 2005-2015, respectively. Mortality among males was higher than in females - 19.9 vs 8.4 per 100 000 in 2015, respectively. The trend of male mortality significantly increased by 6.5 % per year in 2011-2015, while in females the mortality has been decreasing by 0.7% per year from 2009 to 2015. Conclusion. Epidemiological model for RC in both AR and Russia shows progressively increasing incidence and mortality rates and substantially differs from that in developed countries. A higher incidence rates among males and rural population require detailed analysis.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2018;(5):57-64
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